Meteor magnets in outer space—study finds elusive giant planets

Meteor magnets in outer space
The 'wobble,' or radial velocity technique for finding planets relies on the movement of the stars created as they're circled by their planets. The blue wave represents movement toward Earth, while the red wavelength occurs as the star heads away. Credit: (NASA/JPL-Caltech)

Astronomers believe planets like Jupiter shield us from space objects that would otherwise slam into Earth. Now they're closer to learning whether giant planets act as guardians of solar systems elsewhere in the galaxy.

A UCR-led team has discovered two Jupiter-sized planets about 150 away from Earth that could reveal whether life is likely on the smaller planets in other solar systems.

"We believe planets like Jupiter have profoundly impacted the progression of life on Earth. Without them, humans might not be here to have this conversation," said Stephen Kane, lead study author and UCR associate professor of planetary astrophysics. "Understanding how many other stars have planets like Jupiter could be very important for learning about the habitability of planets in those systems."

Along with liquid water oceans, Kane said astronomers believe such planets have the ability to act as 'slingshots,' pulling objects like meteors, comets, and asteroids out of their trajectories en route to impact with small, rocky planets.

Many larger planets have been found close to their stars. However, those aren't as useful for learning about the architecture of our own , where the including Saturn, Uranus and Neptune are all farther from the sun. Big planets far from their stars have, until now, been harder to find.

A study recently accepted for publication in the Astronomical Journal details how Kane's team found success in a novel approach combining traditional detection methods with the latest technologies.

One popular method of searching for exoplanets— planets in other solar systems—involves monitoring stars for "wobble," in which a star moves toward and away from Earth. The wobble is likely caused by the gravitational pull a nearby planet is exerting on it. When a star wobbles, it's a clue there may be an exoplanet nearby.

When the planet is far from its star, the is weaker, making the wobble smaller and harder to detect. The other problem with using the wobble detection method, Kane said, is that it just takes a long time. Earth only takes a year to orbit the sun. Jupiter takes 12, Saturn takes 30, and Neptune takes an astonishing 164 years.

The larger exoplanets also take many years to circle their stars, which means observing a complete orbit could engulf an astronomer's entire career. To accelerate the process, Kane and his team combined the wobble method with direct imaging. This way, if the team thought a planet might be causing wobble, they could confirm it by sight.

Obtaining a direct image of a planet quadrillions of miles away is no simple task. It requires the largest possible telescope, one that is at least 32 feet long and highly sensitive. Even from this distance, the light of the stars can overexpose the image, obscuring the target planets.

The team overcame this challenge by learning to recognize and eliminate the patterns in their images created by starlight. Removing the starlight allowed Kane's team to see what remained.

"Direct imaging has come a long way both in terms of understanding the patterns we find, and in terms of the instruments used to create the images, which are much higher resolution than they've ever been," Kane said. "You see this every time a new smartphone is released—the camera detectors are always being improved and that's true in astronomy as well."

In this project, the team applied the combination of wobble and imaging method to 20 stars. In addition to the two being orbited by giant Jupiter-like that had not been previously discovered, the team also detected a third, previously observed star with a giant planet in its system.

Going forward, the team will continue to monitor 10 of the stars where planetary companions could not be ruled out. In addition, Kane is planning a new project to measure how long it takes these exoplanets to complete rotations toward and away from their , which cannot currently be measured.

Kane's team is international, with members at the Australian Astronomical Observatory, University of Southern Queensland, University of New South Wales and Macquarie University in Australia, as well as at the University of Hertfordshire in the United Kingdom. They are also spread across the U.S. at the National Optical Astronomy Observatory in Tucson, AZ, Southern Connecticut State University, NASA Ames Research Center and Stanford University in California and the Carnegie Institution of Washington in D.C.

"This discovery is an important piece of the puzzle because it helps us understand the factors that make a planet habitable and whether that's common or not," said Kane. "We are converging rapidly on answers to this question that the past 3,000 recorded years of history could only wish they had available to them."


