Is dark matter made of axions? Black holes may reveal the answer

Is dark matter made of axions? Black holes may reveal the answer
Artist’s impression of dark matter surrounding the Milky Way. Credit: ESO/L. Calçada

What is dark matter made of? It's one of the most perplexing questions of modern astronomy. We know that dark matter is out there, since we can see its obvious gravitational influence on everything from galaxies to the evolution of the entire universe, but we don't know what it is. Our best guess is that it's some sort of weird new particle that doesn't like to talk to normal matter very often (otherwise, we would have seen it by now). One possibility is that it's an exotic hypothetical kind of particle known as an axion, and a team of astronomers are using none other than black holes to try to get a glimpse into this strange new cosmic critter.

Axion Agenda

I'll be honest with you, we don't know if axions exist. They were invented to explain a conundrum in high-energy physics. There's a certain kind of symmetry in nature in which switching out the electric charges of all particles in a random interaction and running the process in the mirror produces the exact same result. This is known as charge and parity symmetry, or CP-symmetry for short.

This symmetry holds everywhere in nature, except when it doesn't, as in the case of the weak nuclear force, which is able to violate this symmetry whenever it feels like it.

The conundrum is that by all rights, the strong nuclear force should violate this, too. There are terms in the mathematics that very obviously break CP-symmetry, and yet we don't see any signs of symmetry breaking with the strong nuclear force in any of our experiments. So something must be going on to restore this symmetry when it ought to be broken.

The —or at least one potential answer—is a new kind of particle called the . The axion restores a certain kind of balance in the force (yes I'm aware of the Star Wars reference, here) so that CP-symmetry is preserved and everyone can go about their daily lives. Of course, experiments to date haven't directly revealed the existence of the axion, and there's a range of possible masses and properties that the axion could have.

Within that range of possible allowable masses and properties of the axion, something remarkable occurs. If we want to fill up the universe with dark , that dark matter has to have certain properties. It can't interact with normal matter very often and it can't even interact with itself very often, either. Also, there needs to be a lot of it, and it needs to be very stable and long-lived. It turns out that some of the range of possible axion properties make that hypothetical particle a candidate for dark matter.

The Dark Axions

If we consider the axion to be dark matter, it can generally explain all the usual dark matter observations. It can explain the rotation curves inside of . It can explain the motions of galaxies within galaxy clusters. It can be manufactured in sufficient abundance in the early universe to fit observations of the cosmic microwave background. And so on.

What's more, axions in the cores of galaxies can bundle together tightly enough to form a single massive ball that would at first blush look a lot like a . It would be small, it wouldn't interact with light, and it would be incredibly massive. While recent observations from the Event Horizon Telescope gave us a literal picture of a giant black hole in another galaxy, it doesn't necessarily rule out that these axion cores still lurk in the depths of galaxies across the universe. And it's with these possible axion cores that we might be able to get a handle on their properties.

Is dark matter made of axions? Black holes may reveal the answer
This artist’s concept shows the most distant supermassive black hole ever discovered. It is part of a quasar from just 690 million years after the Big Bang. Credit: Robin Dienel/Carnegie Institution for Science

Black Holes are the Key

Aside from the Event Horizon Telescope, we have no direct observations of supermassive black holes. We can only see the material that is swirling and seething around them. And from the properties of that material, we can estimate the size and mass of the black holes. With these techniques, we've uncovered a very strange relationship over the decades: More massive galaxies host more massive black holes in their centers. This relationship is actually relatively tight, and it tells us that black holes somehow co-evolve with their host galaxies.

But like I said, we can't observe the black holes directly. So they might not be black holes at all. They might be axion cores hiding in the centers of those galaxies. If this is the case, then it's not that black holes co-evolved with their host galaxies, but that axion cores co-evolved with their host galaxies. The bigger the galaxy, the more axion dark matter it can host, and the bigger the axion core in the center.

This means we can use the relationship between the central dark object (whether it's a black hole or an axion core) and the galaxy itself to constrain the properties of axions. This works, because if you start playing with the axion particle mass, it affects how easily axions can clump up to form a core, which changes the relationship to the host galaxy.

A team of astronomers recently employed the relationship between and galaxies to do exactly this, and were able to place some upper limits on the axion particle mass, which will help guide future experiments and direct searches. Is the axion responsible for the in the universe? Hopefully, we can shed some light on the situation someday.


