Model suggests how early dark energy could resolve the Hubble tension

Study shows how early dark energy could resolve the Hubble tension
2018 Planck map of the temeprature anisotropies of the CMB, extracted using the SMICA method. The gray outline shows the extent of the confidence mask. Credit: ESA.

The universe is continuously expanding, yet the exact rate at which it does so remains unclear, and has so far only been approximated using NASA's Hubble Space Telescope and other similar instruments. Moreover, in recent years, astronomers using the Hubble telescope have unveiled a discrepancy between the two primary techniques used for estimating the universe's expansion rate.

Essentially, measurements gathered by the Hubble telescope suggest that the universe is expanding much faster than what is inferred from cosmic microwave background (CMB) observations. This discrepancy, referred to as the Hubble tension, has sparked a growing interest within the physics research community, yet attempts at resolving it have so far been unsuccessful.

Researchers at Johns Hopkins University and Swarthmore College have recently proposed and tested an alternative model that could solve the Hubble tension. In their study, outlined in a paper published in Physical Review Letters, the researchers successfully applied a model of dark energy previously presented by Marc Kamionkowski (one of the authors), which describes it as evolving but non-interactive to the Hubble tension.

"Despite the lack of success, previous attempts at solving the Hubble tension allowed us to understand roughly what characteristics a solution should have," Vivian Poulin, one of the researchers who carried out the study, told Phys.org. "At the same time, we were working on testing consequences of string theory with cosmological observables, which predicts the existence of an "axiverse," i.e., a huge number of extremely with very peculiar physical properties. We realized that a simple modification of the physical properties of these particles gave them the characteristics we needed in the context of the Hubble tension. Thus, we decided to push forward in this direction and test this alternative model."

Poulin and his colleagues are theoretical cosmologists, so they did not build an instrument to test their ideas. Instead, they used data collected during renowned research collaborations such as Planck's CMB observations and the SH0ES H0 measurements. Using this previously collected data, the researchers applied a model of early dark energy (EDE) to the Hubble tension.

Dark energy is a persistent mystery within current cosmological understanding, despite comprising approximately 70 percent of the universe's energy density. It was first discovered in 1998 by Adam Riess, Brian Schmidt, Saul Perlmutter and their respective teams during their supernovae observations.

Study shows how early dark energy could resolve the Hubble tension
An image of Hubble deep field with some supernovae. Credit: Hubble Space Telescope.

"An EDE just means that these particles, in the cosmological context, act like a dark energy component (i.e. a fluid with negative pressure) at much earlier time than the current dark energy does," Poulin explained. "In practice, these particles modify the expansion rate of the universe around the time at which CMB photons were emitted (i.e., only 380,000 years after the Big Bang), increasing it slightly (by about 3 percent) compared to the standard prediction."

In their study, Poulin and his colleagues computed what the CMB would look like in the presence of an EDE component. Given the precision of the data gathered by Planck and used in their computations, the researchers' predictions were fairly detailed.

"We needed to figure out exactly how our model would behave, evolve and fluctuate, and how it would affect the , the oldest light in the universe," Tanvi Karwal, another researcher involved in the study, told Phys.org. "The CMB is complex and its shape must be calculated numerically, so we added code describing the EDE to a pre-existing code to extract cosmological information from the CMB."

Poulin, Karwal and their colleagues used a supercomputer to sample hundreds of thousands of different cosmologies. This allowed them to identify the cosmology that best fits existing observations of the universe. They found that this new cosmological model, which includes an EDE component, could solve the Hubble tension.

Essentially, the researchers observed that a slight modification of the universe's expansion rate in the remote past, as produced by an EDE, could resolve the Hubble tension. It is possible that the actual model tested in their study, which is merely a so-called toy model, is not realized in nature.

"This is not problematic, because in cosmology, what really matters are the dynamical properties of an ensemble of these particles (more accurately, it is their total energy density and pressure), and not so much their individual micro-physical properties," Poulin said. "In fact, there already are alternative realizations of the EDE proposed after our work was published, whose collective properties are similar to the one we proposed."

Study shows how early dark energy could resolve the Hubble tension
WMAP image of the evolution of the universe. Credit: NASA/WMAP Science Team.

Overall, the work of Poulin, Karwal and their colleagues aids the current understanding of when and by how much EDE must have been dynamically important, which could ultimately inform the development of more effective cosmological models. Given the accuracy of Planck data, it is highly nontrivial that a fluid that represents up to 10 percent of the universe's energy density at very early times would not significantly affect the CMB, thus showing that it does required substantial numerical calculations.

"My main takeaway from this project is that anomalous cosmological observations can help us to explore new physics," Karwal said. "This research has inspired other groups to investigate similar models of EDE as a solution to the Hubble tension. We have some more work to do in refining and understanding our EDE model, but are also interested in different solutions to the Hubble tension altogether."

The researchers are now planning to test their model further in several ways. First, they would like to use it to learn as much as they can about the properties of EDE. In fact, although there are a number of alternative models of EDE, the resolutions produced by these models are not as effective as those generated by the new one. Poulin, Karwal and their colleagues would like to understand why their model produces better predictions, as their findings highlight the sensitivity of data to the characteristics of EDE.

"We also want to see whether there are additional signatures of these particles in cosmological observables," Poulin said. "For instance, we already realized that next-generation CMB experiments (such as Simons Observatory and CMBS4) could test this model independently of the supernovae observation. It means that one could tell unambiguously that this fluid exists in nature without needing to invoke the Hubble . But we also showed that these models can affect the statistical properties of ensembles of galaxies, for which we have numerous observations."