Explore further

Five planets revealed after 20 years of observation

More information: Detection of Planetary and Stellar Companions to Neighboring Stars via a Combination of Radial Velocity and Direct Imaging Techniques, arXiv:1904.12931 [astro-ph.EP] arxiv.org/abs/1904.12931
Journal information: Astronomical Journal

Citation: Meteor magnets in outer space—study finds elusive giant planets (2019, May 24) retrieved 27 June 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-05-meteor-magnets-outer-spacestudy-elusive.html
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May 24, 2019
Jupiter and Saturn as meteor magnets

Not so much magnets as gravitons
Jupiter and Saturn as meteor gravitons
Gravitationally diverting this orbiting flotsam and jetsam that sails this sea of space
Hopefully adding it to its pile

This first impression on seeing this title
Was that there was a new way to find these planets in this sea of space
That some new and magical discovery had occurred
A meteor magnet had been discovered
A form of magnetic meteor had been discovered
Only to find
It is a plain every day boring meteor
This build up
Then this anticlimax
Only to find
There was nothing magical
No magnetic meteors
After all
Just a lump of lifeless rock upon trillions in this sea of space

May 24, 2019
"The 'wobble,' or radial velocity technique for finding planets relies on the movement of the stars created as they're circled by their planets. The blue wave represents movement toward Earth, while the red wavelength occurs as the star heads away."

The "meteor magnets in outer space..." part of the title is to denote the suspected roles of giant gas planets, such as Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune at the entrance to our SS who are the 'welcoming committee' that steer certain large bodies of Matter away from Earth and the Moon. Why, it almost sounds metaphysical when you think about it, as though protection of the INNER planets of our SS (and others) was predetermined and preordained.
The notion would be exacerbated further if other solar and giant gas planetary systems are found to be protective of their own inner planets and moons - deflecting incoming material debris. This MAY HAVE BEEN WHY there is water on Earth from comets headed toward the Sun. It is Logical.


May 24, 2019

SEU, this stellar nursery our sun was born into

Is this dust these comets and asteroids consist of
this stellar nursery
also contains oxygen and nitrogen
frozen solid in these comets
this earth's water, oxygen and nitrogen came from these comets
it is an undeniable fact
as the comets got earth's atmosphere from our stars stellar nursery
In this sea of space

SEU, This planetary wobble of stars orbiting their barycentre is the only way of detecting solar systems
By the interference of light coming from these solar systems
There is an interferometer technique for quickly winkling out these planets

May 24, 2019

SEU, this stellar nursery our sun was born into

Is this dust these comets and asteroids consist of
this stellar nursery
also contains oxygen and nitrogen
frozen solid in these comets
this earth's water, oxygen and nitrogen came from these comets
it is an undeniable fact
as the comets got earth's atmosphere from our stars stellar nursery
In this sea of space

SEU, This planetary wobble of stars orbiting their barycentre is the only way of detecting solar systems
By the interference of light coming from these solar systems
There is an interferometer technique for quickly winkling out these planets
says granville

Precisely.

The Dust Cloud out of which our Sun, planets and moons were created was the dust that was ejected from the explosion of another Star that is long since forgotten. That Dust Cloud contained every thinkable element that would have been required to start the processes over again to create Life on a certain Third Planet from our very own Star.

May 24, 2019
"there is water on Earth from comets headed toward the Sun. It is Logical.


It may be logical, but it's wrong. The oxygen isotope content of the cometary water does not match that of water on Earth. Now that we've found that asteroids have more water than we used to think was the case it turns out that the isotopes of Earthly water match that of asteroids much better. Asteroids don't have much water, but then neither does Earth if looked at in its entirety rather than just the surface.

May 24, 2019
"there is water on Earth from comets headed toward the Sun. It is Logical.


It may be logical, but it's wrong. The oxygen isotope content of the cometary water does not match that of water on Earth. Now that we've found that asteroids have more water than we used to think was the case it turns out that the isotopes of Earthly water match that of asteroids much better. Asteroids don't have much water, but then neither does Earth if looked at in its entirety rather than just the surface.
says Cusco

Hi Cusco. Are you of the band of the same name? If you are, then we love your musical tribute to ancient Inca cultures.
Ice formed on comets may also contribute to the water supply of Earth, howevermuch it could be.
Perhaps the O2 isotope transmutes when it enters Earth's atmosphere.
There would have had to be an enormous amount of asteroidal strikes into the early Terran regolith over billions of Earth years for that much water to accumulate as it is now.

May 24, 2019
THIS JUST IN!!
Prime Minister of Great Britain Theresa May has resigned. I would imagine that all true Englishmen are celebrating at this moment. BREXIT can now go forward.

May 24, 2019
BREXIT, this England this sceptered isle

BREXIT FEVER
THIS JUST IN!!
Prime Minister of Great Britain Theresa May has resigned. I would imagine that all true Englishmen are celebrating at this moment. BREXIT can now go forward.

