Using Thoreau, scientists measure the impact of climate change on wildflowers

March 15, 2019, University of Tennessee at Knoxville

A new study published in Ecology Letters is using observations made by Henry David Thoreau—19th-century American naturalist, social reformer, and philosopher—to explore the effects of climate change on tree leaf-out and, as a result, the emergence of spring wildflowers.

The paper was coauthored by Susan Kalisz, head of the University of Tennessee, Knoxville's Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, and Mason Heberling, a National Science Foundation postdoctoral research fellow affiliated with UT. Researchers from the University of Maine, Boston University, and Syracuse University also participated in the research.

The study draws on scientific observations initiated by Thoreau in Concord, Massachusetts, in the 1850s. These observations, combined with current research, include tree and wildflower leaf-out dates measured for 37 separate years between 1852 to 2018.

"Leaf-out" refers to the time of spring in which a species of plant begins producing leaves. A change in the timing of this stage has downstream consequences for other elements of the ecosystem.

Temperatures in Concord have warmed by 3 degrees Celsius (5 degrees Fahrenheit) over the past century. In this same time period, tree and wildflower leaf-out dates have shifted significantly.

"Wildflowers are now leafing out about one week earlier than 160 years ago, but the trees are leafing out two weeks earlier," said Caitlin McDonough MacKenzie of Boston University. "Understory wildflowers need the sunny conditions before the trees leaf out for their energy budgets."

To understand the impact that tree leaf-out could have on wildflower growth, the research team compared the Concord observations to photosynthesis data collected by Heberling and Kalisz in a forest in Fox Chapel, Pennsylvania, as part of a long-term field experiment.

"Long-term research is invaluable for detecting changes that cannot be quantified over shorter time scales," said Kalisz.

By adapting these measurements, the team calculated how temperature-driven shifts in tree leaf-out have affected wildflowers from Thoreau's time until now.

"Combining our work from Pittsburgh with Thoreau's data revealed an overlooked yet critical implication of how our changing climate is affecting native wildflowers beloved by so many people" Heberling said.

The combined analysis shows that wildflowers and differ in the way their leaf-out patterns respond to climate change, and those differences could already be hindering wildflower abundance and flowering, with greater effects in coming years.

As the climate warms, the window of time between wildflower emergence and tree leaf-out will likely shorten further, leaving less time to photosynthesize in the spring. Current climate models predict a temperature increase of 2.5 to 4.5 degrees Celsius (4 to 8 degrees Fahrenheit) in the northeastern US by 2080—potentially more than double the temperature increase that has been observed over the past century.

Explore further: Walden trees leafing out far earlier than in Thoreau's time

More information: J. Mason Heberling et al, Phenological mismatch with trees reduces wildflower carbon budgets, Ecology Letters (2019). DOI: 10.1111/ele.13224

Related Stories

Walden trees leafing out far earlier than in Thoreau's time

January 14, 2014

Climate-change studies by Boston University biologists show leaf-out times of trees and shrubs at Walden Pond are an average of 18 days earlier than when Henry David Thoreau made his observations there in the 1850s. However, ...

Climate-driven evolution in trees alters their ecosystems

March 6, 2019

A new study published in Global Change Biology and coauthored by researchers from UT, explores how climate, evolution, plants, and soils are linked. The research is the first to show how climate-driven evolution in tree populations ...

Global warming increases risk of frost damage to trees

August 10, 2018

Climate change is bringing with it not only drier summers, but warmer springs too. This causes trees and shrubs to bud earlier, making them vulnerable to late frost, as ETH forest scientists have now proven.

Recommended for you

A decade on, smartphone-like software finally heads to space

March 20, 2019

Once a traditional satellite is launched into space, its physical hardware and computer software stay mostly immutable for the rest of its existence as it orbits the Earth, even as the technology it serves on the ground continues ...

Tiny 'water bears' can teach us about survival

March 20, 2019

Earth's ultimate survivors can weather extreme heat, cold, radiation and even the vacuum of space. Now the U.S. military hopes these tiny critters called tardigrades can teach us about true toughness.

Researchers find hidden proteins in bacteria

March 20, 2019

Scientists at the University of Illinois at Chicago have developed a way to identify the beginning of every gene—known as a translation start site or a start codon—in bacterial cell DNA with a single experiment and, through ...


Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.