In the future, new data collected using space instruments such as the EUCLID satellite and LSST telescope could improve the accuracy and scope of the measurements gathered by this team of researchers. The researchers believe that these observations could also contain the fingerprint of EDE, though achieving an accurate prediction of this fingerprint will require additional work that goes way beyond the numerical computations they performed.


Explore further

The universe's rate of expansion is in dispute – and we may need new physics to solve it

More information: Observational evidence from supernovae for an accelerating universe and a cosmological constant. arXiv:astro-ph/9805201. arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/9805201

Measurement of omega and lambda from 42 high-redshift supernovae. arXiv:astro-ph/9812133. arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/9812133

Marc Kamionkowski et al. Dark Energy from the String Axiverse, Physical Review Letters (2014). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.251302

Vivian Poulin et al. Early Dark Energy can Resolve the Hubble Tension, Physical Review Letters (2019). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.122.221301

Journal information: Physical Review Letters

© 2019 Science X Network

Citation: Model suggests how early dark energy could resolve the Hubble tension (2019, June 24) retrieved 24 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-06-early-dark-energy-hubble-tension.html
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Jun 24, 2019
Is the dark energy puzzle unsolved, because it's missing a few pieces? The equations (1) are intimidating, but they are built upon simplifying assumptions. These simplifications—usually swept under the rug—are put to the light in the all-new Dark Energy Dialogue. Arguments are made, both for and against, a more complex model (2). Illustrated in a clear and engaging manner.

Dark Energy Dialogue: https://youtu.be/4goInwbOix4

References:
1) Friedmann, A., Z. Phys., 1922
2) Ahmed Ali and Saurya Das, Physics Letters B, 2015.

Jun 24, 2019
Well, now, there's an interesting hypothesis to put the tension between Planck CMB results and Hubble SNe results to bed.

Jun 24, 2019
I have found that it is actually the gravity from adjacent universes that makes it look like there was a change in the acceleration of the universe. It turns out that the gravity of adjacent universes are related to the golden ratio. It is all calculated here by Michael Sarnowski "Sphere Theory Explains Cosmic Expansion Increase Five Billion Years Ago"

Jun 24, 2019
The following paper by Michael Sarnowski shows where dark energy comes from. Spinning Sphere Theory May Describe Dark Energy

Jun 24, 2019
Any observed or theorized discrepancy is just more proof of dark matter.

And, whoosh: science dissolves with reality.

LMAO

Jun 24, 2019
"...suggest that the universe is expanding much faster than..."
The ~10% difference doesn't qualify as "much faster" on my reference scales.

Yes, it's definitely significant - outside the error bars.

If someone breaks the 100m dash by a full second that certainly *is* "much faster" than all previous sprinters. But driving at a 55 mph speed limit then increasing to 61 is only a big deal if there's an angry cop on your tail. (Or, of course, if it's the USA & you have dark skin - basically the same thing).

Jun 24, 2019
"But driving at a 55 mph speed limit then increasing to 61 is only a big deal if there's an angry cop on your tail. (Or, of course, if it's the USA & you have dark skin.." //says joel in oakland

So, you seem to be saying that a driver can only be pulled over by a 'cop' in the USA if the driver has dark skin? Are you a cop-hater? Do you believe that a 'dark-skinned person/driver' should be allowed to speed in a 35 MPH zone in the USA and not be ticketed by a cop because the driver is dark-skinned? Children, adults, and animals have been killed by drivers going over the speed limit no matter their skin color. But YOU want dark-skinned drivers to be EXEMPTED from having to follow speed limits, and only Whites and Asians to be arrested or ticketed for breaking the Law?
Racist much?

Jun 24, 2019
This universe is not continuously expanding

For this universe
Is another way of saying
This vacuum
For in this vacuum
Or
In this universe
The galaxies occupying this vacuous vacuum of space
These galaxies have moved apart from one another
To form a group of galaxies
Encompassing a larger radii of 15Billion Lys
For proof space does not expand
For as these galaxies move apart
Our sun remains at 93Million miles
Andromeda remains at 2Million Lys
Because
Space does not expand
As the galaxies move apart
These galaxies do not expand
For our universe is not expanding
For this universe is just another way of saying this vacuous vacuum of space
As now with this addition
This vacuous universe vacuum of space

All because a vacuum does not expand

Jun 24, 2019
I have found that it is actually the gravity from adjacent universes that makes it look like there was a change in the acceleration of the universe. It turns out that the gravity of adjacent universes are related to the golden ratio. It is all calculated here by Michael Sarnowski "Sphere Theory Explains Cosmic Expansion Increase Five Billion Years Ago"
says copernicus

http://vixra.org/abs/1801.0291

It's a very interesting concept - multi universes. But I personally don't believe that Dark Energy has anything to do with the possibility, however remote, that multiple universes cause DE or DM or that either one or both originated with them, IF they exist.
However, I think it is possible that our Universe could be a flattened Sphere, and that all Matter/Energy/gas/dust are rotating/orbiting around the centre of this Sphere Universe. It seems more plausible than a Universe that flows continuously like a river headed downstream.