Its been headline SKY NEWS all day, brexit fever

BREXIT, this hole to brexit this next Prime Minister

May 24, 2019
SEU, so now we celebrate our brexit moment yet again
All true Englishmen are celebrating at this moment. BREXIT can now go forward

For it is told on this witching hour on this Halloween, this final brexit moment strikes one more time
For as we make merry
Spare a thought
For
Our next prime minister when he meets his brexit
His no deal
When the witches are broomsticking this Halloween

May 24, 2019
BREXIT, this England this sceptered isle

BREXIT FEVER
THIS JUST IN!!
Prime Minister of Great Britain Theresa May has resigned. I would imagine that all true Englishmen are celebrating at this moment. BREXIT can now go forward.


Its been headline SKY NEWS all day, brexit fever

BREXIT, this hole to brexit this next Prime Minister


Her ignorance of the will of the English people was her undoing re BREXIT. Her inability to recognise the terror that the English felt at the unremitting and incessant immigrant status of Islamists. It was told that England is no longer English but on its way to becoming a third world nation, and she ignored it.
Glad that she is out of #10. Wishing that Nigel could be the next PM.

May 24, 2019
SEU, so now we celebrate our brexit moment yet again
All true Englishmen are celebrating at this moment. BREXIT can now go forward

For it is told on this witching hour on this Halloween, this final brexit moment strikes one more time
For as we make merry
Spare a thought
For
Our next prime minister when he meets his brexit
His no deal
When the witches are broomsticking this Halloween


As a former British subject, granville, we can only hope that Boris J. will do the right thing and get GB out from under the thumb of the EU. If he won't do it, I can only imagine an effort to thwart him if he doesn't follow the will of the people.
And with that, it is time for a pint or two. LOL
Ahh, the witching hour isn't quite here yet.

May 24, 2019
Our Brexit, this Halloween

For SEU, this is your brexit, you have broken this spell
this spell, this magic you hath conjured
you hath walked free
with no earthly assistance
this brexit is magic most pure
this brexit spell cannot be broken
as those who challenge this brexit
meet their brexit
their demise
because
this magic, this brexit can not be challenged
this brexit magic
this spell cannot be broken
except by this magic potion
this spell can only be broken
by this brexit
when the witch's are broomsticking this Halloween
when these witch's truly see this brexit
then and only then
these witch's break this magic, this potion
Our Brexit, this Halloween

May 24, 2019
The implications of this are obvious: we need to keep gathering data. It's going to be centuries before we have enough to get a really good picture of the compositions of solar systems other than ours. Science is mostly the long run, not amazing discovery clickbait.

May 24, 2019
Our Brexit, this Halloween

For SEU, this is your brexit, you have broken this spell
this spell, this magic you hath conjured
you hath walked free
with no earthly assistance
this brexit is magic most pure
this brexit spell cannot be broken
this spell cannot be broken
except by this magic potion
this spell can only be broken
by this brexit
when the witch's are broomsticking this Halloween
when these witch's truly see this brexit
then and only then
these witch's break this magic, this potion
Our Brexit, this Halloween
says granville

Yes granville. It is also mine. But I didn't turn Parliament against May. She did a fine job of it by taking it upon herself to remove from the English the power of self-determination and attempt to pass that power to the EU under the guise of a "Deal" that would still favour the EU in any case. I find the British membership with EU to be frustratingly foolish, as it can only benefit Europe, not England. It is all in the potion.

May 25, 2019
Science is mostly the long run, not amazing discovery clickbait.

I fully agree, this is the sort of cooperative science that needs long term funding, not popular short term vanity projects.

With regards to other posts on this thread: -

Guidelines for posting comments on Science X articles:

Stay on topic: Acceptable comments include those that add to the discussion in a meaningful and thought-provoking manner or provide an intelligent counterpoint to our articles.

Avoid political and religious discussions: Because of the complexity and ambiguity of this subject matter, political and religious discussions are not allowed.

Comments that will be deleted include:

off topic ramblings, rants, or pointless verbiage;
political and religious discussions;

May 25, 2019
Our Brexit, this Halloween
SEU> Yes granville. It is also mine. But I didn't turn Parliament against May. She did a fine job of it by taking it upon herself to remove from the English the power of self-determination and attempt to pass that power to the EU under the guise of a "Deal" that would still favour the EU in any case. I find the British membership with EU to be frustratingly foolish, as it can only benefit Europe, not England. It is all in the potion.

This dream, our Brexit, this Halloween
this clean break, this No Deal is this magic spell
for whoever is this next P.M. tries to break this No Deal spell
this Brexit will be their Brexit
for this point of contention, SEU
Is this No Deal
as when we leave, when we Brexit with No Deal we will be inundated with preferential deals
from our Common Market partners
for
when
we
leave with No Deal
No Deal is our Brexit this Halloween, October 31st this 2019

May 25, 2019
"Astronomers believe planets like Jupiter shield us from space objects that would otherwise slam into Earth."