Explore further

New portal to unveil the dark sector of the Universe

More information: Vincent Desjacques, Adi Nusser. Axion core—halo mass and the black hole-halo mass relation: constraints on a few parsec scales: arXiv:1905.03450v1 [astro-ph.CO]
Citation: Is dark matter made of axions? Black holes may reveal the answer (2019, May 20) retrieved 16 September 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-05-dark-axions-black-holes-reveal.html
This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
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May 20, 2019
Dark matter is a supersolid that fills 'empty' space, strongly interacts with ordinary matter and is displaced by ordinary matter. What is referred to geometrically as curved spacetime physically exists in nature as the state of displacement of the supersolid dark matter. The state of displacement of the supersolid dark matter is gravity.

The supersolid dark matter displaced by a galaxy pushes back, causing the stars in the outer arms of the galaxy to orbit the galactic center at the rate in which they do.

Displaced supersolid dark matter is curved spacetime.

In the Bullet Cluster collision the dark matter has not separated from the ordinary matter. The collision is analogous to two boats that collide, the boats slow down and their bow waves continue to propagate. The water has not separated from the boats, the bow waves have. In the Bullet Cluster collision the galaxy's associated dark matter displacement waves have separated from the colliding galaxies, causing the light to lense

May 20, 2019

'Scientists Thought All Galaxies Had Dark Matter, but They Just Found One Without It'
https://www.smith...0968628/

> "Analysis shows the ultra-diffuse DF2 lies about 6.5 million light years away and is roughly the same size as our own Milky Way galaxy, but contains 200 times fewer stars."

The reason for the mistaken notion the galaxy is missing dark matter is that the galaxy is so diffuse that it doesn't displace the supersolid dark matter outward and away from it to the degree that the dark matter is able to push back and cause the stars far away from the galactic center to speed up.

It's not that there is no dark matter connected to and neighboring the visible matter. It's that the galaxy has not coalesced enough to displace the supersolid dark matter to such an extent that it forms a halo around the galaxy.

May 20, 2019
A galaxy's halo is not a clump of dark matter traveling with the galaxy. A galaxy's halo is displaced supersolid dark matter.

May 20, 2019
Why is it a supersolid and not a superfluid?

May 20, 2019
I'm sorry, I'm poking fun. A Supersolid is not a substance, it is a state of matter. When we discuss superfluid helium (as an example) we are discussing the state of helium and the properties it has in that state.

So when you say darkmatter is a supersolid, what exactly is supersolidified?

May 20, 2019
So when you say darkmatter is a supersolid, what exactly is supersolidified?


A superfluid would be displaced equally everywhere by the Earth and would not cause gravity.

The further you get from the Earth the less the supersolid dark matter is displaced by the Earth, similar to how the further from the Earth you get the less spacetime is curved by the Earth.

Displaced supersolid dark matter *is* curved spacetime.

More correctly, what is referred to geometrically as curved spacetime physically exists in nature as the state of displacement of the supersolid dark matter.

May 20, 2019
'NASA's Gravity Probe B Confirms Two Einstein Space-Time Theories'
http://www.nasa.g...lts.html

> "Imagine the Earth as if it were immersed in honey. As the planet rotates, the honey around it would swirl, and it's the same with space and time"

Honey has mass and so does the supersolid dark matter. The swirl is the state of displacement of the dark matter connected to and neighboring the Earth.

The supersolid dark matter displaced by the Earth, pushing back and exerting pressure toward the Earth, is gravity.

May 20, 2019

'Physicists analyze rotational dynamics of galaxies and influence of the photon mass'
https://www.teche...s/21340/

> "the mass of photons, which are particles of light is responsible for the rotational dynamics of galaxies"

Dark matter is a sea of massive photons which are displaced by ordinary matter. The sea of massive photons displaced by the Earth, pushing back and exerting pressure toward the Earth, is gravity. The state of displacement of the sea of massive photons is the quanitization of gravity.

May 20, 2019
I have many questions to ask, but before I do, could you clarify for me the properties of a supersolid?

May 20, 2019
A supersolid has properties of both a fluid and a solid. It has the additional property of there being no loss of energy in the interaction of an object with it.