Jun 24, 2019
For in these Shires

SEU
"But driving at a 55 mph speed limit then increasing to 61 is only a big deal if there's an angry cop on your tail. (Or, of course, if it's the USA & you have dark skin.." //says joel in oakland
Do you believe that a 'dark-skinned person/driver' should be allowed to speed in a 35 MPH zone in the USA and not be ticketed by a cop because the driver is dark-skinned? Children, adults, and animals have been killed by drivers going over the speed limit no matter their skin color. But YOU want dark-skinned drivers to be EXEMPTED from having to follow speed limits

Because these multi skinned natives have assimilated
Become native Britain's
They expect to be treated as natives
They expect to receive the long arm of the law
They expect to receive their time in prison as any native Briton has to

For this is their country now, this where they live in these peaceful country Shire lanes

Jun 24, 2019
For in these Shires

SEU
"But driving at a 55 mph speed limit then increasing to 61 is only a big deal if there's an angry cop on your tail. (Or, of course, if it's the USA & you have dark skin.." //says joel in oakland
...Children, adults, and animals have been killed by drivers going over the speed limit no matter their skin color. But YOU want dark-skinned drivers to be EXEMPTED from having to follow speed limits

Because these multi skinned natives have assimilated
Become native Britain's
They expect to be treated as natives
They expect to receive the long arm of the law
They expect to receive their time in prison as any native Briton has to

For this is their country now, this where they live in these peaceful country Shire lanes
says granville

Any nation where its citizens ignore and flout the Law is doomed to fail and become dangerous to those who obey the Law.
I've read that Boris Johnson has been a bad boy of late and may not make it to #10. lol

Jun 24, 2019
Adjacent Universes

Copernicuson
It is the gravity from adjacent universes that makes it look like there was a change in the acceleration of the universe. It turns out that the gravity of adjacent universes are related to the golden ratio. It is all calculated here by Michael Sarnowski "Sphere Theory Explains Cosmic Expansion Increase Five Billion Years Ago"

As adjacent universes
Is another way of saying
This adjacent vacuum
For further out into this vacuum
There are other group of galaxies
Occupying this vacuum
Where these galaxies are moving apart
As vacuum cannot expand these galaxies are not expanding
For throughout this vacuum
There are
Individual groups of galaxies
Held together by gravity moving apart and moving towards each other
Joining together in their orbital dance
Just as this Andromeda and Milkyway are in this process of completing
So
Yes copernicuson
Adjacent groups of galaxies further out than 15Billion Lys occur
In this vacuum of space

Jun 24, 2019
joel in oakland may have had some bad experiences there in oakland. IIRC oakland is largely populated by dark skinned folks, but that is no excuse for speeding over the limit by anyone - no matter their race, ethnicity, education, political party, or finances, etc.
As an aside, granville, yesterday I/we rescued a grasshopper/cicada/cricket whatever it was, from a spider web. Poor thing was struggling so desperately. It was scared, even as we freed it from the web and cleaned its legs that were encased in web. It had been hanging upside down by its legs in the web. It was so scared that when we set it down outside, it was unable to move. Gave it a bit of water to drink and a leaf, it later gained its health and composure and leapt away. I thought I DETECTED a little 'thank you', but it could just have been my imagination. LOL

This talk of multiverses is interesting, but I am going with the Universe as a Sphere concept now.

Jun 24, 2019
Walk the walk, not talk the talk for this brexit is Boris's brexit

SEU
I've read that Boris Johnson has been a bad boy of late and may not make it to #10. lol

Boris is capable
But instinct
Is a powerful tool
For Boris although right for the job
Instinct says this brexit is Boris's brexit
As
This media toll has shown
For
If you want this top job
There
Is
No such entity as privacy
Your life is not private
Except for these little people
Who the press always treat with these kid gloves

p.s. walk the walk, not talk the talk - there is a saying do not talk brexit, do brexit; for Boris is talking brexit not doing brexit!

Jun 24, 2019
EDIT that:
But I am going with the Universe as a flattened Disc. If it was a Sphere, then ALL galaxies, planets, etc would have to be INSIDE the Sphere...rotating/orbiting around the Centre.

Jun 24, 2019
Walk the walk, not talk the talk for this brexit is Boris's brexit

SEU
I've read that Boris Johnson has been a bad boy of late and may not make it to #10. lol

Boris is capable
But instinct
Is a powerful tool
For Boris although right for the job
Instinct says this brexit is Boris's brexit
As
This media toll has shown
For
If you want this top job
There
Is
No such entity as privacy
Your life is not private
Except for these little people
Who the press always treat with these kid gloves

p.s. walk the walk, not talk the talk - there is a saying do not talk brexit, do brexit; for Boris is talking brexit not doing brexit!


Boris seems to have a fierce temper, but sound politics. President Trump holds his temper and is a master Strategist and also has a sound political strategy. We like this POTUS and admire how he is delivering on his promises.

