Technique pulls interstellar magnetic fields within easy reach

Technique pulls interstellar magnetic fields within easy reach
a, The magnetic field morphology of Taurus obtained with the VGT using 13CO. b, The blue line segments indicate the magnetic field morphology of Taurus obtained from the Planck polarimetry. Credit: Nature Astronomy (2019). DOI: 10.1038/s41550-019-0769-0

A new, more accessible and much cheaper approach to surveying the topology and strength of interstellar magnetic fields—which weave through space in our galaxy and beyond, representing one of the most potent forces in nature—has been developed by researchers at the University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Together with gravity, magnetic fields play a major role in many of the astrophysical processes—from star formation to stirring the massive dust and that permeate —that underpin the structure and composition of stars, planets and galaxies. On the galactic scale, magnetic fields dominate the acceleration and propagation of cosmic rays, and play an important role in transferring heat and polarized radiation.

What's more, the polarized radiation that arises from galactic magnetic fields exceeds by orders of magnitude that of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), the relic radiation of the first moments of the universe. The next milestone in understanding the origin of the universe, some scientists believe, requires measuring the CMB's polarized radiation. Importantly, unraveling the topology of the intervening magnetic fields between Earth and the CMB will be a necessary step to reliably obtain those data.

But despite their importance and pervasive influence, represent one of the final frontiers of astrophysics. Little is known about them, in large part, because they are exceedingly difficult to study.

"There are very limited ways to study magnetic fields in ," explains Alexandre Lazarian, a UW-Madison professor of astronomy and an authority on the interstellar medium, the seemingly empty spaces between the stars that are, in fact, rich in matter and feature twisted, folded and tangled magnetic fields composed of fully or partially ionized plasmas entrained on magnetic fields. "Our understanding of all these (astrophysical) processes suffers from our poor knowledge of magnetic fields."

Now, much of that knowledge may be more readily at hand. Writing this week (June 10, 2019) in the journal Nature Astronomy, an international team led by the Wisconsin astrophysicist demonstrates a capable of tracing the orientations of magnetic fields in the swirl of interstellar space.

The proof-of-concept reported in Nature Astronomy builds on a series of theoretical and numerical studies published over the last two years by Lazarian and his students, and which lay out a radical new approach to mapping the tangle of magnetic fields in space.

Technique pulls interstellar magnetic fields within easy reach
The formation of stars in the turbulent billows of gas and dust of the Orion Molecular Cloud, depicted in an illustration based on data from the European Space Agency’s Planck satellite. Credit: ESA

Until now, much of the detailed mapping of magnetic fields in diffuse environments such as clouds of dust and gas in space involved infrared polarimetry with instruments deployed either on satellites or balloons flown high in the stratosphere.

The new method, known as the Velocity Gradient Technique and informally as the "Wisconsin technique," uses previously collected observational data from a variety of ground-based telescopes, transcending the need to put instruments in space, a costly and limited resource for astronomers. Building on studies of turbulence in magnetic fields in conducting fluids, Lazarian and his students devised the new statistical approach to measure the topology of magnetic fields using routine spectroscopic observations taken from the ground.

For the most part, infrared light is absorbed by Earth's atmosphere, which is why conventional magnetic field measurements require telescopes positioned on long-duration, high-altitude balloon flights, or above it on satellites. In recent years, many new measurements of interstellar magnetic fields, for instance, were gathered using the Planck satellite, a European space observatory with infrared capabilities and operational from 2009 to 2013.

Applying the new Wisconsin technique to a number of interstellar molecular clouds whose magnetic fields had been previously measured by the Planck satellite, Lazarian and his students were able to generate high-resolution maps using existing ground-based observations.

"The technique provides magnetic field maps of resolution comparable to maps obtained with the Planck mission," says Lazarian, "and it utilizes spectroscopic observations collected by researchers for other purposes. Given that the technique utilizes data from ground-based telescopes and interferometers, the resolution of magnetic field maps can be significantly improved."

In addition to determining the direction of the interstellar magnetic fields, the new methodology can determine the strength of the field at a fine scale, down to each pixel on a map. "This demonstrates that the Wisconsin technique can revolutionize studies of magnetic effects on by using existing ground-based telescopes without waiting for new space-based polarization missions with a higher resolution in some distant future," Lazarian says.

The new technique, Lazarian adds, also opens a unique window to the development of three-dimensional magnetic field maps, work that has already been demonstrated in a corresponding paper published in the Astrophysical Journal by Lazarian and his student, Diego Gonzales Casanova.

