Astronomers make first detection of polarised radio waves in Gamma Ray Burst jets

Astronomers make first detection of polarised radio waves in Gamma Ray Burst jets
An artist's impression of a Gamma Ray Burst jet over time, and the small patches of magnetic fields present, as revealed by new research. Credit: Dr Kitty Yeung

Good fortune and cutting-edge scientific equipment have allowed scientists to observe a Gamma Ray Burst jet with a radio telescope and detect the polarisation of radio waves within it for the first time—moving us closer to an understanding of what causes the universe's most powerful explosions.

Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) are the most energetic explosions in the universe, beaming out mighty jets which travel through space at over 99.9% the , as a star much more massive than our sun collapses at the end of its life to produce a black hole.

Studying the light from Gamma Ray Burst jets as we detect it travelling across space is our best hope of understanding how these powerful jets are formed, but scientists need to be quick to get their telescopes into position and get the best data. The detection of polarised radio waves from a burst's jet, made possible by a new generation of advanced , offers new clues to this mystery.

The light from this particular event, known as GRB 190114C, which exploded with the force of millions of suns' worth of TNT about 4.5 billion years ago, reached NASA's Neil Gehrels Swift Observatory on Jan 14, 2019.

A rapid alert from Swift allowed the research team to direct the Atacama Large Millimeter/Sub-millimeter Array (ALMA) telescope in Chile to observe the burst just two hours after Swift discovered it. Two hours later the team was able to observe the GRB from the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) telescope when it became visible in New Mexico, USA.

Combining the measurements from these observatories allowed the research team to determine the structure of magnetic fields within the jet itself, which affects how the radio light is polarised. Theories predict different arrangements of magnetic fields within the jet depending on the fields' origin, so capturing radio data enabled the researchers to test these theories with observations from telescopes for the first time.

The research team, from the University of Bath, Northwestern University, the Open University of Israel, Harvard University, California State University in Sacramento, the Max Planck Institute in Garching, and Liverpool John Moores University discovered that only 0.8% of the jet light was polarised, meaning that jet's magnetic field was only ordered over relatively small patches—each less than about 1% of the diameter of the jet. Larger patches would have produced more polarised light.

These measurements suggest that magnetic fields may play a less significant structural role in GRB jets than previously thought.

This helps us narrow down the possible explanations for what causes and powers these extraordinary explosions. The study is published in Astrophysical Journal Letters.

First author Dr. Tanmoy Laskar, from the University of Bath's Astrophysics group, said: "We want to understand why some stars produce these extraordinary jets when they die, and the mechanism by which these jets are fuelled—the fastest known outflows in the universe, moving at speeds close to that of light and shining with the incredible luminosity of over a billion suns combined.

"I was in a cab on my way to O'Hare airport in Chicago, following a visit with collaborators when the burst went off. The extreme brightness of this event and the fact that it was visible in Chile right away made it a prime target for our study, and so I immediately contacted ALMA to say we were going to observe this one, in the hope of detecting the first radio polarisation signal.

"It was fortuitous that the target was well placed in the sky for observations with both ALMA in Chile and the VLA in New Mexico. Both facilities responded quickly and the weather was excellent. We then spent two months in a painstaking process to make sure our measurement was genuine and free from instrumental effects. Everything checked out, and that was exciting.

Dr. Kate Alexander, who led the VLA observations, said: "The lower frequency data from the VLA helped confirm that we were seeing the light from the jet itself, rather than from the interaction of the jet with its environment."

Dr. Laskar added: "This measurement opens a new window into GRB science and the studies of energetic astrophysical jets. We would like to understand whether the low level of polarisation measured in this event is characteristic of all GRBs, and if so, what this could tell us about the magnetic structures in GRB jets and the role of magnetic fields in powering jets throughout the universe."