'Robert B. Laughlin, Nobel Laureate in Physics, endowed chair in physics, Stanford University, had this to say:'
https://en.wikipe...m_vacuum

> "space is more like a piece of window glass than ideal Newtonian emptiness. It is filled with 'stuff'"

Think of the Earth as being able to move through a piece of window glass. The Earth is able to displace the glass it is connected to and neighbors.

You roll a bowling ball through a supersolid. The bowling ball requires energy to displace the supersolid. The supersolid returns the same amount of energy to the bowling ball as it 'displaces back' (ie. fills in where the bowling ball had been).

Q. Is the bowling ball displacing the supersolid or is the supersolid displacing the bowling ball?
A. Both occur simultaneously with equal force.

May 20, 2019
Dark matter and Black holes interact to produce a spray of comment-particles, some real, most imaginary.

May 20, 2019
So when you say darkmatter is a supersolid, what exactly is supersolidified?
A superfluid would be displaced equally everywhere by the Earth and would not cause gravity...
Kron, when you ran that answer through a filter-paper, was there any filtrate at the bottom of paper? Would a non-polar solvent help?

May 20, 2019
So when you say darkmatter is a supersolid, what exactly is supersolidified?


A superfluid would be displaced equally everywhere by the Earth and would not cause gravity.

The further you get from the Earth the less the supersolid dark matter is displaced by the Earth, similar to how the further from the Earth you get the less spacetime is curved by the Earth.

Displaced supersolid dark matter *is* curved spacetime.

More correctly, what is referred to geometrically as curved spacetime physically exists in nature as the state of displacement of the supersolid dark matter.


ANY FLUID is displaced by Matter, while Fluids are subjected to Gravity, whether on or off any planet or galaxy. Fluidity is a CONDITION whose properties depend on its thickness, weight, smoothness as its ability to flow, volatility and other factors. If it becomes a Solid, its ability to flow is limited to some degree. e.g. water ice. It isn't possible for Dark Matter to be a Solid.

May 20, 2019
It isn't possible for Dark Matter to be a Solid.


It's not a solid, it's a supersolid.

May 20, 2019
ANY FLUID is displaced by Matter, while Fluids are subjected to Gravity, whether on or off any planet or galaxy. Fluidity is a CONDITION whose properties depend on its thickness, weight, smoothness as its ability to flow, volatility and other factors. If it becomes a Solid, its ability to flow is limited to some degree. e.g. water ice. It isn't possible for Dark Matter to be a Solid.
I think he/she is trying to say it's a sort of non-Newtonian solid, like Oobleck (starch in water, dispersion), or proposing a sort of 'dense-Aether' theory where the the Aether is incredibly dense, but having zero viscosity, like superfluid helium.

May 20, 2019
I think he/she is trying to say it's a sort of non-Newtonian solid, like Oobleck (starch in water, dispersion), or proposing a sort of 'dense-Aether' theory where the the Aether is incredibly dense, but having zero viscosity, like superfluid helium.


Which is obviously bollocks.

May 20, 2019
I'm saying displaced dark matter is curved spacetime.

May 20, 2019
Dark matter is only found in spiral galaxies. NONE detected in elliptical galaxies. That should be enough info to conclude the effect of holding spiral galaxies together is from the motion of the stars in the galaxy for some still UNKNOWN reason.

Though the Great Attractor, where our local galaxy cluster is all moving towards is a very interesting mystery.

May 20, 2019
It isn't possible for Dark Matter to be a Solid.


It's not a solid, it's a supersolid.
says Bob West

There is no such condition as a SUPERSolid. There are certain limitations to the conditions of fluidity or solidity. Nature and the Natural condition doesn't allow for a limitless or infinite excesses of Matter/Energy to occur. That is the Laws of Nature and the quantum universe abides by those Laws also. They cannot be corrupted.
Like the concept of Time in Spacetime, your SuperSolid Matter is merely a figment of someone's overworked imagination, sad to say.

May 20, 2019
> "There is no such condition as a SUPERSolid."

Dark matter is a supersolid. The state of displacement of the supersolid dark matter is gravity. Displaced dark matter is curved spacetime.