To contrast the capabilities of the new technique with traditional polarimetry, Lazarian and his group, including UW-Madison physics graduate student Yue Hu and astronomy graduate student Ka Ho Yuen, key authors of the new Nature Astronomy report, deployed their new methodology to produce the first magnetic field map of the Smith Cloud, a mysterious cloud of atomic hydrogen that seems to be crashing onto the disk of the Milky Way. Previous efforts to map the cloud's were frustrated by its weak infrared emission, obscuring dust and galactic atomic hydrogen along the same line of sight.


Explore further

Observations reveal critical interplay of interstellar dust, hydrogen

More information: Magnetic field morphology in interstellar clouds with the velocity gradient technique, Nature Astronomy (2019). DOI: 10.1038/s41550-019-0769-0 , https://www.nature.com/articles/s41550-019-0769-0
Citation: Technique pulls interstellar magnetic fields within easy reach (2019, June 10) retrieved 19 June 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-06-technique-interstellar-magnetic-fields-easy.html
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Jun 10, 2019
Well, now those 'Anti-'Magnetic Universe' ' folks can put a sock in it.

From the article, backing my long stated assertion:
"...the seemingly empty spaces between the stars that are, in fact, rich in matter and feature twisted, folded and tangled magnetic fields composed of fully or partially ionized plasmas entrained on magnetic fields. "Our understanding of all these (astrophysical) processes suffers from our poor knowledge of magnetic fields." "

So the naysayers will need to do some heavy re-evaluating as Cosmology is moving past them at lightspeed.

It is, indeed a Plasma Universe, and much more info is around with loop quantum gravity theory showing that no big bang needed, there had to be energy before for there to be energy now, thus a continuum of space-time.

Black holes do the recycling as mini-bouncers, multiple black holes refutes a singular big bang and shows this universe to be very long lasting. Echoes in the Cosmic Microwave Background will show that as well.

Jun 10, 2019
If you want to understand magnetic fields, read Ken Wheeler's book, Uncovering the Missing Secrets of Magnetism. Otherwise it is "the elephant in the dark". I get a lot of grief for posting this usually. It is a free book.

Jun 10, 2019
'...fully or partially ionized plasmas entrained on magnetic fields.'
Plasma Universe
I'm not sure what you're claiming for this 'Plasma Universe' and its relation to the previous phrase. The sun is mostly plasma, and the stars, etc. There is plasma in neon lights. In lighting. Scientists knew these things before (most of) our parents were born. Particularly salient for us is that stellar genesis is predicated on molecular, not atomic, hydrogen nurseries.
_________
The Astrophysical Journal, 835:126 (5pp), 2017 February 1
H I-to-H2 Transition Layers in the Star-forming Region W43
Shmuel Bialy1, et al. 2017 January 23
Abstract
"The process of atomic-to-molecular (H I-to-H2) gas conversion is fundamental for molecular-cloud formation and star formation. "

Jun 10, 2019
Well, now those 'Anti-'Magnetic Universe' ' folks can put a sock in it.


But the EU claims that the Sun and other stars are powered by these huge electric currents running through space. There is simply NO EVIDENCE of anything like this.
Hence the EU is baloney, mainly pushed by delusional David Talbott pushing his nonsensical ideas about Earth's past, with planets in impossible to configure orbits and timelines.

Your anti-magnetic crap is your delusion. They've known there is much electrically conductive plasma in the inner galaxy and star producing areas. Just because E&M shows up as a symptom of other issues, doesn't mean it powers anything.

Jun 10, 2019
new, more accessible and much cheaper approach to surveying the topology and strength of interstellar magnetic fields—which weave through space in our galaxy and beyond, representing one of the most potent forces in nature
Wait - what? 'most potent forces in the entire freeking universe' -?
doesn't mean it powers anything
"Together with gravity, magnetic fields play a major role in many of the astrophysical processes—from star formation to stirring the massive dust and gas clouds that permeate interstellar space—that underpin the structure and composition of stars, planets and galaxies. On the galactic scale, magnetic fields dominate the acceleration and propagation of cosmic rays, and play an important role in transferring heat and polarized radiation"

-Sounds like real scientists disagree with you.

Jun 10, 2019
from star formation


I said that. "Star producing areas".

E&M is SO POTENT most all matter is BONDED into MATTER by E&M and NEUTRALIZED. Goofs don't even know this.

Astronomers all agree; that the Sun is NOT POWERED by any of this E&M. My point in the first place.

Jun 10, 2019
C code, you use that falsification of the EU and electric sun theory, which is NOT what I am talking about, you keep asking if I quit beating my wife, which I dont have one (Thankfully), so you can drop the fake equivalence thing, OK?