Professor Carole Mundell, Head of Astrophysics at the University of Bath, added: "The exquisite sensitivity of ALMA and rapid response of the telescopes has, for the first time, allowed us to swiftly and accurately measure the degree of polarisation of microwaves from a GRB afterglow just two hours after the blast and probe the magnetic fields that are thought to drive these powerful, ultrafast outflows."

The research team plans to hunt for more GRBs to continue to unravel the mysteries of the biggest explosions in the universe.

The study "ALMA detection of a linearly polarized reverse shock in GRB 190114C" is published in Astrophysical Journal Letters.


Explore further

Enduring 'radio rebound' powered by jets from gamma-ray burst

More information: Tanmoy Laskar et al, ALMA Detection of a Linearly Polarized Reverse Shock in GRB 190114C, The Astrophysical Journal (2019). DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/ab2247
Provided by University of Bath
Citation: Astronomers make first detection of polarised radio waves in Gamma Ray Burst jets (2019, June 19) retrieved 20 September 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-06-astronomers-polarised-radio-gamma-ray.html
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Jun 19, 2019
Magnetic fields, their role in gamma ray bursts

Professor Carole Mundell, Head of Astrophysics at the University of Bath
The exquisite sensitivity of ALMA and rapid response of the telescopes has, for the first time, allowed us to swiftly and accurately measure the degree of polarisation of microwaves from a GRB afterglow just two hours after the blast and probe the magnetic fields that are thought to drive these powerful, ultrafast outflows

Electrons. magnetic fields and gamma rays flock together
For by implication
As these spin axis jets
Eject plasma
That as it is theorised magnetic field do not influence polarised gamma rays
it is implied magnetic fields are not involved in the Gamma Ray Burst jets
Throughout this supernova
A highly unlikely event

Jun 19, 2019
Outflows are ubiquitous in astrophysics. Despite different sizes, velocity and amount of transported energy, luminosity and degree of collimation, they have obvious morphological similarities. However, what is important for us, there is the picture of the outflows from everywhere and none of inflows into somewhere. That is an obvious asymmetry. There is no universal mechanism that can explain the origin of all these jets and outflows. There is no consensus about the exact ejection mechanism. The situation is even more severe, for in many cases researchers do not understand what constitutes content of the jets. Is it atomic, molecular or ionic gas, relativistic electrons or protons, or even electron-positron plasma? In this paper we have an opportunity to build a unified model of jets and outflows in the frame of our model
https://www.acade...and_Jets

Jun 19, 2019
Professor Carole Mundell, Head of Astrophysics at the University of Bath
The exquisite sensitivity of ALMA... probe the magnetic fields that are thought to drive these powerful, ultrafast outflows

Electrons. magnetic fields and gamma rays flock together
For by implication
As these spin axis jets
Eject plasma
That as it is theorised magnetic field do not influence polarised gamma rays
it is implied magnetic fields are not involved in the Gamma Ray Burst jets
Throughout this supernova
A highly unlikely event

From earlier in the article;
The research team, from the University of Bath, Northwestern University, the Open University of Israel, Harvard University, California State University in Sacramento, the Max Planck Institute in Garching, and Liverpool John Moores University discovered that only 0.8% of the jet light was polarised, meaning that jet's magnetic field was only ordered over relatively small patches—each less than about 1% of the diameter of the jet.

Jun 20, 2019
Spin jet magnetised jets

One interesting aspect is how supernova eject tightly constrained plasma out its spin axis
For this matter is not exactly decaying
Being that it is a supernova ejection
For plasma
To be ejected out these spin axis
This supernova has to be collapsing
compressing this plasma
out its exit of least resistance
Its spin axis
This central axis of any spinning star is stationary
This tightly constrained jet is not rotating
For if it were rotating
This jet would instantly dissipate with centrifugal force
It certainly would not travel billions of Lys as a rotating jet
For it is said if this jet from a supernova in our Milkyway
Directed at earth would precipitate a mass extinction

This proves this point
This is a tightly constrained non rotating jet of plasma
Travelling 99.9% light speed
For to travel at 99.9% light speed
In theory
Requires for every star the mass of our sun in this supernova jet
This supernova has to convert 22.4 suns from its own stellar mass

