Urge to merge: Understanding how cells fuse

Scientists have known for a decade that cells that fuse with others to perform their essential functions—such as muscle cells that join together to make fibers—form long projections that invade the territory of their ...

Controlling cells with light

Photopharmacology investigates the use of light to switch the effect of drugs on and off. Now, for the first time, scientific teams from Jena, Munich, and New York have succeeded in using this method to control a component ...

Distinct roles for myosins in 'tuning' cell shape for division

Mechanical properties of the cell cortex—a thin network of actin filaments under the cell membrane—regulate shape changes during cell division, cell migration and tissue development. Two forms of the molecular motor myosin-II ...

Actin 'avalanches' may make memories stick

If you're on skis, you want to avoid avalanches. But when the right kind happen in your brain, you shouldn't worry. You won't feel them. They're probably to your benefit.

Advance in understanding actin sheds light on cell function

A tiny chemical modification on one of the most abundant and important proteins in cells, actin, has long been somewhat mysterious, its function not fully understood, but scientists from the Perelman School of Medicine at ...

Simulations show fundamental interactions inside the cell

Actin filaments have several important functions inside cells. For one, they support the cell membrane by binding to it. However, scientists did not know exactly how the actin interacts with the membrane lipids. Simulations ...

Lane change in the cytoskeleton

Many amphibians and fish are able to change their color in order to better adapt to their environment. Munich-based scientists have now investigated the molecular mechanisms in the cytoskeleton necessary for this and revealed ...

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Actinopterygii

The Actinopterygii /ˌæktɨnɒptəˈrɪdʒi.aɪ/ or ray-finned fishes constitute a class or sub-class of the bony fishes.

The ray-finned fishes are so called because they possess lepidotrichia or "fin rays", their fins being webs of skin supported by bony or horny spines ("rays"), as opposed to the fleshy, lobed fins that characterize the class Sarcopterygii which also, however, possess lepidotrichia. These actinopterygian fin rays attach directly to the proximal or basal skeletal elements, the radials, which represent the link or connection between these fins and the internal skeleton (e.g., pelvic and pectoral girdles).

In terms of numbers, actinopterygians are the dominant class of vertebrates, comprising nearly 96% of the 25,000 species of fish. They are ubiquitous throughout fresh water and marine environments from the deep sea to the highest mountain streams. Extant species can range in size from Paedocypris, at 8 millimetres (0.31 in), to the massive Ocean Sunfish, at 2,300 kilograms (5,100 lb), and the long-bodied Oarfish, to at least 11 metres (36 ft).

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