With due respect to the group, I believe the press release overstate its case, as it remains an open question. If anything actual models of asteroid fluxes redirected by a gas giant like Jupiter into deflected out of or into the inner of a solar system tipped the case into doing more harm than being helpful. (But of course then possibly contributing more outer system water instead.)

@Steve: I agree on the out-of-context or provocative trolling - the former is like someone muttering on the streets, the latter like someone yelling insults.

But science has a social context as well as being based in observable facts, so discussions on politics or delusions must be encouraged (or at least not 'disallowed'). What should not be encouraged is trolling political or own-delusion opinions, especially when it is known they are erroneous. (E.g. eugenics/racism, astrology/religion.)

May 25, 2019
With regards to other posts on this thread: -
.
.
.
Comments that will be deleted include:
off topic ramblings, rants, or pointless verbiage;
political and religious discussions;
They won't delete things that are not reported, but I reported the entire lot of them yesterday, and they still haven't touched them. So basically, fizz·org doesn't actually have mods.
[Note, I almost   n e v e r   report comments, but yesterday's was a pointed and thoroughly gross discursion.]

May 25, 2019
This Planetary Protectorate

Having these large outer planets
gravitationally attracting these meteorites
as these failed planets
unsuitable for life
absorbing these meteorites
from reaching earth
for when these humongous meteors appear
as they have in the past
with a handful of luck
hopefully these planets will absorb yet again this humongous meteor
as are moonly disaster fortunately has been avoided
for if our moon had not been incrementally clearing its orbit
if we could perceive our moon becoming an increasingly permanent supermoon
incrementally reducing its moonly orbit
non of these planetary protectorates
would be able to save earth from utter devastation
this earth
this earthly heaven on earth is truly blessed
for when these witch's are broomsticking these Halloweens
under this full moon on these Halloween nights
these witch's hath cast their magic spell on this earth
for 5 billion years these witch's hath been broomsticking
These Full Moon Halloween Nights

May 25, 2019
With regards to other posts on this thread: -
.
.
.
Comments that will be deleted include:
off topic ramblings, rants, or pointless verbiage;
political and religious discussions;
They won't delete things that are not reported, but I reported the entire lot of them yesterday, and they still haven't touched them. So basically, fizz·org doesn't actually have mods.
[Note, I almost   n e v e r   report comments, but yesterday's was a pointed and thoroughly gross discursion.]
says danR

The big news of the day was the resignation of the PM for which granville and I were commiserating the fact that BREXIT hadn't yet occurred during May's tenure.
I am almost certain that you and SteveS have heard of POLITICAL SCIENCE. It could be said that we were discussing that type of science, as it involves the future of GB. We have already read the TERMS, so you need not repeat them.
WRT the giant planets to be found in other Solar Systems, I am certain it will be the same.

May 25, 2019
This Planetary Protectorate

Having these large outer planets
gravitationally attracting these meteorites
as these failed planets
unsuitable for life
absorbing these meteorites
from reaching earth
for when these humongous meteors appear
as they have in the past
with a handful of luck
hopefully these planets will absorb yet again this humongous meteor
as are moonly disaster fortunately has been avoided
for if our moon had not been incrementally clearing its orbit
says granville

It isn't plain good luck that has protected planet Earth from cometary and asteroidal destruction, granville. Humans believe in good luck and bad luck and the 'luck of the draw'. All 3 don't apply in this Solar System's "Protective Custody" of the one single planet that is able to produce and sustain living organisms and sentient, possibly even intelligent, mortal beings.
Luck and fortune have nothing to do with the Earth's continued existence, even as flybys come roaring through.

May 25, 2019
-contd-
@granville says:

"if we could perceive our moon becoming an increasingly permanent supermoon
incrementally reducing its moonly orbit
non of these planetary protectorates
would be able to save earth from utter devastation
this earth, this earthly heaven on earth..
for when these witch's are broomsticking these Halloweens
under this full moon on these Halloween nights
these witch's hath cast their magic spell on this earth
for 5 billion years these witch's hath been broomsticking
These Full Moon Halloween Nights"


In this Solar System, the Earth has been under "Protective Custody" since it began to coalesce from the Dust Particles which would become the layers upon layers of accreted Mass/Energy that would be laid down by its own gravitational compression. The "Powers-that-be" have made it so.
Just as animals of Earth are under the protection of certain groups who care about them - so it is with the living souls within their material bodies of Earth.

