Black students receive fewer warnings from teachers about misbehavior

Study: Black students receive fewer warnings from teachers about misbehavior
University of Illinois social work professor Kate Wegmann found in a new study that black middle school students receive fewer warnings from their teachers about misbehavior, giving them fewer opportunities to correct their behavior on their own before the consequences escalate to exclusionary punishments such as office referrals and expulsion. Credit: L. Brian Stauffer

A new study of racial and ethnic disparities in school discipline found that black middle school students were significantly less likely than their white peers to receive verbal or written warnings from their teachers about behavioral infractions.

"While at first glance, disparities in teacher warnings seem less concerning than being expelled or sent to the principal's office, warnings represent opportunities for students to correct their behavior before the consequences escalate and they're removed from the ," said University of Illinois social work professor Kate M. Wegmann, who led the study.

Wegmann and her co-author, graduate student Brittanni Smith, examined data from more than 4,100 students at 17 schools. The students were sixth- through ninth- graders at schools in two North Carolina communities.

Students were surveyed about the various types of misconduct they had engaged in at over the prior 30 days—including tardiness, turning in homework late, arguing with teachers and physical fights with other students—and the frequency of these infractions.

Students also were asked about the types of discipline they received, including verbal warnings from their teachers, written warnings sent to their homes or phone calls to their parents. They also reported on exclusionary forms of discipline they may have experienced, such as being sent to the principal's office and school suspensions.

Although the researchers found as hypothesized that black students were more likely than their white peers to experience exclusionary forms of discipline, some of the most significant differences were in black students' likelihood of receiving written or verbal warnings.

Wegmann and Smith analyzed the data using two techniques. First, they calculated and compared the percentages of black or reporting each type of misbehavior and any disciplinary consequences they experienced. This method has been used in previous studies to identify discipline disparities.

Using this technique, they found that while black students composed only 23% of the study population, these students accounted for 37% of the school suspensions and more than 35% of the office referrals.

Likewise, about half of those students who reported three or more suspensions or who had at least three warnings sent or called to their homes were black, according to the study.

Using a second data analysis technique called binary logistic regression, the researchers investigated disparities by race and sex among the behavioral infractions and the forms of discipline. Unlike the traditional percentage comparison method, binary logistic regression accounts for individual characteristics like the number and frequency of infractions reported when estimating the odds of receiving a form of discipline.

Regardless of the number or frequency of their infractions, black students were less likely than their white peers to be warned about their behaviors in the classroom or in messages to their parents, the researchers found. Even among those students who reported three or more incidents of misbehavior, were less likely than white males to be warned by their teachers about misconduct.

Black males were 95% less likely than white males to receive verbal warnings directly from teachers, and of either sex were 84% less likely to have multiple warnings directed to their parents, according to the study.

Black males were more likely than all other students to have been suspended from school three or more times, according to the study.

"These findings point toward a trend of heightened consequences with little or no forewarning for black male students, even when behavioral infractions are accounted for," the researchers wrote.

Although black females were not more likely to be suspended than white females, they were more likely to be warned verbally or in writing and to be sent to the principal's office for similar types and frequency of misbehavior.

Explore further

Teacher treatment of students factors into racial gap in school suspensions

More information: Kate M. Wegmann et al, Examining racial/ethnic disparities in school discipline in the context of student-reported behavior infractions, Children and Youth Services Review (2019). DOI: 10.1016/j.childyouth.2019.05.027
Citation: Black students receive fewer warnings from teachers about misbehavior (2019, July 29) retrieved 23 October 2019 from
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Jul 29, 2019
This can be said to be the result of "sensitivity" programs, claiming blacks are subject to more pressures and so are deserving of more tolerance.
Note, though, that, for example, "The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education" had an article in February of 2019, "Study Finds White Teachers of Black Students More Likely to Punish Students for Misbehavior". The article declared that, "White teachers of Black students admonished students for misbehavior two to four times as frequently as teachers who were the same race as their students". If this is the case, how is it that "black middle school students were significantly less likely than their white peers to receive verbal or written warnings from their teachers"?
Again, the situation is consistent with blacks being less able to engage in intellectual activities, more likely to engage in violence! It can be said many white teachers realize it won't help to criticize a black student an

Jul 29, 2019
Students also were asked about the types of discipline they received

Because students who have been disciplined are always truthful and accountable and accurately report the way they were treated in an unbiased way.

Jul 30, 2019
Teachers have a right not to be beaten-up or stabbed in their classrooms.

Jul 30, 2019
They're from school records, @assdad. Maybe you think the schools are lying.

Jul 30, 2019
don't make the black kids angry

Jul 30, 2019
So you suspend them? Real bright, @snooze. What're they gonna do when they come back after suspension?