May 20, 2019
Axions, do they exist

The Axion
is a hypothetical elementary particle
postulated by the Peccei–Quinn theory in 1977
to resolve the strong CP problem
in quantum chromodynamics

Several experiments
search for astrophysical axions
by the Primakoff effect
which converts axions to photons
and vice versa in electromagnetic fields
Axions can be produced in the Sun's core
when X-rays scatter in strong electric fields
The CAST solar telescope is underway
and has set limits on coupling to photons and electrons

May 20, 2019
ANY FLUID is displaced by Matter, while Fluids are subjected to Gravity, whether on or off any planet or galaxy. Fluidity is a CONDITION whose properties depend on its thickness, weight, smoothness as its ability to flow, volatility and other factors. If it becomes a Solid, its ability to flow is limited to some degree. e.g. water ice. It isn't possible for Dark Matter to be a Solid.
I think he/she is trying to say it's a sort of non-Newtonian solid, like Oobleck (starch in water, dispersion), or proposing a sort of 'dense-Aether' theory where the the Aether is incredibly dense, but having zero viscosity, like superfluid helium.
says danR

:) I KNOW that you had to have said that with "tongue-in-cheek", right? LOL

May 20, 2019
ANY FLUID is displaced by Matter, while Fluids are subjected to Gravity, whether on or off any planet or galaxy. Fluidity is a CONDITION whose properties depend on its thickness, weight, smoothness as its ability to flow, volatility and other factors. If it becomes a Solid, its ability to flow is limited to some degree. e.g. water ice. It isn't possible for Dark Matter to be a Solid.
I think he/she is trying to say it's a sort of non-Newtonian solid, like Oobleck (starch in water, dispersion), or proposing a sort of 'dense-Aether' theory where the the Aether is incredibly dense, but having zero viscosity, like superfluid helium.
says danR

:) I KNOW that you had to have said that with "tongue-in-cheek", right? LOL
In any event, I must be wrong. He/she says it's curved space-time. We're going to chase this thing down definitional rat-holes. (I meant the helium had zero-viscosity, btw...but not incredible density of course)

May 20, 2019
> "There is no such condition as a SUPERSolid."

Dark matter is a supersolid. The state of displacement of the supersolid dark matter is gravity. Displaced dark matter is curved spacetime.
So, dark matter is continous, not discrete? Is it granular at the Planck scale, or is it jello all the way down...

May 20, 2019
'Physicists analyze rotational dynamics of galaxies and influence of the photon mass'
https://www.teche...s/21340/

> "the mass of photons, which are particles of light is responsible for the rotational dynamics of galaxies"

Dark matter is a sea of massive photons which are displaced by ordinary matter. The sea of massive photons displaced by the Earth, pushing back and exerting pressure toward the Earth, is gravity. The state of displacement of the sea of massive photons is the quanitization of gravity.

May 20, 2019
It actually sounds like the article question is whether the MBH at the center of our galaxy is still (super dense) matter or possibly a (super dense) glob of axions with a cloud of them escaping massive gravity accumulation and still floating around the galaxy...
Personally, I think we are all a little to focused on particle action vs force action.
Think about how the force of gravity, travelling at the speed light is disseminated by billions of spinning bodies...

mwr
May 20, 2019
I'll be honest with you, we don't know if dark matter exists. It was invented to explain a conundrum in physics.

May 20, 2019
In search of black holes and dark matter astrophysicists are relying on indirect observations. It would seem that the measurement of the event horizon of a black hole directly would be a direct evidence. However, by the nature of a horizon, any real measurement of the event horizon will be indirect. The Event Horizon Telescope will get picture of the silhouette of the Sgr A* which is due to optical effects of spacetime outside of the event horizon. The result will be determined by the simple quality of the resulting image that does not depend on the properties of the spacetime within the image. So, it will be also indirect and an existence of BH is a hypothesis.
https://www.acade...ilky_Way
https://www.acade...k_Energy

May 20, 2019
Though the Great Attractor, where our local galaxy cluster is all moving towards is a very interesting mystery.


Local galaxy clusters are bound by BARYCENTRIC orbital mechanics. Half of the group is moving towards the center while half is moving away from the center. All the galaxies cannot ALL be moving towards the center at the same time, that is not the manner barycentric orbital mechanics works.

May 20, 2019
I'll be honest with you, we don't know if dark matter exists. It was invented to explain a conundrum in physics.


