Giant X-ray 'chimneys' are exhaust vents for vast energies produced at Milky Way's center

Giant X-ray 'chimneys' are exhaust vents for vast energies produced at Milky Way's center
Galactic chimneys (yellow-orange areas) are centered on the supermassive black hole at the center of our galaxy. (This is a false-color image; white patches indicate spots where unrelated, bright X-ray sources have been removed from the image.) Credit: Gabriele Ponti/MPE/INAF and Mark Morris/UCLA

The center of our galaxy is a frenzy of activity. A behemoth black hole—4 million times as massive as the sun—blasts out energy as it chows down on interstellar detritus while neighboring stars burst to life and subsequently explode.

Now, an international team of astronomers has discovered two exhaust channels—dubbed "galactic center chimneys"—that appear to funnel matter and away from the cosmic fireworks in the Milky Way's center, about 28,000 light-years from Earth.

Mark Morris, a UCLA professor of astronomy and astrophysics, contributed to the research, which will be published March 21 in the journal Nature.

"We hypothesize that these chimneys are exhaust vents for all the energy released at the center of the galaxy," Morris said.

All are giant star-forming factories, but their productivity can vary widely—from one galaxy to the next and even over the course of each galaxy's lifetime. One mechanism for throttling the rate of star production is the fountain of matter and energy whipped up by the heavyweight black hole that lurks at a galaxy's center.

"Star formation determines the character of a galaxy," Morris said. "And that's something we care about because produce the heavy elements out of which planets—and life—are made."

To better understand what becomes of that outflow of energy, Morris and his colleagues pointed the European Space Agency's XMM-Newton satellite, which detects cosmic X-rays, toward the center of the Milky Way. Because X-rays are emitted by extremely hot gas, they are especially useful for mapping energetic environments in space.

In images they collected from 2016 to 2018 and in 2012, the researchers found two plumes of X-rays—the galactic center chimneys—stretching in opposite directions from the central hub of the galaxy. Each plume originates within about 160 light-years of the supermassive black hole and spans over 500 light-years.

The chimneys hook up to two gargantuan structures known as the Fermi bubbles, cavities carved out of the gas that envelops the galaxy. The bubbles, which are filled with high-speed particles, straddle the center of the galaxy and stretch for 25,000 light-years in either direction. Some astronomers suspect that the Fermi bubbles are relics of massive eruptions from the supermassive black hole, while others think the bubbles are blown out by hordes of newly born stars. Either way, the chimneys could be the conduits through which high-speed particles get there.

Understanding how energy makes its way from a galaxy's center to its outer limits could provide insights into why some galaxies are bursting with whereas others are dormant.

"In extreme cases, that fountain of energy can either trigger or shut off star formation in the galaxy," Morris said.

Our galaxy isn't quite that extreme—other galaxies have fountains powered by central weighing a thousand times more than ours—but the Milky Way's center provides an up-close look at what might be happening in galaxies that are more energetic.

"We know that outflows and winds of material and energy emanating from a galaxy are crucial in sculpting and altering that galaxy's shape over time—they're key players in how galaxies, and other structures, form and evolve throughout the cosmos," said lead author Gabriele Ponti of the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics in Garching, Germany. "Luckily, our galaxy gives us a nearby laboratory to explore this in detail, and probe how material flows out into the space around us."

Morris said the centers of the nearest galaxies are hundreds to thousands of times farther away than our own. "The amount of energy coming out of the center of our galaxy is limited, but it's a really good example of a galactic center that we can observe and try to understand," he said.


Explore further

Image: Hubble sets sights on a galaxy with a bright heart

More information: An X-ray chimney extending hundreds of parsecs above and below the Galactic Centre, Nature (2019). DOI: 10.1038/s41586-019-1009-6 , https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-019-1009-6
Journal information: Nature

Citation: Giant X-ray 'chimneys' are exhaust vents for vast energies produced at Milky Way's center (2019, March 20) retrieved 21 April 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-03-giant-x-ray-chimneys-exhaust-vents.html
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Mar 20, 2019
The center of our galaxy is a frenzy of activity. A behemoth black hole—4 million times as massive as the sun—blasts out energy as it chows down on interstellar detritus while neighboring stars burst to life and subsequently explode.
... "galactic center chimneys"—that appear to funnel matter and energy away from the cosmic fireworks in the Milky Way's center, about 28,000 light-years from Earth.

Ah, the life of a committed merger maniac is surely growing ever more difficult with recent observations. See my comments under: (or dream on of fantasy)
https://phys.org/...ing.html
https://phys.org/...tml#nRlv
https://phys.org/...ies.html
https://phys.org/...ars.html
https://phys.org/...ano.html


Mar 20, 2019
So basically instead of projecting X-rays and gamma rays in all directions, our black hole is sending them out along the galactic axes, preventing them from disturbing star formation. So we have a galaxy that doesn't destroy life before it can get started.

Gotcha.