One thing for Britons to beware of, are radicalised Muslims. There is such a Muslim in Congress here

Jun 24, 2019
Interesting

Copernicuson
I have found that it is actually the gravity from adjacent universes that makes it look like there was a change in the acceleration of the universe. It turns out that the gravity of adjacent universes are related to the golden ratio. It is all calculated here by Michael Sarnowski "Sphere Theory Explains Cosmic Expansion Increase Five Billion Years Ago"

The acceleration of gravity
From adjacent universe's
Sounds so familiar
From that other place
That crème de la crème P.W, that it almost seems like yesterday
For these interesting idea's are nare forgotten
Because collections of galaxies
Interspaced in this vacuum
1000s of billions of Lys apart
The gravitational force
Travels this intervening 1000Billion Ly vacuum attracting our galactic universe
There by
Causing our galactic universe to expand
First aired on this P.W. the crème de la crème
That other place

Jun 24, 2019
Recently two papers have been published. The first one deals with the measurement of the speed of rotation of galaxies and, in our view, closes the issue of the existence of dark matter. The second one argues that the expansion of the universe is not accelerating. However, this fact does not answer the question as to what in general is the cause of the universe's expansion and does not address the widespread opinion that 70% of the universe consists of dark energy.
https://www.acade...k_Energy
https://www.acade...osmology

Jun 24, 2019
Copernicuson

Beware false prophets
For as a newbie, copernicuson
Since joining
This June 24, 2019
Just a babe in arms
For, copernicuson
These sharks beckon
As these are these false prophets
For copernicuson, we on this phys.org
Are eternally on alert for these false prophets
Foreth in this invisible Aether of this internet
These false prophets make their wares known
For it is a right of passage, copernicuson

Jun 24, 2019
Sez article:

"Dark energy is a persistent mystery within current cosmological understanding, despite comprising approximately 70 percent of the universe's energy density. It was first discovered in 1998 by Adam Riess, Brian Schmidt, Saul Perlmutter and their respective teams during their supernovae observations."

Instead of doing "supernovae observations" they would have done better in taking a Thermodynamics course & learned something about the 2nd Law of Thermodynamics, ENTROPY. The entire Dark Energy hypothesis is based on an unbounded Universe, an infinitely sized one.

Entropy is a very simple concept, the DISTRIBUTION of ENERGY that's what entropy is in a nutshell. The Dark Energy argument is the diametric opposite of Entropy which requires a bounded space for distribution of energy, this also being the reason Pop-Cosmology never discusses ANYTHING about the 2nd Law of Thermodynamics, they hate it.

Jun 24, 2019
Entropy always increases with time

Benni
Entropy is a very simple concept, the DISTRIBUTION of ENERGY

For it is said
Entropy
Is a thermodynamic quantity
Representing the unavailability
Of a system's thermal energy
For conversion into mechanical work
Interpreted as the degree of disorder
Or randomness
For
The second law of thermodynamics
Says
Entropy always increases with time

p.s. for this entropy on this earth where we humans are converting heat into mechanical work
for entropy in this vacuum is gravitational, electrical, magnetic and electromagnetic energy
that protons and electrons can convert, as there very existence depends on these 4 forms of energy
however feeble to us humans it appears to be, for in these trillions of billions of Lys of vacuum
energy no matter how weak is not lost, as energy is neither created or destroyed


Jun 24, 2019
This talk of multiverses is interesting, but I am going with the Universe as a Sphere concept now.

"The Structure of Space According to the General Theory of Relativity"

"If we are to have in the universe an average density of matter which differs from zero, however small may be that difference, then the universe cannot be quasi-Euclidean. On the contrary, the results of calculation indicate that if matter be distributed uniformly, the universe would necessarily be spherical (or elliptical). Since in reality the detailed distribution of matter is not uniform, the real universe will deviate in individual parts from the spherical, i.e. the universe will be quasi-spherical. But it will be necessarily finite. In fact, the theory supplies us with a simple connection between the space-expanse of the universe and the average density of matter in it."

Albert Einstein, Part 3 General Relativity

Jun 24, 2019
The Universe in a Drop of Water
I have wondered at the immensity of the Quantum Universe, as Particles such as Protons & Electrons would see and experience it if Particles had eyes and an understanding of their Universe's size, proportions and Quantum Space - relative to our own macro Universe. Within our own Universe we and our Solar System and galaxy are far less than a blip in Space in proportion with the rest of the Universe, known and, as yet unknown. I can only imagine that a Proton and its scrumptious mate, an Electron that live in an atom of Hydrogen would look around and marvel at the vast spaces, not only of their own domicile, but also the far-reaches of their immense Quantum Universe that they have yet to discover and explore.
To us, the Quantum Universe is tiny even though it extends as far as our own Universe. But it is tinier still, and the Quantum Spaces are at the level from which into and through it we cannot pass.


Jun 24, 2019
We now know what Quantum Particles are made of. But what is Dark Energy and Dark Matter made of that has given each of them certain alleged powers? Gravitational, Electrical, Magnetic and Electromagnetic are the 4 Forces spoken of by granville, which should indicate that DE and DM are putting one or more of these 4 Forces to some use. But which ones? Who knows the answer?

Jun 24, 2019
one or more of these 4 Forces to some use. But which ones? Who knows the answer?


Are you asking the question: What is the purpose for the existence of the Universe?

Jun 24, 2019
70% .... LOL

try 10^-23% is the visible matter.

PS. Try using an Intel chip to subtract that from 100 for the Dark Matter %
:-O

Jun 24, 2019
Due to my lack of expertise here I'm not sure of what the researchers are saying here. Perhaps someone might clarify or point out my misconception. My thanks in advance.
Are the researchers saying that SST (and the light particles) as relevant to EDE but not at present?

Jun 25, 2019
I would be very interested in these 'axiverse' particles and there detection, espicially with regard to their creation and use. Such would be very useful in space exploration if such could be used to contstruct useful space warp drives.