And that "halo" that purportedly surrounds the Milky Way is simply an Artist's Impression.
Why? The reason is that the actual purported "halo" has never actually been photographed and lives only in the vivid imaginations of Dark Matter aficionados who cannot bear the thought that the halo isn't real. So they hire artists to make pictures showing that a "halo' exists to placate all those who believe in it...and KEEP them believing it. It is the 'religion of the halo' known as Dark Matter.

May 20, 2019
I'll be honest with you, we don't know if dark matter exists. It was invented to explain a conundrum in physics.
Actually, back on Earth, five conundrums (condrumei?) But since you don't know any science, you wouldn't know that

May 21, 2019
Conundra ;-)

May 21, 2019
"WE (emphasis added) KNOW (emphasis added) that dark matter is out there, since we can see its obvious gravitational influence on everything from galaxies to the evolution of the entire universe, but we don't know what it is. Our best guess is that it's some sort of weird new particle that doesn't like to talk to normal matter very often (otherwise, we would have seen it by now)."

Real scientists don't talk like this; propagandists talk like this; real scientists and honest scientific reporters talk about beliefs based on best evidence and theory.

Time to revisit the red shift and the big bang, apparently since the theory is such a dog they have to push it with neo-epicycles like "dark matter" and propagandist mouthpieces announcing absolute truths, not to mention commentator trolls to bolster the "conventional wisdom." lol.

May 21, 2019
Ummmm, as usual @Jax, since you don't know any science you left out at least two of the conundrums: galaxy rotation dynamics and galaxy cluster dynamics. Help if you could keep your eye on the ball.

May 21, 2019
...

Real scientists don't talk like this; propagandists talk like this; real scientists and honest scientific reporters talk about beliefs based on best evidence and theory.

Time to revisit the red shift and the big bang, apparently since the theory is such a dog they have to push it with neo-epicycles like "dark matter" and propagandist mouthpieces announcing absolute truths, not to mention commentator trolls to bolster the "conventional wisdom." lol.

Correct on so many counts, but if one lives in the fish bowl created by the neo-epicycles, then one will not be able to derive any new and useful theories. It may take a generation for the fish bowl scientists to fade away before any real theories get entertained.

May 21, 2019
Three generations have passed. We're getting into the fourth.

You were saying?

May 21, 2019
I see where astrophysicist (as he is besides his educational videos and articles) Sutter comes from, he notes that the Standard Model parameters can be any value. But if they are zero (or one, c.f. the minimum necessary number of quark/lepton generations to make an atom), it implies some sort of symmetry.

In that case I have misunderstood the axion/CP symmetry solution. I assumed there was nothing forcing parameters away from zero. But you need a CP symmetry breaking to make the matter/antimatter symmetry breaking in the Hot Big Bang era by way of the Sakharov conditions [ https://en.wikipe...ogenesis ]. Currently that looks to happen in the neutrino sector, but it is a very weak statistics (2+ sigma) and it has been claimed to be 5 years before we will know either way.

Nice that Da Schneib is here, we have had some analysis over it, and now I can present my error at once.

- tbctd -

May 21, 2019
So my sloppy assumption was akin to how people accepted the old notion of a zero vacuum energy "just because". In that case the likelihood for axions being a dark matter component goes up. The new mystery for me is that axions do not leave the strong force perfectly CP symmetric.

Dark matter and Black holes interact to produce a spray of comment-particles, some real, most imaginary.


I hear you. The worst part is that I have never had a conceptual image of possible black hole properties inside the event horizon - I can't say the recent firewall debate helped - as you may and may have noticed my standing comment "whatever it is". But some odds and ends happened to come together, and I stumbled on one, a variant of an already published one I found out.

This is not the article to discuss it under, unfortunately. Just wanted to confirm your observation and feel good about it (FWIW) before reality hits (as in, where did I mess up? *that* many years of studies to check it? etc.).

May 21, 2019
I'll be honest with you, we don't know if dark matter exists. It was invented to explain a conundrum in physics.


It is better if you will be honest with yourself, because you just made a false claim that you need to check up on and face head on. Dark matter has, like cosmology, about a century of observational history, and it is considered one of the robust pillars of current cosmology, observed in many ways and used by successful cosmological models [ https://en.wikipe...k_matter ]. Its contenders are mostly gone and there is no successful cosmological model not based on dark matter - we know it exists.