Jun 20, 2019
For to accelerate mass a sun converts its own mass to energy

University of Bath
The light from this particular event, known as GRB 190114C, which exploded with the force of millions of suns' worth of TNT about 4.5 billion years ago, reached NASA's Neil Gehrels Swift Observatory on Jan 14, 2019

For as to prove this point
A supernova has a deterministic quantity of mass
For to eject with the force of millions of suns' worth of TNT
At 99.9% light speed
It is lighting this universe with a million suns
While ejecting this mass releasing a blinding flash at 99.9% light speed
So for every one of those millions suns requires 22.4 suns converted into kinetic energy
This kinetic energy + this blinding flash of a million suns
For as dear old Albert would muse on this point
As however massive this supernova may be
It is yet to form a BH
Supernovas are around 8 times the mass of our sun
As dear old Albert would muse on this point
There's insufficient mass to convert to E = MC²

Jun 20, 2019
This theoretical central point

A supernova is stationary
Otherwise spin axis spin at this supernova angular velocity
A spinning jet
Requires force to hold it together
Electric
Magnetism
Gravitational
If plasma is sufficiently compressed to this supernovas core
This jet could have sufficient mass for gravity to hold it together
Coupled with this encircling spiralling magnetic field
Combine to hold this plasma as a jet travelling at 99.9% light speed
As these magnetic encircling spiralling fields encompass this jet
Electrons spiral these magnetic fields in synchrotron radiation
Due to this enormous mass in motion at 99.9% light speed
Colliding with plasma in this vacuum
Decelerating this jet
Releasing huge quantise of kinetic energy
Is why this jet is releasing this gamma ray flash

An 8 solar mass supernova
Whatever is driving this gamma ray jet
This plasma heavier than our sun at 99.9% light speed +this gamma ray flash
But still a sun travelling at 99.9% light speed = 22.4(E = MC²)

Jun 20, 2019
In other words, gamma-ray electric currents. An Electric Universe at every turn.

Jun 20, 2019
An 8 solar mass supernova
Whatever is driving this gamma ray jet
This plasma heavier than our sun at 99.9% light speed +this gamma ray flash
But still a sun travelling at 99.9% light speed = 22.4(E = MC²)

FOr how long is it travelling at that speed?

Jun 20, 2019
As dear old Albert used to say

Whydening Gyre
FOr how long is it travelling at that speed

it's not the quantity of miles at 99.9% light speed
Its 22.4 times the mass energy of the mass travelling at 99.9% light speed
For once it achieves 99.9% light speed
We have to go back 330 years
To dear old Isaac
For his first law of motion
A body remains in motion unless acted on by a force
For once this jet achieves 99.9% light speed
No more energy is needed
For this plasmatic jet will continue in motion indefinitely

p.s. it is just the minor point of where 22.4x your own weight in energy is coming from as there is a maximum amount of plasma that can be accelerated to 99.9% light speed + this million solar mass flash of light of gamma rays all emerging out of this 8 solar mass supernova with presumably sufficient solar masses left over to form a BH?

Jun 22, 2019
This lack of magnetic order and drive is different from the other powerful type of jets, supermassive black hole jets. The latter jets actually starts out in magnetic squeezed environments, and evidently the jet emissions show lots of planar polarization [ https://en.wikipe...ssier_87 ].

Seems the gravitationally driven end-life star explosion is somehow - and rarely at that - squeezing out the jets without bothering much about the magnetic field of the star.

Jun 22, 2019
In other words, gamma-ray electric currents. An Electric Universe at every turn.


Lol. A crank around every corner. Get an education, woo boy.

Jun 22, 2019
It's obvious why the differences between GRB jets and 'actively feeding' Black Hole jets. For example:

1) For Black Holes, the magnetic field(s) ejecting/accelerating the plasma-jets is a more 'stable' TORUS magnetic pattern around ACCRETION DISC plasma OUTSIDE the BH.