Jun 25, 2019
"suggest that the universe is expanding much faster than what is inferred from cosmic microwave background (CMB) observations."
In the foreground are put heinous lie and unscrupulous creates article on obvious lies.
The speed of the galaxy in the present (almost)
M98…… distance 44,4 Mly……………..-0,000113 (z)
IC 3258………………48……………………….-517 km/s
M86…………………..52……………………….-244
M90…………………..58,7……………………- 282
RMB 56……………..65,2……………………-327
The Galaxy Speed in the Far Past
Galaxy…………...Right ascension…..Declination…..Red shift…..Distance G ly
1 HCM-6A ……….02h 39m 54.7s …….-01 ° 33 '32 "………..6.56 ……….12.8
4 UDFy-38135539..03h 32m 38.13s… -27 ° 45 '53.9 ".….....8.6………….13.1
6 BDF-3299………. 22h 28m 12.26s…….-35 ° 09 '59.4 "….7.109……. 13.05
15 MACS0647-JD.. 06h 47m 55.73s….. + 70 ° 14 '35.8 "....10.7………13.3
12 IOK-1 …………..13h 23m 59.8s ……..+ 27 ° 24 '56 "……..6.96 ……..12.88

Jun 25, 2019

granville583762

This universe is not continuously expanding

This assertion tells all scientists here you don't know the first thing about modern cosmology.

Jun 25, 2019
Reality tells us there has been many more big bags than one, all the elementary atomic structures will regrow after the bang, once the high density light field finds the zero weight boundary or "Gravity space" again.

This has been happening for approximately 10^2500000^2500000

String theory and Reality Both walk in this direction.

I.E. Stephen Hawkings' Big Bang was 10^2500000^2500000 light seconds ago.

We literally grow from the Em field if there is still a gravity sink.

We exist in two spaces "hugging" each other, one we see is the 3d space and one we hardly see called the "Gravity Space"

This is string theory as well people!.

Jun 25, 2019
Ban Plutonium!

Jun 25, 2019
Actually, in string physics, gravity's dimensions are the big ones, spacetime, just like in its progenitor relativity. You don't need anything else for that.

Jun 25, 2019
Oh where Oh Where did all the black holes go ?
Reality proved E=MC^2 was true, not the other way around.
Go ahead and ask The founder of the QGR Foundation how many times he tried to get Reality into the curriculum.

Jun 25, 2019
Yes you are correct DS, it's all Gravity curves, but the progenitor is actually two spaces not only the one we see, and Gravity/Weight (The string if you like a simple magnitude instead of a full curve) is the other space. Which is a skin that goes down and around all particles from photons up, anything above the proton equatorial weight is photo osmotic and the T0 skins will merge and grow electrons and protons. hence hydrogen. They both exist in front of us and you need to use the Y axis on a graph to actually understand both spaces and their co-existance in our 3d reality. Hence E8 Reality Crystals 8-)

Jun 25, 2019
Entropy always increases with time

Benni
Entropy is a very simple concept, the DISTRIBUTION of ENERGY

Entropy on this sidewalk, entropy on these freeways
For when the molecules of air
Are heated to over 2000 degrees
These molecules expand
Pushing these pistons down
Where these molecules exit these exhaust valves at 1000 degrees
Where these cylinder wall transmit 33% of this heat through this engine block
Where 33% is carried away in hot water in this radiator
Where finally 33% pushes these pistons down
For enters are old friend Friction, reducing this 33% to 25% as propulsion
Propelling this car down the road
For all this heat that dissipates in this engine
As this hot air cools to this atmospheric temperature
Although it raises this air temperature minutely
It is no longer any use to us, so effectively lost

But not so these protons and electrons in this atmosphere
For these atoms preserve this heat for it is energy
For energy is neither created or destroyed in this vacuum

Jun 25, 2019
steady on Granville, u might as well jst call it proton radiation and be done with it.
Ban Plutonium!.

Jun 25, 2019
Entropy: For energy is neither created or destroyed in this vacuum

Benni
When this proton and electron
Preserves this dissipated energy pervading this vacuum
Protons and electrons
Use this magic of acceleration
In this quantum world
Energy is quantised
Energy is in finite packages
Energy does not flow continuously
When this electron accelerates
This electron recoils absorbing energy
This electron recoils in minute quantum steps
Quantum steps are where this proton and its scrumptious electron persevere their energy
For dear old Isaac's laws of motion
For every minute acceleration this electron increases its velocity
Isaac's law, matter continues in motion until acted on by a force
The energy this electron exerts is only for this quantum time
Fore when in this quantum world continuous motion is the same as being stationary
Benni, quantum steps multiplied by quantum steps in 1s is where continuous motion is equivalent
Is this electrons secret source of energy in this infinite vacuum

Jun 25, 2019
Energy in this Vacuum

Idjyit
steady on Granville, u might as well jst call it proton radiation and be done with it.
Ban Plutonium!.

Not quite, idjyit
But were all cottoning on to this fact energy is converted from one form to another
Essentially in the end
In this infinite vacuous vacuum
Energy is this final denomination
Like a neutrino changing energy levels in flight
Where each energy level is a distinctly different neutrino
All from just one single neutrino
As there is only one neutrino just as there is only energy changing from one form to another

Jun 25, 2019

granville583762

This universe is not continuously expanding


Sez Humy:
This assertion tells all scientists here you don't know the first thing about modern cosmology.
.......obviously Pop-Cosmology fantasy is one of your strongpoints, your strongpoint is negated by the fact Dark Energy Hypothesis is nothing less than PERPETUAL MOTION which is the reason cosmologists NEVER engage themselves in discussions about ENTROPY, the 2nd Law of Thermodynamics. How about you?