Some of the many different and complementary vast data sets observing dark matter are [ibid]: Galaxy rotation curves, Velocity dispersions, Galaxy clusters, Gravitational lensing, Cosmic microwave background, Structure formation, Cluster collisions, Distance measurements, Baryon acoustic oscillations, Redshift-space distortions, Lyman-alpha forest.

- tbctd -

May 21, 2019
- ctd -

The easiest way to see dark matter *for yourself* is described here: https://galileosp...niverse/ .

Go down to the text surrounding figure 3 and measure the matter and matter+dark matter peaks yourself and check that DM is 5 times M in the entire universe. It should take you a few minutes at most!?

May 21, 2019
It's all theoretical at the moment. No one knows What Dark Matter is. Dark matter is not a thing it is a missing mass value. The search is about finding what that value represents. Many theories are out there postulating what this value could be. One way of solving is to modify the equations that work in all other physical situations we calculate. Simple solution but having the variance between observed nature, and projected or modeled nature opens a scientific window, it shows we could possibly have a physical reality surrounding us that we don't perceive in the standard way we are used to, like via capture of electromagnetic waves. *(New equipment used to capture gravitational shake is a huge aid and will play a major roll in future scientific discoveries.)

May 21, 2019
No, it's all observational at the moment. We see galaxies moving in ways that we cannot account for if we accept their visible mass as their mass. There must be something else, and since we can't see it we call it "dark." And since the only thing we know of that has gravity is matter, we call it "matter."

May 21, 2019

'The Milky Way's dark matter halo appears to be lopsided'
http://arxiv.org/abs/0903.3802

> "the dark matter halo of the Milky Way is dominantly lopsided in nature."

The Milky Way's halo is lopsided due to the ordinary matter in the Milky Way moving through and displacing the supersolid dark matter, analogous to a submarine moving through and displacing the water.

STR
May 21, 2019
Dark Matter is actually the tears of puppies and kittens, mixed with the hopes and dreams of socialists.

It's equally as valid a theory as any of the other guesses on DM and BH's.

May 21, 2019
'Offset between dark matter and ordinary matter'
http://arxiv.org/abs/1004.1475

> "the gravitational potential in clusters is mainly due to a non-baryonic fluid"

The center of the light lensing through the space neighboring the galaxy clusters and the center of the galaxy clusters themselves is offset due to the galaxy clusters moving through and displacing the supersolid dark matter, analogous to submarines moving through and displacing the water.

May 21, 2019
Physically, if our calculations of nature are correct we can define what dark matter can be by allowing it to be the things we know. We might not be able to see it but that sets a limit, we know it doesn't register in the electromagnetic spectrum we are perceptive to.

So one solution: Dark matter is a physical particle that doesn't emanate any electromagnetic waves. Or emanating waves so Weakly/Strongly that it falls out of the bounds of our spectrum.

So drawn from the observed (missing mass) and non-observed (invisible mass) we get a postulate. This is a simple general solution which I suspect is correct to a point. Deeper in the quantum realm there have been many discoveries. Discovered fields, like Higgs; Electromagnetic; etc, show potential.

Solution 2: Dark Matter is a quantum field phenomenon.


May 21, 2019
Dark Matter is actually the tears of puppies and kittens, mixed with the hopes and dreams of socialists.
Honestly, dark matter and black holes are librul massive cunspirasies by teh siensetis?

Seriously?

The only question is whether you're drunk, insane, or high on shrooms.

May 21, 2019
Dark Matter is actually the tears of puppies and kittens, mixed with the hopes and dreams of socialists.
Honestly, dark matter and black holes are librul massive cunspirasies by teh siensetis?

Seriously?

The only question is whether you're drunk, insane, or high on shrooms.
.......and "seriously" schneibo, what else can anyone imagine Pop-Cosmology fantasy like yours is all about?

Anyone like you who believes infinite gravity can exist on a finite BH stellar mass is someone aptly described as being on "shrooms", this because this kind of stuff cannot exist within the reality of the immutable laws of real science & physics.

May 21, 2019
Displaced dark matter is curved spacetime.