2) Whereas for 'one-off' FAST explosion scenarios like GRBs, it's the magnetic field of the BODY/EXPLOSION ITSELF that drives jets due to body's COLLAPSE-SPIN creating CHAOS in its INTERNAL magnetic fields as it collapses; ie, its jets/magnetic fields are hence CHAOTIC to begin with, and further turbulence from unresolved plasma swirls etc create more chaotic magnetic fields on scales observed as in above observations of GRB jets.

In short: fast transient chaotic jets form/ejected from ONE-OFF EXPLOSIONS as in GRBs; whereas longstanding toruses of plasma/magnetic pattern around Black Holes have plenty of time to form/eject jets shaped/accelerated in a more ORDERLY FASHION by 'stable' magnetic 'torus' pattern. :)

Jun 22, 2019
ps: In case RNP et al are reading this, I now quote from the above article:
Professor Carole Mundell, Head of Astrophysics at the University of Bath, added: "The exquisite sensitivity of ALMA and rapid response of the telescopes has, for the first time, allowed us to swiftly and accurately measure the degree of polarisation of ******MICROWAVES from a GRB afterglow****** just two hours after the blast and probe the magnetic fields that are thought to drive these powerful, ultrafast outflows."
Yet again a reminder that RADIO observations include MICROWAVE frequencies. And that such Frequencies are produced by MANY processes all over the universe; and have been doing so for BILLIONS of years from near to far distances...and that it is THESE wavelengths that form the ONGOING COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND that we observe now from all around us wherever we look in the skies out to observational horizon.

Hence why NO PRIMORDIAL 'Big Bang source' for CMB needed!

Long obvious. :)

Jun 22, 2019
Hence NO 'PRIMORDIAL Big Bang-source' for CMB is required! Now obvious. :)


According to whom? Link to the paper, please.

Jun 22, 2019
@Castrogiovanni.
Hence NO 'PRIMORDIAL Big Bang-source' for CMB is required! Now obvious. :)


According to whom? Link to the paper, please.
Think for yourself, man! It's there in black and white; and has been there since Radio Astronomy has been observing MICROWAVES from ONGOING processes NOT related to alleged 'primordial' BB event. Just because 'the herd' has been led astray by the BB fantasies/interpretations of REAL OBSERVATIONS, it doesn't mean YOU have to continue to blindly 'follow that herd' NOW that it is become OBVIOUS that MICROWAVES are produced in abundance and ubiquitously all over the observable universe by ONGOING phenomena of all kinds which produce Microwaves that we are now seeing better and more of with newer scopes. Try to 'connect the dots' yourself for a change instead of relying on OLD/OBSOLETE/SIMPLISTIC 'papers' from patently misleading BB-fantasy-promulgating 'scientific literature' that has been WRONG about CMB provenance for so long now. :)

RNP
Jun 23, 2019
@Realitycheck
Think for yourself, man! It's there in black and white; and has been there since Radio Astronomy has been observing MICROWAVES from ONGOING processes NOT related to alleged 'primordial' BB event.

Your constant repetition of this obvious fallacy about the cosmic microwave background radiation demonstrates that you do not understand of the observations you are discussing.

The fact that the unequivocal evidence that you are wrong has been explained to you multiple times demonstrates your inability to learn (which is probably how you ended up so uneducated in the first place).

Let me repeat the two most obvious lines of evidence;
1) The CMB is a perfect black body spectrum. No current astrophysical sources have such a spectrum.
2) The CMB is almost perfectly uniform across the sky. Again, no astrophysical sources have this property.

Your claim is OBVIOUSLY wrong.