And IF EM was neutralized then there would be no magnetic field, which is what this study what showing a new, easy way to measure the Magnetic Fields and the Plasma riding them, which is There, indisputably for certain and sure There, against the arguments that you have posited for over a decade, and are not correct about.

The FACT that they have an Easier way to be able to study magnetic fields in the cosmos is precisely because they have been understudied due to needing to be above the atmosphere previously, to get the proper data, the new technique simplifies the process making the data easier to get.

That the plasma and mag fields are there and ubiquitous, this has been known for a long time, now they have Proofs and can Show them more easily.

Jun 10, 2019
-Sounds like real scientists disagree with you.


God you're such a moron.

Just what theory are you proposing and that unreal scientists are denying?
Stupid fck.

Jun 10, 2019
C code, you use that falsification of the EU and electric sun theory, which is NOT what I am talking about,


Well then, what did I possibly say that you disaree with?
That you're delusional? Lol.
Well you are, by claiming scientists don't "believe" in the power of E&M.
We are not near the center of the galaxy, not near star forming regions. E&M plays little role in our neck of the woods. Jupiter is very "radio" active...SO WHAT?

Jun 10, 2019
You are just throwing word salad at the wall in your sore desperation to have Something right, go and study some loop quantum gravity for a bit and then come back and try talking sense.

Real Scientists work with Electricity and Magnetism all day long, it has been found to be a Major Player in the formation of galaxies as it is able to dissipate some of the rotational energy so that the mass is able to actually collapse rather than fly apart. It is not gravity doing it all, but it is moderated by magnetism. Where you have magnetic flux you have a chance for electron paths to form, essentially electricity being electrons trying to find their lowest energy state. Same as a Battery is 'neutral', until you connect the poles, then use the electrons freed by chemical reaction lowering the voltage from one pole to the other giving you a current which we use.

That Only copies what Nature does anytime there is friction with large masses of gas and dust, lightning happens, even at vast scales.

Jun 10, 2019
Jupiter happens to be active in the radio region precisely because of the lightning going on there, just like on Earth, lightning is constant, several hundred thousand lightning strikes per day on Earth, and so the Earth itself puts off a radio signature based on the lighting too.

That is HOW they can tell there are gas and dust clouds there, is because they are ionized and shine at certain frequencies or block light at other specific frequencies depending on the exact chemical composition of the cloud and/or dust.

Much of the dust has some amount of Iron and thus is Going To Be Magnetic, no matter what you do. It is Going To Align over massive distances, in a recent article it shows the magnetic field connecting two clusters of galaxies 10 million LY apart, and they can show it and map it out in detail for you now. Specifically they show an electron flow from a high potential to a lower potential, crossing a 10 million Light Year gap on the inherent plasma between them.

Jun 10, 2019
And Code, you also seem to mix up who you are talking to,

"I" had not said a dang thing about the electric sun theory, YOU did,
"I" did not talk about E&M, YOU did,
"I" did not talk about Jupiter being active in the radio bands, YOU did,
"I" did not say 'Scientists disagree with you', that was RC, and he is correct, as the article above is dead against what you are trying to posit (and flailing wildly).

Notice the pattern there?
Can you answer to the ARTICLE, (Not the other posters) in an intelligible manner?

If not, stop harassing us that can and do, please.

It is electric charges of the chemical bonds in your body that holds you upright, the strength of the chemical bonds, thus the electric connections, is stronger than the gravity trying to pull us down.

Until it gets crazy intensely dense, mass's gravity does not have that long of a reach, it spends more power compressing than it does attracting. Electrons and magnetism have a much longer reach than gravity alone.

Jun 10, 2019
There is no way to attain the twisting and curving magnetic fields without electric currents. There are no variable magnetic fields that do not have an electric field and all natural magnetic fields are variable. It is a Plasma Universe, and due to that fact it is also an Electric Universe. The Darkists are supporting a dead theory walking, the Gaslight Era of Astrophysics is finally growing closer to an end and join the rest of science (mostly) in the 21st century.

Jun 10, 2019
still waiting for any of you woomongers to invent and produce a working machine
based on your particular brand of moonshine, the one with an on/off switch.

i've been going back it the site archives looking up your pseudonyms
then matching your comments across years of posting
& none of you ever change.
no matter new data, new analysis, new experiments corrected methodology.

after thousands of brainstorm speculations dreamed up at late-night beer-bongs?
trashed as stupid or obsolete within a few days or weeks?
except when you janitors-in-training dig them out of the wastecans

i guess you're figuring if they don't want it anymore?
you'll find some sucker willinvg to give you a few bucks for it?

none of your herd of sheeple never change, adapt, evolve.

all this knowledge offered you totally wasted.