May 21, 2019
If the Universe is a single or infinite (or anywhere inbetween) interlaced series of fields, these fields open to excitations. If we have a field excitation (like a particle) in one location in the field it creates tension spanning the entire field. This is principle of field theory. Field tension. Why this is important? Field tension produces a non-zero value in the field. From one single particle in the field we get the equivalent of that particles energy through the rest of the field in the form of a tensor.

So Dark Matter could potentially be field excitations

May 21, 2019
@Kron, you are speculating along lines that look very much like Mach's Principle, which you should look up.

May 21, 2019
What you refer to as "field tension" is the state of displacement of the supersolid dark matter.

STR
May 21, 2019
Dark Matter is actually the tears of puppies and kittens, mixed with the hopes and dreams of socialists.
Honestly, dark matter and black holes are librul massive cunspirasies by teh siensetis?

Seriously?

The only question is whether you're drunk, insane, or high on shrooms.


I would counter your question with one of my own- do you lack a sense of humour or is your head so far up...?

May 21, 2019
Anyone like you who believes infinite gravity can exist on a finite BH stellar mass is someone aptly described as being on "shrooms", this because this kind of stuff cannot exist within the reality of the immutable laws of real science & physics.


Anyone who doesn't understand the difference between mass and volume should refrain from lecturing others on "real science" and physics.

May 21, 2019
Axions, do they exist

In particle physics
Peccei–Quinn theory is a well-known proposal for the resolution of the strong CP problem
formulated by Roberto Peccei and Helen Quinn
this theory proposes that the QCD Lagrangian be extended with a CP-violating term known as the θ Experiments have never measured a value for θ, its value must be small if it exists.

Peccei–Quinn theory predicts this small θ parameter is explained by a dynamic field
Because particles arise within quantum fields
Peccei–Quinn theory predicts the existence of a new particle, the axion
The potential which this field carries causes it to have a value which naturally cancels
making the θ parameter uneventfully zero.

Peccei–Quinn symmetry presents θ as a functional component
This symmetry is spontaneously broken by the vacuum expectation value obtained by this scalar field
The axion is the massless Goldstone boson of this broken symmetry.

May 21, 2019
Goldstone Bosons

In particle and condensed matter physics Goldstone bosons
that appear necessarily in models exhibiting spontaneous breakdown of continuous symmetries
were discovered by Yoichiro Nambu in the context of the BCS superconductivity mechanism
subsequently elucidated by Jeffrey Goldstone

Spinless bosons correspond to the spontaneously broken internal symmetry generators
are characterized by the quantum numbers of these
they transform nonlinearly under the action of these generators
can thus be excited out of the asymmetric vacuum by these generators
that are thought of as the excitations of the field in the broken symmetry directions in group space
Are massless, if spontaneously broken symmetry, is not also broken explicitly

If the symmetry is not exact
it is explicitly broken as well as spontaneously broken
then the Nambu–Goldstone bosons are not massless
though they typically remain relatively light
Called pseudo-Goldstone bosons or pseudo-Nambu–Goldstone bosons

May 21, 2019
Spinless bosons

In quantum mechanics, a boson is a particle that follows Bose–Einstein statistics
Bosons make up one of the two classes of particles
the other being fermions
the name boson was coined by Paul Dirac to commemorate the contribution of Indian physicist
and professor of physics at University of Calcutta
and at University of Dhaka
Satyendra Nath Bosein developing, with Albert Einstein
Bose–Einstein statistics—which theorizes the characteristics of elementary particles

Bosons include fundamental particles such as
Photons, gluons, and W and Z bosons, the four force-carrying gauge bosons of the Standard Model
The recently discovered Higgs boson and the hypothetical graviton of quantum gravity

May 21, 2019
@Da Schneib
@torbjorn_b_g_larsson
@mwr.

@mwr said:
I'll be honest with you, we don't know if dark matter exists. It was invented to explain a conundrum in physics.
@Da Schneib responded to @mwr thusly:
Actually, back on Earth, five conundrums (condrumei?) But since you don't know any science, you wouldn't know that
...and then... @torbjorn_b_g_larsson also responded to @mwr thusly:
It is better if you will be honest with yourself, because you just made a false claim that you need to check up on and face head on.
Guys, if you had read the above article properly, you should have realised that @mwr was merely posting an opinion in the ARTICLE; he was NOT stating his own opinion! So, as true gentlemen of science and humanity, you owe @mwr an apology for your insulting remarks based on your own failures to read the article properly and see that it was the author of that article who wrote the relevant sentence re "a conundrum in high-energy physics". Cheers. :)

mwr
May 21, 2019
Actually, I paraphrased the article to make my own (opinion) point. Which is that, contrary to what the article author said, we don't know if dark matter exists. It was invented to explain a conundrum in physics. I just (gently) repurposed his words.