Jun 23, 2019
Who will rid us of this petulant priest

RealityCheck
Professor Carole Mundell Head of Astrophysics at the University of Bath added
The exquisite sensitivity of ALMA and rapid telescopes response
has for the first time
allowed us to swiftly and accurately measure the degree of polarisation
of MICROWAVES from a GRB afterglow just two hours after the blast
and probe the magnetic fields that are thought to drive these powerful, ultrafast outflows
Yet again
a reminder that RADIO observations include MICROWAVE frequencies
And that such Frequencies
are produced by MANY processes all over the universe
and have been doing so for BILLIONS of years from near to far distances
and that it is
THESE wavelengths that form the ONGOING COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND
that we observe now from all around us
wherever we look in the skies out to observational horizon.
Hence
why NO PRIMORDIAL Big Bang source for CMB needed

May Georges Lemaitre rest in peace
For This Cosmic Egg is Doomed

Jun 23, 2019
@RNP.
CMB is a perfect black body spectrum. No current astrophysical sources have such a spectrum.
It's NOT ONE 'source', but uncountable myriad sources all around from here to beyond the observational horizon; and TOGETHER they have been producing the full spectrum of MICROWAVE wavelengths. Drop your BB-BLINKER-biased 'selective' CONSTRAINED interpretation of the observed reality, RNP. :)

CMB is almost perfectly uniform across the sky. Again, no astrophysical sources have this property.
Again, it's NOT just ONE 'source' but ALL of the sources over time/space for billions of years/billions of lightyears. Again, drop your BB-blinkers and THINK FOR YOURSELF, RNP. :)

I also LONG explained to you, @RNP, that MWs coming from near BH-horizon are GRAVITATIONALLY SHIFTED to a RANGE of LONGER wavelengths; as are MWs back-scattered by electrons/plasma moving AWAY from our detectors: eg, fast relativi electrons; fast receding polar jets/plasma.

Just bTRY to THINK, man! :)

RNP
Jun 24, 2019
@Realitycheck
Just bTRY to THINK, man! :)

You supercilious prat!

I don't need to think to realize that you are talking out of your derriere. You do not understand the physics and yet still you think you understand it better than the professionals. It is not possible for "myriad sources" to add up to a perfectly smooth black body spectrum. Only an idiot would believe such a thing.

Your opinions are worthless because you are nothing more than an extremely annoying troll.

Jun 24, 2019
So here we have all these galaxies spread out in distance from us from hundreds of millions to billions of light years, and when their light gets here it's all the same intensity?

Puh-leeze.

And that's not even mentioning, in every direction? Again, puh-leeze.

I don't get a comfortable feeling you understand what WMAP and Planck did, @RC. In fact I think you have no idea at all.

Jun 24, 2019
Note that CMBR from both different distance and different direction would need to be within 0.0025%. This is impossible to support. That is the maximum detected deviation over all the sky.

Jun 24, 2019
Dear Old Albert's Dilemma

Just as this CMBR is problematic
This 99.9% light speed is problematic

Microwaves are emanating throughout this vacuum
From stars in all the galaxies
From our Milkyway
To galaxies that are 15Bilion Lys distant from our Milkyway
For these detractors who do not believe this fact
Put yourself in one of these galaxies 15Bilion Lys from this Milkyway
For then you will observe microwaves emanating from galaxies 15Billion Lys
Including this Milkyway
For now we are observing this Milkyway at 15Billion Lys

Concerning this other minor point
This 99.9% light speed is problematic
For at 99.9% light speed
Requires an input of kinetic energy
Equivalent to 22.4 times the mass of the body travelling at 99.9% light speed
There is a mass energy deficit
This is not just converting 22.4 times the mass of this jet into kinetic energy
There is this addition
Of this million solar mass blinding flash of light to contend with

For dear old Albert is doing his Top

Jun 24, 2019
Dear Old Albert's Dilemma

Apparently still stands as problematic
This 99.9% light speed is problematic
As nothing has changed
For this point remains uncontested
For to propel mass to 99.9% light speed
Is 22.4 times the mass into KE + 1Million solar mass's of blinding light across the universe
All
From an 8 solar mass supernova

Jun 24, 2019
@RNP.
It is not possible for "myriad sources" to add up to a perfectly smooth black body spectrum. Only an idiot would believe such a thing.
It is NOT "perfectly smooth", mate. Else there would BE no "map" of CMB variations as imaged by Plank etc. The point you keep missing is that on any line-of-sight to observational horizon there is LOTS of things going on, as I already mentioned examples of: including source emissions AND INTERVENING electron/plasma etc scattering which mixes/attenuates all that long-traveling MW radiation to form the 'background' we observe via better and better radio spectrum telescopes/instruments.