Jun 11, 2019
still waiting for any of you woomongers to invent and produce a working machine
based on your particular brand of moonshine, the one with an on/off switch.

The entire power grid was brought to you by people who believe in the ether. That working machine enough?

Jun 11, 2019
no g, that is not enough.
some of those who constructed the power grid may have believed in aether.

we still have looneyticks who preach theosophist-spiritualist-psyvhic-eigenic racust crap
so what?

they can be trained to useful jobs as ditch-diggers or laundresses or janitors or shoeshine boys or housemaid.

all i care about any of you?
is that you obey the rules of traffic.

the power grid was theorized, proposed, designed, organized, manufactured, directed, deployed by men & women who applied the Scientific Method,

some of those engineers & technicians had weird,
even outrageous beliefs.

they got the job done.

to credit the aethernuts with inventing or creating anything original?

you would have to start with crediting the ancient sumerian & egyptian priesthoods with making bricks or paper.

& i just do not have any damn desire to do so.
as the bastards are responsible for inventing modern religions & all the horrors those cretins have inflicted on Humanity since then.

Jun 11, 2019
Actually, funny thing about the Sumerians and their Cuneiform texts, their World Creation story, early story of the beginnings of mankind read like a modern science fiction work that just happens to include genetic surgery, and an extremely well detailed knowledge of our planets, even to the ones that were not at all visible until Galileo with his telescope, and then later math to show that Pluto was there, the Sumerian tales tell about not only Where the planets are, but their characteristics, color and size.

All extremely well detailed with a form of trigonometry that actually works as well or better than our own modern methods.

Might do a bit of REAL study instead of trying to dredge up strawmen fer yer arguments.

The Magnetic Fields and Plasma Universe have been found through the scientific methods you so cry about, so why do you dispute them now, just because some of us have been pointing this very act out for so long?

Charged Plasma Universe Models have yet to be disproven.

Jun 11, 2019
There is no way to attain the twisting and curving magnetic fields without electric currents.


Wrong.

Jun 11, 2019
Charged Plasma Universe Models have yet to be disproven.


There are no such viable models.

Jun 11, 2019
@Steelwolf
@Old_C_Code.

From @Steelwolf to @O_C_C:
And Code, you also seem to mix up who you are talking to,….."I" did not say 'Scientists disagree with you', that was RC, and he is correct, as the article above is dead against what you are trying to posit (and flailing wildly).
@Steelwolf, to forestall any possible future cross-purpose exchanges between you, I should make clear that it was @TheGhostofOtto who said to @O_C_C, "Scientists disagree with you"…ie, it was NOT me (RC). An obvious typo, granted, but I just wanted to point that out also so as to forestall future misunderstandings re 'who said what' for the casual reader who may not have followed your full exchange in detail. Cheers. :)

Jun 11, 2019
they can be trained to useful jobs as ditch-diggers or laundresses or janitors or shoeshine boys or housemaid

The future job prospects for the darkists, like that algorithm chick who might make a serviceable housemaid.

Jun 11, 2019
There is no way to attain the twisting and curving magnetic fields without electric currents.


Wrong.

Your one word answer shows you know you are wrong before you even start.
Charged Plasma Universe Models have yet to be disproven.


There are no such viable models.

Lies are all you have to protect your cherished beliefs.

Jun 11, 2019
@Old_C_Code
@TheGhostofOtto1923.

From @O_C_C to @The GhostofOtto:
E&M is SO POTENT most all matter is BONDED into MATTER by E&M and NEUTRALIZED. Goofs don't even know this.

Astronomers all agree; that the Sun is NOT POWERED by any of this E&M. My point in the first place.
FYI, @O_C_C, magnetic fields are well known to trap, sort/separate, redirect/accelerate charged particles (as I also had occasion to point out to @Benni in another thread). So the assertions/assumptions implicit/explicit in your above response to @Ghost are not in keeping with physical reality re charged matter affected/trapped by magnetic fields.

I make no comment re your other response to @Ghost re what "powers the sun"....other than to say that Fusion does indeed provide the energy which drives solar heating/radiating dynamics/output (much as fusion does in naturally occurring plasmoids; and in man-made fusion reactors).

That's it. Cheers. :)

Jun 11, 2019
still waiting for any of you woomongers to invent and produce a working machine
based on your particular brand of moonshine, the one with an on/off switch.

The entire power grid was brought to you by people who believe in the ether. That working machine enough?
Sorry, George Westinghouse was totally uninterested in aether theory.

On Earth.