May 21, 2019
@mwr.
Actually, I paraphrased the article to make my own (opinion) point. Which is that, contrary to what the article author said, we don't know if dark matter exists. It was invented to explain a conundrum in physics. I just (gently) repurposed his words.
Yes, that was obvious to me; as 'axions' are 'exotic' dark matter, an both are in doubt. In any case, welcome and enjoy your further (hopefully polite and enlightening) commentary and discourse here at PO, @mwr. :)

May 21, 2019
ps @mwr.

The 'dark matter' is ordinary stuff, being found in increasing profusion all over in many states of motion/excitation etc. The problem is that the myth of 'exotic' dark matter persists due to the confusion that 'dark matter' "must be exotic stuff" and not 'ordinary' previously-faint matter now being increasingly 'seen' by better and better scopes etc. Myths and 'zombie facts' die hard, don't they? :)

May 21, 2019
Anyone like you who believes infinite gravity can exist on a finite BH stellar mass is someone aptly described as being on "shrooms", this because this kind of stuff cannot exist within the reality of the immutable laws of real science & physics.


Anyone who doesn't understand the difference between mass and volume should refrain from lecturing others on "real science" and physics.
.....well then, that counts Schneibo out, he can't even figure the answer to 2+2/2= ? without having to punt to Benni. Maybe dance boy can help him?

May 21, 2019
Actually, I paraphrased the article to make my own (opinion) point. Which is that, contrary to what the article author said, we don't know if dark matter exists. It was invented to explain a conundrum in physics. I just (gently) repurposed his words.
But it's not a single conundrum. It's five different conundra (tip o' the hat to @SkyLight) all solved by the same hypothesis. And it's astrophysics, not physics or astronomy.

You keep saying the same thing and it never gets truer.

May 21, 2019
You keep saying the same thing and it never gets truer.
......we've noticed this about you, always the next name calling rant instead of continuing working on your life's greatest endeavor, the solution for, 2 +2/2=?

May 21, 2019
The answer is 3. It always has been and you've been told this before.

@Benni always lies about what anyone says. It has no pride and doesn't care if it's caught lying.

May 21, 2019
The answer is 3. It always has been and you've been told this before.

@Benni always lies about what anyone says. It has no pride and doesn't care if it's caught lying.
says Da Schitthead

I see that you are telling LIES about Benni again. You have been "bearing false witness" against Benni and others for many years now. Your soul is getting blacker with every lie you've told, and your self-condemnation increases each time. That pleases your lord and master, Beelzebub aka Satan. It lets him know that your worship of him is sincere.
Have no worry, Schneib. My staff will not handle you gently as we take you to your rightful place in hellllllll!! I promise!!

May 21, 2019
@Satan, he just said it.

What are you whining about now?

May 21, 2019
@Satan, he just said it.

What are you whining about now?
says Schneib

Calling on your lord and master, Satan aka Beelzebub will do you no good. He will also join you and your flock of blasphemers in Helllll!! You have already gone too long with your telling LIES about the innocent ones, and your sins are unforgivable. So be it.

May 22, 2019
@Da Schneib
@mwr.
Actually, I paraphrased the article to make my own (opinion) point. Which is that, contrary to what the article author said, we don't know if dark matter exists. It was invented to explain a conundrum in physics. I just (gently) repurposed his words.
But it's not a single conundrum. It's five different conundra (tip o' the hat to @SkyLight) all solved by the same hypothesis. And it's astrophysics, not physics or astronomy.

You keep saying the same thing and it never gets truer.
As I already pointed out in my first post to you et al 23 hours ago above, DS, the term "a conundrum" was used by the author of the article; and @mwr merely used same in his paraphrasing post expressing his own opinion re the existence or not of dark matter. So if you have a beef about the singular "a conundrum", you should take it out on the article author, not @mwr. Ok? :)

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