Please dispel your BB-inculcated biased view that anything is 'perfectly smooth' in this chaotic, constantly recycling observable universe extent of energy-space and matter states, @RNP. It only leads you to make assumptions/interpretations which are patently contrary to observable reality. Ok? :)

Jun 24, 2019
@Da Schneib.
So here we have all these galaxies spread out in distance from us from hundreds of millions to billions of light years, and when their light gets here it's all the same intensity?

Puh-leeze.

And that's not even mentioning, in every direction? Again, puh-leeze.

I don't get a comfortable feeling you understand what WMAP and Planck did, @RC. In fact I think you have no idea at all.

Note that CMBR from both different distance and different direction would need to be within 0.0025%. This is impossible to support. That is the maximum detected deviation over all the sky.
Please see my above post to @RNP. Thanks. :)

Jun 24, 2019
This Microwave Radiation Mind Set

RealityCheck
It is NOT "perfectly smooth", mate. Else there would BE no "map" of CMB variations as imaged by Plank etc. The point you keep missing is that on any line-of-sight to observational horizon there is LOTS of things going on, as I already mentioned examples of: including source emissions AND INTERVENING electron/plasma etc scattering which mixes/attenuates all that long-traveling MW radiation to form the 'background' we observe via better and better radio spectrum telescopes/instruments

One Of These Days
It will be too painfully obvious
To dismiss
Microwave radiation
Emanating from stars across this universe
For supernovas
Pulsars
Neutron stars
Blackholes
As the star in neutron-stars suggests
All these are stars
For this is where the majority of microwaves emanate
As microwaves travel 15Billion Lys
The exact frequency this microwave
Started its journey
It ends its journey at a different frequency
Upon impacting on planet earth

Jun 24, 2019
Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe

This image is the detailed, all-sky picture of the infant universe
Created from seven years of WMAP data
The image reveals 13.7 billion year old temperature fluctuations shown as colour differences
That correspond to the seeds that grew to become the galaxies. Credit: NASA
https://www.nasa....WMAP.jpg

The WMAP science team has determined
To a high degree of accuracy and precision
Not only the age of the universe
But also the density of atoms
The density of all other non-atomic matter
The epoch when the first stars started to shine
The
Lumpiness
Of the universe
And how that
Lumpiness
Depends on scale size
https://map.gsfc....dex.html

p.s. these accurate observation shows hot spots as variation in microwave frequency proof these microwave frequencies varies, as to that that follows these accurate observations is speculative theorising

RNP
Jun 25, 2019
@RealityCheck

It is NOT "perfectly smooth", mate. Else there would BE no "map" of CMB variations as imaged by Plank etc.


Your ignorance is showing again. This has been explained to you many times and most recently by Da Schneib above. The CMB varies by only one part in 100,000 across the whole sky - about as smooth as you could hope to get.

You have also not addressed the issue of it being a near perfect black body spectrum.

Read up on the subject (e.g. the Wikipedia page https://en.wikipe...kground) before you make any more silly comments.

Jun 25, 2019
@RC, I don't think you get how sensitive our detection has become. You can't get 1 part in a thousand with a candle, or for that matter with an electric light. This is smooth in all directions and at all distances to 1 part in 100,000. And it doesn't matter how often you lie about it, we've got the Planck data now.