Jun 11, 2019
The Magnetic Fields and Plasma Universe have been found through the scientific methods you so cry about, so why do you dispute them now, just because some of us have been pointing this very act out for so long?

Charged Plasma Universe Models have yet to be disproven.
OK, then provide the scientific papers that have been accepted by major reputable journals containing these models.

Jun 11, 2019
Sorry bout that RC, Yes, I mis-stated there, Thanks fer the catch!

Jun 11, 2019
Look to the ones referenced above, from which they wrote the article DS, or are you being intentionally obtuse and ignoring that Nose on yer Face?

Jun 11, 2019
The Magnetic Fields and Plasma Universe have been found through the scientific methods you so cry about, so why do you dispute them now, just because some of us have been pointing this very act out for so long?

Charged Plasma Universe Models have yet to be disproven.
OK, then provide the scientific papers that have been accepted by major reputable journals containing these models.

Limiting your knowledge to "major reputable journals" is a convenient path toward censorship and willfull ignorance. Take the history of radio astronomy, the first papers were published in EE journals largely because astrophysicists refused to acknowledge the relevance of radio observations. It was more than a decade after the discovery radio astronomy before "major reputable journals" published anything on radio observations.

Jun 11, 2019
That's not a "charged plasma universe" theory.

Jun 11, 2019
1933: "Radio waves from outside the solar system", Nature, 132, p66.

I would call Nature a major reputable journal, and that's the announcement of the discovery of radio astronomy by Karl Jansky.

Now, that was a year after he first discovered it. Not sure what you're mumbling about "astrophysicists refus[ing] to acknowledge the relevance of radio observations."

Looks like @cantthink is lying again.

Jun 11, 2019
Look, the nutjobs are denying gravity again.

Here's the deal (as if it hasn't been explained to you hundreds of times): gravity has no negative; electricity and magnetism have negatives that cancel them out. So over long distances, gravity rules.

There are plenty of examples of widespread magnetic fields. Plasmas are associated with most of these examples. No one competent is denying plasma, and no one is denying EM fields that act over intergalactic distances; but they're not as strong as gravity, because for every + there's a -, and for every north pole there's a south pole. Whereas with gravity it always attracts; there's no -, and there's no gravitic south pole.

Jun 12, 2019
1933: "Radio waves from outside the solar system", Nature, 132, p66.

I would call Nature a major reputable journal, and that's the announcement of the discovery of radio astronomy by Karl Jansky.

Now, that was a year after he first discovered it. Not sure what you're mumbling about "astrophysicists refus[ing] to acknowledge the relevance of radio observations."

Looks like @cantthink is lying again.

That isn't an astrophysical journal, nor was Jansky an astrophysicist. He was a radio engineer, in other words an electrical engineer.
Grote Reber who further developed radio astronomy was also an electrical engineer.
Just as in this example where EE's expanded upon astrophysics, so too will EE's expound upon the Plasma Universe.

Jun 12, 2019
So what? It's Nature, dude. They been publishing for a couple hundred years.

You lied. Again. Get over it. Again.

Jun 12, 2019
still waiting for any of you woomongers to invent and produce a working machine
based on your particular brand of moonshine, the one with an on/off switch.

The entire power grid was brought to you by people who believe in the ether. That working machine enough?

Our entire modern society was made possible by electrical engineers and the physics they rely upon, the very same physics that are being proposed by Plasma and Electric theorists regarding space plasmas.

Jun 12, 2019
Dude, Nature and Science are the two most prestigious scientific journals in the world. Have you stopped lying yet?

Jun 12, 2019

The entire power grid was brought to you by people who believe in the ether. That working machine enough? Sorry, George Westinghouse was totally uninterested in aether theory. On Earth. [/q

Tesla was the main man for George Westinghouse. Mr Tesla was adamant that the ether existed. So were CP Steinmetz and Oliver Heaviside. They brought us the grid.

Jun 12, 2019

Our entire modern society was made possible by electrical engineers and the physics they rely upon, the very same physics that are being proposed by Plasma and Electric theorists regarding space plasmas.


GR and the photoelectric effect created physicists and effectively ended the age of electrical engineer. We have been in the dark grasping at straws ever since and making up new particles to fit our mathematical models.

Jun 13, 2019
no g, that is not enough.
some of those who constructed the power grid may have believed in aether.

The electrical engineers who brought us the entire power grid all believed in the ether. You can't understand what electricity is without a basic knowledge of the ether(counterspace). All fields come from counterspace. Magnetism is a loss of inertia that manifests as a Cartesian(spatial) polarized field. Electricity is a product(x) of magnetism and the dialectric.

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