Care to engage this scientist/engineer with six years of Engineering School education that Dark Energy is not Perpetual Motion? Ok, you think you want to make a stab it, then prove Dark Energy IS NOT perpetual motion? Can't do it can you.


Jun 25, 2019


The most intelligent thing @etherair has ever said.

Jun 25, 2019
I had a quote and added a few facts, but it was from an early comment and after reading the comments in their entirety I voided my post.
Somehow reality got lost between what the article said and what folks seem to have read.
Who says science is not religion? Reference above posts objectively, dogmatic to say the least,

Jun 25, 2019


The most intelligent thing @etherair has ever said.


Thank you stranger, cannot say I recall ever conversing with you before.
But good or bad, attention is attention, and that does seem to be the goal.
The finding are going to be refined by further observations to confirm the numbers, but that sure is a waste since the folks here already have the answers.
I truly smile.

Jun 25, 2019


The most intelligent thing @etherair has ever said.
......a fine example for you to follow.

Jun 25, 2019
Humy in vacuum

This universe is not continuously expanding
For this universe
Is another way of saying this vacuum
For humy
This universe is actually referring to this vacuum
And we all know in a vacuum
You cannot have half a vacuum

Half a neutron maybe

But definitely not half a vacuum
For because of this quirk of vacuum
Consequently vacuum cannot expand
Conversely humy, vacuum cannot shrink
It cannot be compressed
For this is the nature of vacuum
As humy
Protons and their scrumptious electrons occupy vacuum
For it is these galaxies that at are moving away from each other
The actual galaxies are remaining the same diameter
The actual vacuum these galaxies are occupying does not change
A difficult concept for human minds to grasp
For even as these inkly texts are scribed
It is wondrous even to this vacuum
As a vacuum is devoid of matter and energy
Cannot shrink or expand
Is why humy a vacuum is without beginning or end
For is this infinite vacuous vacuum of space and universe

Jun 25, 2019
This universe is not continuously expanding

So now humy
This little matter of vacuum has been cleared up
For now we know this universe is not expanding
As we have established
It is these galaxies accelerating away from all the other galaxies
While these individual galaxies remain the same size
So humy
In my inimitable style these galaxies are receding from one another
This universe is not expanding
For humy
This universe is vacuum occupied by receding galaxies
For
These galaxies are receding from one another!

Jun 25, 2019
The blank comment of phys.org

Etherair
The most intelligent thing @etherair has ever said.


Thank you stranger, cannot say I recall ever conversing with you before.
But good or bad, attention is attention, and that does seem to be the goal.
The finding are going to be refined by further observations to confirm the numbers, but that sure is a waste since the folks here already have the answers.
I truly smile

For etherair
To bring
These disciples
Out from under their bridges
From one of your comments
That is completely blank
Just like this blank canvas at the Tate
May be, etherair
This trend mayeth catcheth on
The blank comment of phys.org

Jun 25, 2019

What is the purpose for the existence of the Universe?

Benni
one or more of these 4 Forces to some use. But which ones? Who knows the answer?


Are you asking the question: What is the purpose for the existence of the Universe?

For having defined this universe as vacuum
The question: the purpose for the existence of the Universe?
Is void
The reason why this universe has been defined as vacuum
Is
Because just like space
Dear old Albert hath lost his way in space and time
For it is said space expands
For this is an impossibility as space is vacuum
For now it is said this universe expands
For this is an impossibility as universe is vacuum
Foreth it is these galaxies receding from one another, Benni
Occupying this universe, this space, this Vacuum!

Jun 25, 2019


The most intelligent thing @etherair has ever said.
......a fine example for you to follow.


I'm taking the @Benni approach

Jun 25, 2019
This vacuum of universe and space

For Benni, these descriptives play cruel tricks on the mind
For it is said
We exist in time and space
That time and space groweths and shrinkeths
For we hath attributed thiseth property to Space
As though Space was an entity
Foreth we knoweth it is a vacuum
So as to confuse our minds one further step
We then apply time and space to this universe
We integrate these false premises into our everyday language
That it is difficult to see this Obfuscation
For now it is said, just like space; this universe is liketh to this rubber band
For to counter this Obfuscation
We further integrate this vacuum of space
As now this universe is vacuum
So by further integration
We have
This vacuum of universe and space

Jun 25, 2019
In my inimitable style these galaxies are receding from one another
This universe is not expanding
For humy
This universe is vacuum occupied by receding galaxies
For
These galaxies are receding from one another!
......but what saith the seer about the galaxies that are colliding, remember: https://phys.org/...ght.html

JUNE 24, 2019
Galaxy clusters caught in a first kiss
by RIKEN

I wonder how many of the Pop-Cosmology fantasy crowd living here even realize almost half the galaxies in the Universe are on a collision course with another galaxy. Small Universe when there is INFINITE room to get out of the way of one another but they unavoidably just keep stumbling all over themselves.

Jun 25, 2019
This galactic motion is quasi neutral

Benni
......but what saith the seer about the galaxies that are colliding, remember:

First you get used to the fact galaxies are receding occupying this vacuous vacuum of universe
For
Andromeda and Milkyway are on collision course
Galaxies are in trillions in orbital with each other
This state of mind, there are not one, not two, but trillions of galaxies
The way every one visualises galaxies as though there is only two or three galaxies
With these galaxies coming and going
This galactic motion is quasi neutral
Its not possible to say for sure which direction these galaxies are heading

Jun 25, 2019
one or more of these 4 Forces to some use. But which ones? Who knows the answer?