Jun 25, 2019
HOW SMOOTH IS SMOOTH

RNP
Your ignorance is showing again. This has been explained to you many times and most recently by Da Schneib above. The CMB varies by only one part in 100,000 across the whole sky - about as smooth as you could hope to get

Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe
FOR THIS DETAILED IMAGE IS FAR FROM SMOOTH
https://www.nasa....WMAP.jpg

Jun 25, 2019
Smoothness created by statistical maths gymnastics, no science or physics needed.

Jun 25, 2019
As smooth as the Picci

Cantdrive
Smoothness created by statistical maths gymnastics, no science or physics needed.

You mean
As smooth
As the infamous algorithmic Picci
So smooth they are making a copy for Sagittarius*A!

Jun 25, 2019
@RNP
@Da Schneib.

Both of you should stop and consider the biased assumptions/modelling/analytical 'cleansing and fitting' that all those observations/maps have entailed. Also consider what the expected spectrum would look like in a NON-EXPANDING, infinite, eternally recycling universal energy-space extent/process wherein Microwaves of all frequencies have been produced/travelling from innumerable sources across unimaginable 'processing space regions' which have been mixing/attenuating MW radiation long before it reaches us 'here/now' from billions of light years away and far beyond the present observable horizon. In such a universe the MW radiation would have had all the time it needed to travel far and wide from all sources to all receivers, no matter where in that infinite universal energy-space extent the detectors were.

Anyhow, drop the BB-beginnings/expansion etc illogical 'fixes' and start seeing the reality as it is in both logical and scientific terms not BB-biased. :)

Jun 25, 2019
Smoothness created by statistical maths gymnastics, no science or physics needed.


Says a clown who knows the square root of zero about either science or maths. Sad.

Jun 25, 2019
Check out Loop Quantum Gravity Theory and it does away with the big bang, at the most the Background Microwave Field is a shadow of how mass was distributed before a pressure wave 'compressed' space, just as if we were inside a tank a trillion light years across, and it were raised to higher pressure, or locally (on that scale) as a sound wave. It would change local physics to have space seemingly compressing where we see it now expanding slightly.

Loop quantum gravity posits that Charge is the strongest force in the universe, we see it in effect and affecting materials at cosmic-scale ranges and atto-scale as well. Overall, charge disparity has an effect Similar to what we call gravity, yet at certain scales electro-magnetics is much stronger than gravity. Note, the magnet sticks to the fridge, and does not get flung to the ground every time stuck. The electro-chemical valence bonds between atoms holds your body up against gravity, even allowing you to reach.

Gravity is overrated.

Jun 25, 2019
So, no QGP, then, @RC?

Jun 26, 2019
@Da Schneib.
So, no QGP, then, @RC?
Who said/implied "no QGP", mate? Not me. :)

In any case, your above ambiguous/non-sequitur 'question' was too curt/lacking in detail/context for me to fathom what point it was that you think you were addressing, DS. Could you please elaborate? Thanks. :)

Jun 26, 2019
So how exactly do you differentiate all of space being filled with a QGP from a "Big Bang?"

Jun 27, 2019
@Da Schneib.

Loose analogy: Hydrologic Cycle 'cycles/recycles' ENERGY via 'evolved matter' PHASE STATES. No 'Big Bang' needed. :)

UNIVERSE is THE quintessential Infinite, Eternal, Open System of 'ground state' Potential/Reservoir of Energy-Space of inherent 'density' that (due to now-well-understood chaotic/self-organisational etc inherent spatial/temporal geometrical/interaction/evolutionary relativities/processes) generates higher-than-ground-state energy-space features/objects having their own inherent evolutionary/interaction dynamics of constant 'cycling/recycling' energy-space from fundamental/ground state/forms/dynamics to higher ones and back again.

In effect, THE ULTIMATE Quantum Chaos System comprising uncountable 'local sub-divisions' (ie, finite 'volumes' of energy-space) wherein/wherefrom 'transient' higher level evolutionary features/dynamics arise, evolve, and subside back to ground state at different/overlapping 'localised' stages/epochs across the Infinity. :)

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