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What can you do with two omes that you can't do with one?

What can you learn from two omes that you can't tell from one? You might determine how different bacterial strains in a water sample contribute specific functions to its overall microbiome. You might find that duplication ...

Cranberry oligosaccharides might help prevent UTIs

Many people have heard that drinking cranberry juice can help prevent urinary tract infections (UTIs). Although clinical trials of this popular folk remedy have produced mixed results, some studies have shown that drinking ...

Chemists design faster production process for essential sugars

Cells of all living organisms are covered by a dense layer of highly complex carbohydrates. These carbohydrates, which are also known as glycans, are essential mediators of a wide range of biological and disease processes. ...

Fat and carb combo creates stronger food craving

When fat and carbohydrates are combined in a single food they are more rewarding, calorie for calorie, than foods with either energy source alone, a Yale-led study published June 14 in the journal Cell Metabolism shows.

Could eating moss be good for your gut?

An international team of scientists including the University of Adelaide has discovered a new complex carbohydrate in moss that could possibly be exploited for health or other uses.

Synthetic carbohydrate wards off pneumococcal infections

More effective vaccines against certain forms of pneumonia and meningitis could soon be available. A team of scientists at the Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces in Potsdam has identified a synthetic carbohydrate ...

One big problem with recycling and biofuel

Researchers from Karolinska Institutet have developed a quick and non-destructive method to map the carbohydrates of plant matter. By making composition analysis more easy and accessible, this method will help to understand ...

Got starch? There's bacteria in your gut for that

Soft foods like white bread and rice might seem like an easy thing for your body to digest, but a tiny organism in your gut is actually responsible for chowing down some types of starch and turning it into nutrients your ...

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Carbohydrate

Carbohydrates [α] or saccharides[β] are the most abundant of the four major classes of biomolecules. They fill numerous roles in living things, such as the storage and transport of energy (e.g., starch, glycogen) and structural components (e.g., cellulose in plants and chitin in animals). In addition, carbohydrates and their derivatives play major roles in the working process of the immune system, fertilization, pathogenesis, blood clotting, and development.

Carbohydrates make up most of the organic matter on Earth because of their extensive roles in all forms of life. First, carbohydrates serve as energy stores, fuels, and metabolic intermediates. Second, ribose and deoxyribose sugars form part of the structural framework of RNA and DNA. Third, polysaccharides are structural elements in the cell walls of bacteria and plants. In fact, cellulose, the main constituent of plant cell walls, is one of the most abundant organic compounds in the biosphere. Fourth, carbohydrates are linked to many proteins and lipids, where they play key roles in mediating interactions between cells and interactions between cells and other elements in the cellular environment.

Carbohydrates are simple organic compounds that are aldehydes or ketones with many hydroxyl groups added, usually one on each carbon atom that is not part of the aldehyde or ketone functional group. The basic carbohydrate units are called monosaccharides; examples are glucose, galactose, and fructose. The general stoichiometric formula of an unmodified monosaccharide is (C·H2O)n, where n is any number of three or greater; however, not all carbohydrates conform to this precise stoichiometric definition (e.g., uronic acids, deoxy-sugars such as fucose), nor are all chemicals that do conform to this definition automatically classified as carbohydrates.

Monosaccharides can be linked together into what are called polysaccharides (or oligosaccharides) in a large variety of ways. Many carbohydrates contain one or more modified monosaccharide units that have had one or more groups replaced or removed. For example, deoxyribose, a component of DNA, is a modified version of ribose; chitin is composed of repeating units of N-acetylglucosamine, a nitrogen-containing form of glucose.

While the scientific nomenclature of carbohydrates is complex, the names of carbohydrates very often end in the suffix -ose. Glycoinformatics is the specialised field of study that deals with the specific and unique bioinformatics of carbohydrates.

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