Are you asking the question: What is the purpose for the existence of the Universe?
says Benni

WE know the answer. For half a billion Earth years, Benni, I have been pondering the answer to such a query. My colleagues and I have discussed all of the probabilities, and we had soon discovered the answer to it.
Obviously, we are forbidden to reveal it to humankind. I am sorry to disappoint you, but there is such a thing as "Privileged Information", and it is for humans and other sentient life forms in this Universe to make their own discovery relating to 'the big question'. Most will fail, of course.

Jun 25, 2019
My colleagues and I have discussed all of the probabilities
.....and I have felt all my life I too had Privileged Information.

Who are your colleagues?

Jun 25, 2019
granville and Benni are BOTH correct.
This Universe IS the VACUUM aka Space.
The Vacuum always existed. It was there long before Matter/Energy were created. Vacuum is the Medium in which all Mass and Energy are exchangeable and transmutable from the Quantum level to the Macro level and beyond.
But granville correctly says that the Vacuum is not expanding. It doesn't grow or shrink. It is moveable and surrounds Mass which is why it is possible to have Stars and planets within such a Medium.

But as to TIME - there is no such object, and that has all been discussed before in other phorums.

Jun 25, 2019
Adjacent Universes

Copernicuson
It is the gravity from adjacent universes that makes it look like there was a change in the acceleration of the universe. It turns out that the gravity of adjacent universes are related to the golden ratio. It is all calculated here by Michael Sarnowski "Sphere Theory Explains Cosmic Expansion Increase Five Billion Years Ago"

As adjacent universes
Is another way of saying
This adjacent vacuum
For further out into this vacuum
There are other group of galaxies
Occupying this vacuum
Where these galaxies are moving apart
As vacuum cannot expand these galaxies are not expanding



Universes are in a sense black holes. Gravity can travel through, but not light. That is why they are not adjacent in the way that galaxies are.

Jun 25, 2019
My colleagues and I have discussed all of the probabilities
.....and I have felt all my life I too had Privileged Information.

Who are your colleagues?
says Benni

We are not of flesh. But each of us have a human host who understands the implications of harbouring us, and in return, we protect them. You may have read of us in a book.
That is all you need to know, Benni.

Jun 25, 2019
granville and Benni are BOTH correct.
....I already knew that.

This Universe IS the VACUUM aka Space.
.....Benni is one up you here. The Universe is a stellar island within the the infinite expanse of Space to which there is no end.

The Vacuum always existed.
....it is self-existing? Or did it have help?

Vacuum is the Medium in which all Mass and Energy are exchangeable and transmutable from the Quantum level to the Macro level and beyond.
Carries the ring tone of nuclear physics.

But granville correctly says that the Vacuum is not expanding.
.....I feel left out. All my life I've comprehended that the Universe is a stellar Island suspended within Infinite Space.

But as to TIME - there is no such object, and that has all been discussed before in other phorums.
.....yeah it's a phony issue to argue, you'd first need to find a clock that has never broken down & never can, I have always known no such clock exists.

Jun 27, 2019
But granville correctly says that the Vacuum is not expanding.
.....I feel left out. All my life I've comprehended that the Universe is a stellar Island suspended within Infinite Space.

Ba Ba Ba @Benni and his socks.

Jun 27, 2019
Dark energy is just the plasma ignoramuse's guesswork to explain an artefact caused by their utter ignorance of the properties of matter. Needless to say, the Darkists are little more than the food stampers of science, leeching off of society while they search for their cosmic snipe.

Jun 28, 2019
says Benni
granville and Benni are BOTH correct.
....I already knew that.
-- But of course.

This Universe IS the VACUUM aka Space.
.....Benni is one up you here. The Universe is a stellar island within the the infinite expanse of Space to which there is no end.
-- There is a limit to our Universe. If there weren't, then everything in it would keep going and going every which way without ever stopping, ever. If there was no limit, your telescopes would not be able to SEE any other galaxy or clusters of galaxies, anywhere. The Milky Way would have been left alone as all other galaxies would have gone away.

The Vacuum always existed.
....it is self-existing? Or did it have help?
--- It has ALWAYS existed as a Medium in which Matter/Energy were created to exist in that Medium. And I DO mean CREATED. When I say Matter/Energy, that includes the smallest of the smallest Particles. YOU are made from those Particles that were created. Be glad of it.


Jun 28, 2019
says Benni
Vacuum is the Medium in which all Mass and Energy are exchangeable and transmutable from the Quantum level to the Macro level and beyond.
Carries the ring tone of nuclear physics.
--- Yes it does, simplified nuclear physics. Bare bones nuclear physics. It can't get any easier. It was all CREATED to be easy enough to decipher; to figure out and to understand it, and for the Mind to discover and comprehend all of its beauty and simplicity and its great significance.

But granville correctly says that the Vacuum is not expanding.
.....I feel left out. All my life I've comprehended that the Universe is a stellar Island suspended within Infinite Space.
--- As I already said, the Milky Way would have been a very lonely galaxy, surrounded by a Vacuum with no other galaxy or Stars nearby - just an empty void. Not exactly "empty" but after ~13billion years, other galaxies would've followed the expansion to wherever it took them.
-contd-

Jun 28, 2019

But as to TIME - there is no such object, and that has all been discussed before in other phorums.
.....yeah it's a phony issue to argue, you'd first need to find a clock that has never broken down & never can, I have always known no such clock exists. says Benni

The clock is only the MEANS OF MEASURING A DURATION of an Event or Action. The clock allows the viewer to see how many MOMENTS have elapsed that are given in hours, minutes, seconds and microseconds. Each moment is signified by the movement of the clock's 'hand' or a change of numbers.
But TIME is only a CONCEPT that is created/conceived of in the Mind to measure the passage of, or the duration of, an Event or Action.
There is no such thing as TIME as an object, particle, wave, mass, energy, entity. You can say the word, "time", but then you have to consult your watch or clock.