May 25, 2019
-contd-

There are, of course, many other Solar Systems within the Universe/Cosmos whereby other giant planets are what could be construed as, 'guardians of the inner planets', that in many cases are the 'catchall' of interloping bodies of Matter that threaten the well-being of that planetary system.
Life, especially Sentient Life is the Objective of the processes of planet-building and their orbits around their Star.
Without that Primary Objective, there is no logical reason for the Universe to exist.

May 25, 2019
In this Solar System, the Earth has been under "Protective Custody"

SEU
For when Comet Shoemaker Levy 9 collided with Jupiter
is an example
Of This Planetary Protectorate

May 25, 2019
In this Solar System, the Earth has been under "Protective Custody"

SEU
For when Comet Shoemaker Levy 9 collided with Jupiter
is an example
Of This Planetary Protectorate
says granville

Yes, that is the purpose of the giant gaseous planets - to be the receivers of such invaders. A billiard ball doesn't always hit the white ball for which it was intended, due to several possible factors. It can careen wildly into others. So it is with meteors and asteroids inside the Solar System, where the Solar Wind could cause one to change trajectory and slam into a moon, eg. But the outer giant gassy planets have the capacity to swallow them whole without so much as a burp. :)

May 25, 2019
@granville
LOL I suppose TorbjorngbL still has us on Block/Ignore. I must admire his tenacity for preventing his curiosity to take hold of him. Must be the Swedish passion for avoiding troublesome ideas.

I find it amusing that humans always seem to prefer the most complicated answers to overcome the easiest scientific problems. It may be their opportunity to express their knowledge of Math and other things that they have learnt in the past.
My human host is having to take "Precious" out or a walk. I shall return in the morrow.

May 26, 2019
The "meteor magnets in outer space..." part of the title is to denote the suspected roles of giant gas planets, such as Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune at the entrance to our SS who are the 'welcoming committee' that steer certain large bodies of Matter away from Earth and the Moon.
Surveillance_Egg_Unit

No, you fail to understand the scientific theory: The theory here isn't that they 'steer' bodies of matter away from Earth (because they can just as easily 'steer' something towards the Earth) but rather absorb it via matter colliding with them. Uranus and Neptune are assumed to have a trivial effect on that due to them being much smaller and their orbits much further out. Jupiter is thought to have by far the greatest effect on that.

May 26, 2019
Perhaps the O2 isotope transmutes when it enters Earth's atmosphere
Indubitably. But howsomever would this be made to happen? Collision with atmospheric positrons or just more godly nosewiggling?

You fucking moron.
No, you fail to understand the scientific theory
No, seu is one of several malicious trolls who are here to destroy this site by posting obviously contrived inane garbage.

SEU has posted under a number of socks in the past. Different personas, same identical bullshit.
My human host is having to take "Precious" out or a walk. I shall return in the morrow
'See that? This FREAK is laughing at us.

Physorg do something.

May 26, 2019
The "meteor magnets in outer space..." part of the title is to denote the suspected roles of giant gas planets, such as Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune at the entrance to our SS who are the 'welcoming committee' that steer certain large bodies of Matter away from Earth and the Moon.
Surveillance_Egg_Unit

No, you fail to understand the scientific theory: The theory here isn't that they 'steer' bodies of matter away from Earth (because they can just as easily 'steer' something towards the Earth) but rather absorb it via matter colliding with them. Uranus and Neptune are assumed to have a trivial effect on that due to them being much smaller and their orbits much further out. Jupiter is thought to have by far the greatest effect on that.
says humy

The title partially says, "meteor magnets". The term "magnet" should indicate to anyone that the giant gas planets are ATTRACTING many comets and asteroids where they are consumed by the giants.
-contd-

May 26, 2019
-contd-
@humy

In the use of the term, "steering", I wasn't implying that there is any sentience to the giant gas planet's consuming activity that would prevent any incoming comets and asteroids from crashing into Earth, Mars or their moons. The same for all other solar systems in the Universe that have giant gas planets that orbit their Star. Sorry if you misinterpreted my meaning.
But the fact that there ARE giant gas planets within our SS so far from the 4 inner planets, and that those giants have been seen to consume comets and asteroids, seems to give them a special place - like lone sentinels that are there in their locations; that seem to be the 'protectors' of the inner planets. Occasionally, an asteroid comes close or actually crashes into Earth, such as at Tunguska, but for the most part, you will not experience a large swarm of them destroying cities, etc all over the world. Is it just plain good luck so far? What do YOU think, humy?

May 28, 2019
The fact that we are now starting to image exoplanets, is very exciting.

This imaging is still in the early stages however, so it may still be a long time before we are able to actually image the surface features of other planets. Possibly long before we are able to see surface features, we will be able to scan exoplanets for artificial radio frequency emissions.

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