Just treat them like humans instead of being a racist piece of shit. Oh, that's right, you're a racist piece of shit and can't help your psychosis. Sorry, my bad.

Teh stoopit, it burnz.

Jul 30, 2019
Some of them do, Schneib. You should know all about telling lies since you do it so often here in the physorg phorums, as well as offline. Lying is second nature to you, Schneib. Admit it. You used to tell lies to your parents, remember?
It's a good thing you have no children, Schneib, else you would take it upon yourself to have a teacher fired for disciplining your brat. Then you would sue the school principal and faculty. It is liberal Socialists like YOU, Schneib, who have turned American youth into dunces who like to go out, gang up on someone, and beat the crap out of innocent people. Didn't you used to wish you could do that when you were younger, Schneib. But you were too scared to do it. But now you are talking trash against teachers, isn't that right, Schneib? You don't believe that White teachers should directly discipline Black students at all, isn't that right, Schneib?

Jul 30, 2019
And then Schneib says: Just treat them like humans instead of being a racist piece of shit.
Tell us about that gang of about a dozen Black youth in Washington, DC near the Washington Hilton who cornered a White man and beat him bloody. Then while he was laying on the ground and couldn't defend himself much less move, they continued to kick and stomp him, and then for the finishing touch, a Black teenage (presumably) girl came over to spit on the victim. When they were done with him, they all walked away. This is the kind of vicious animal that you like to be treated as humans, Schneib. Maybe someday it will be YOUR TURN to get beaten bloody by a gang of Black youth, Schneib. Will you then say, 'treat them like humans'?
Oh, but of course you would.

Jul 30, 2019
This is called reverse racism.

Actually we all understand tribalism. What good does it do to acknowledge extra-tribalists behaving badly? That's their job. That's their reward. Members of ones own tribe act up for entirely different reasons. Punishment strengthens their bond.
This is the kind of vicious animal that you like to be treated as humans
People in the next tribe are always perceived as a little less human than your own. This is the beginning of speciation. It is the source of bigotry. The tribal dynamic - external animosity coupled with internal empathy - is genetic. Black kids are strengthening their bonds with THEIR tribe by attacking outsiders.

They've been taught by music, politics, fashion for decades now that they are a separate tribe. As a result they dont want equality, they want superiority. Victory for their own tribe.

Jul 30, 2019
Do know who are your masters, learn whom you may not criticize.

Jul 30, 2019
Hey look whut I found

"Boy, 10, charged with assault after dodgeball injury
Yahoo StyleKamilah NewtonJul 30th 2019
"...Some seem to imply that the incident appears to fit into a larger pattern — of what various studies have found to be disproportionate punishments between black and white children in America... A 2018 report by the watchdog Government Accountability Group found that black students in grades K-12 are far more likely to be disciplined at school — whether through suspension or referral to law enforcement — than kids of other races. Further, noted the New York Times in 2017, "during the 2012 school year, black students [in Arkansas] were suspended five times as often as whites were, and little has changed since then."

-So are black kids being punished more or less? The bigger question - is AOL and most other news outlets distributing racially-charged LIES, generated by leftist academies for sociopolitical purposes, and meant to provoke tribal animosities??

Jul 30, 2019
The MAGNITUDE of this deception is mind-boggling.

Jul 30, 2019
Funny how the Asians in the US don't seem to have the same discipline problems as the blacks. After all they are a different race also. Makes and inquiring mind sort of wonder eh!

Jul 30, 2019
One would think that Dr. Ben Carson would be held in the highest esteem and be presented as a roll model for the black community. I ask you where is that happening?

Aug 03, 2019
One would think that Dr. Ben Carson would be held in the highest esteem and be presented as a roll model for the black community. I ask you where is that happening?
certainly not Baltimore.

"BALTIMORE (WJZ) — Dr. Ben Carson, the U.S. Housing & Urban Development Secretary, was in Baltimore Wednesday to talk about opportunity zones and federal programs that might help Baltimore revitalize its poorest communities. This comes days after President Donald Trump tweeted that the city was a "rat and rodent-infested mess."

"Carson, who worked as a surgeon at Johns Hopkins Hospital for 36 years, said he has a special place in his heart for Baltimore and for the people of Baltimore. But when he was holding a press conference Wednesday morning, a church kicked him off of their property."

Aug 03, 2019
Funny, Rep. Elijah Cummings (D., Md.) Is still welcome there even after he

"described his community of Baltimore as a "drug infested area" in a video from a 1999 congressional hearing.

"This morning, I left my community of Baltimore, a drug infested area, where a lot of the drugs we're talking about today have already taken the lives of so many children,""

-Im confused.

Aug 27, 2019
In short, racism at schools is just another indicator that the schools are substandard.

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