Jun 28, 2019
LOL I wonder how long it will take for scientists to pick up on that. I suppose that the usage of the word, "time" is too ingrained in humans to change. My colleagues all understand that time is only a concept; an invention created by an inventive Mind long ago. Possibly while watching the setting sun or sunrise.

Jun 28, 2019
Dark energy is just the plasma ignoramuse's guesswork to explain an artefact caused by their utter ignorance of the properties of matter. Needless to say, the Darkists are little more than the food stampers of science, leeching off of society while they search for their cosmic snipe.

says CD85

Even if there were such a thing/object as "Dark Energy", It wouldn't be needed, as there is plenty of Motion/Momentum in Stars, planets and galaxies to keep moving. Motion/Momentum is the life-blood of the Universe, as well as within the Quantum. Nothing remains still, not even a dead carcass of an animal. Not even a fallen leaf as it returns to its quantum origins.
Perhaps they misnamed it?

Jun 30, 2019
There is no expanding Universe or leprechaun energy;

'Observations contradict galaxy size and surface brightness predictions that are based on the expanding universe hypothesis'
https://academic....05b84a9a

Jun 30, 2019
Any possible Expansion of our Universe begs the questions of:
1)Where would the Universe expand to?
2)What is its destination in this expansion, and its location? Is there a destination?
3)Does everything (including all galaxies and their contents) fall off a precipice and continue on?
4)Is there a chance of returning to the original location, IOW go back to whence we came?
5)If such a thing as Dark Energy existed, does it lead at the head of an expanding Universe, or does it push from behind?
6)While the Universe is expanding, as it is in transit heading to wherever, will there be changes in the way that Physics and Thermodynamics works?
7)Will there be changes in the laws of Quantum Universe where Electrons will be positive and Protons be negatively charged?

Jul 01, 2019
Time travel - this sobering thought

SEU, can we go back to where we were 5minutes ago
Of course
As the earth is orbit round this sun
To go back in time to where you were minutes ago is simplicity its self
You retrace your orbital steps to where the earth was 5minutes a go
For this vacuous dimension in space is where you were 5minutes ago
Time travel - this sobering thought

Jul 02, 2019
The DE 'epicycle' mistake of 1998 SN1a data was caused by the defective, 1/(1+z)^2 times too faint, prediction of standard model for the emitted light at T4_emittal due to Planck dilution and distorted cosmic time and distance concepts in decelerating expansion of Riemann 4-sphere (starting point of GR). The resulting bias was compensated by the DE/DM density model of cosmological constant in the same fashion of the epicycles of Earth centered observations in Ptolemy times before the use of Sun centered unbiased physical model some 400-500 yrs ago. See the historic mistake of DE with implied accelerated vs. correct decelerated expansion in literature of Suntola Dynamic Universe or my past PO posts.

Jul 02, 2019
The theoretical explanation of this epicycle based estimation theory has profound foundations in math and engineering sciences requiring the unification of array (unified matrix and tensor) or Gaussian adjustment calculus and general inverses (including matter/anti-matter analogy of physics foundations). A simple explanation is related to the collocation model of surveying sciences from 1970's: The total effect of the biased physical trend function and the auxiliary biased 'signal' component is still unbiased under the Gauss-Markov model E(L)=AX or the predictions of the COMBINED model are still valid! But physical explanations of the biased model and epicycle components are nonsense. Predictions of the combined model fail for new data (requiring new or Noble epicycles like EDE), when you extrapolate the DE/DM density epicycle of 1998 SN1a data for large delta R4=13.8 B l.y vs small DU optical distance D like 3.26 M l.y in Hubble constant, see my past PO examples.

Jul 02, 2019
Typical crank trolls, denying evidence. Maybe you can get your asshole buddies to read it; no one else is.

I don't even need to read what you said; I know what you said. You're anti-science assholes. Don't "believe in" gravity; don't "believe" that any significant plasma physics research had happened since the 1950s; don't "believe in" black holes; don't "believe in" the big bang; don't "believe in" redshift. It's all a ginormous cunspirasy.

What a bunch of nutjobs.

Jul 02, 2019
Typical crank trolls, denying evidence.

da schnied flipping to script of reality, the linked paper shows it lives in opposite world. Not surprising coming for that lying POS.

'Observations contradict galaxy size and surface brightness predictions that are based on the expanding universe hypothesis"
https://academic....05b84a9a

Jul 02, 2019
You're just proving my point. Thanks.

Jul 07, 2019
' EDE just means that these particles, in the cosmological context, act like a dark energy component (i.e. a fluid with negative pressure) at much earlier time than the current dark energy does'

EDE just means attempting to bring the mistaken cosmic time concepts of GR into particle physics of QM - despite the already proven "Planck dilution' mistake of SN1a that prompted the DE mistake in cosmology - fooling even 2011 Nobel committee. Understanding Suntola's DU derivation of the decelerating TRUE 'constant' in Planck energy equation should be an obligatory test for today's acceptance as physics student or professorship in modern universities...

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