Mar 20, 2019
Tis a full moon and the witches are broomsticking tonight

Blackholes eject matter out their spin-axis into two 25,000Ly star forming Fermi-bubbles

This astounding postulation is as old as the hills
but
Astounding as it seems
all this highly astounding enormous activity
the 1000Lys of accretion discs
this blackhole itself
two 25,000Ly Fermi-bubbles
millions of starlets in Fermi nurseries
Gamma rays running amok

None of this is visible
absolutely nothing is visible
As we watch the Orion nebulas starlets in creation
but come back to our highly active spin-jet blackhole
absolutely nothing
zilch
how can we put this more explanatory
there could not be any less activity
if
Our blackhole had never existed in the first place

Mar 20, 2019
These "galactic center chimneys" (LOL) are plasma ignoramus speak for the Birkeland currents at the center of the galaxy.

Mar 20, 2019
There are a lot of cosmic structures - cavities with tenuous, high temperature gas. The nomenclature of these cavities is not finally established yet, but in general there are cavities with a characteristic size of 10 pc – bubbles, about 100 pc – superbubbles, and extended up to 1 kpc or more – supershells. There are a lot of global outflows in our and other star-forming galaxies that percolate galactic disk and are streaming away in galactic halo. These are so called chimneys, fountains, winds and high velocity clouds. All of these structures have an enigmatic nature. In this paper we offer the mechanism which explains their nature in the uniform manner that is based on our original elaston model of the space. [1, 2]
https://www.acade...nd_Winds

Mar 20, 2019
Okay. three of the loomeyticks
& Da Schneib had their turns, Now it's my turn into the scrum.

Oh DaS, trifle bite of anthropomorphic there?
& you are offended by my devotion to my patroness
Trickster Coyote Goddess?

It is obvious that this article was a clumsy rewrite of the original material. No need to belabor my opinions on that.

So, I will be checking out DOI: 10.1038/s41586-019-1009-6 , https://www.natur...articles

Meanwhile, I will belabor my opinions that the x-ray "chimneys" are being produced by the accretion disk orbiting the singularity_BH_SO_
whatthehellisthat?

With more sophisticated technology we will find other, maybe similar, maybe a random range of Galaxies that are also manifesting the x-ray "chimneys" phenomena.
Maybe even variations in high-powered radiation detected? Why not across the spectrum?

From materials ejected from their accretion disks.
Simple Newtonian Physics of "for every action there is an equal & opposite reaction.

Mar 20, 2019
@rrwillsj, are you surprised to find humans in a galaxy that hasn't been subjected to X-ray and gamma radiation while we were evolving?

Mar 20, 2019
Horrified perhaps?
Waiting our turn to be fried?

The greatest possibility for sophont evolution is billions of years of inhabiting a quiescent galaxy.
Yet what do we observe?

Not looking good for even the most pessimistic interpretation of the Fermi Paradox. When you consider how active most large galaxies are? This early in the evolution of the Universe.

No reason for optimism.

I'm just going to stick with cynicism that there is a high probability that the Drunkard's Walk is about to step on us!

Mar 20, 2019
Okay, I just read the abstract & there are obvious errors in the article posted to phys.oeg. I urge you to check it out for yourself.

zThe most important mistake in the article posted here was to cl;aim the chimneys are projecting from the Galactic Center i.e. from the singularity.

The abstract puts the exhales from near but around the Center Bubble.
I opinionate that at least part of the energies of the chimneys are a result of accretion disk material in a cosmic furball of hooliganism.

Mar 20, 2019
These "galactic center chimneys" (LOL) are plasma ignoramus speak for the Birkeland currents at the center of the galaxy.


So what's your theory then? Birkeland currents pop out of free space and power galaxies?
You never have a conclusion. Just claim everyone is a plasma ignoramus, yet you have no clue about Generalized Ohms Law in Plasmas, and no theory.

Mar 21, 2019
Theory? old_coot, do you know the numerous definitions of theory? The multitude of constantly shifting meanings?

Right now since you asked my favorite is my Theory of Stupid Design. That the Universe is dominated by stochastic processes.
I also favor the efforts to create a verifiable Theory of Quantum Gravity. Even if it turns out totally useless.

But that's not really the intention of your comment. Actually you want affirmation for your implausable stupefied
LAWS FOSSILIZING A WOOLOONEY BIZARRO UNIVERSE.

Guess I'm an outlaw at heart. Cause I don't believe any of these categories defining reality will survive more then a trillion or so years before all the rules & regulations we invent, break down. Then, all that will be left? Will be vast, hyper-dense conglomerations of gravitons.
All those piddling petty forces of EM/WN/SN/plasma/aether , all Matter & Energy will be long gone.
Nothing to see here folks but Gravity. Implacable, enduring unweary Gravity.

Mar 21, 2019
Cyclones become chimneys, ha, ha!
American Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics
http://www.scienc...80603.13
With the increase of speed of rotation (including faster orbits of stars and changing the structure in the centers of galaxies) there is also the increase of intensity and quantity of radiation coming from the openings of a cyclone on the poles of a central structure of our galaxy..
The emissions of radiation are measured on the poles that are to 30.000 ly and more far from each other and that proves the existence of cyclones (cyclones and whirls on stars). Cyclones (the eye of a cyclone) are the places of occurrence for all occurrences that have ever been measured (radiation emissions, star formations, etc.). They are formed due to the rotation of an object – and galaxies, especially their centers, rotate.

Mar 21, 2019
Just claim everyone is a plasma ignoramus, yet you have no clue about Generalized Ohms Law in Plasmas, and no theory.

You are clearly a plasma ignoramus given your repeated claims that electric currents cannot flow through space, in direct conflict with observation. And yes, there is a theory and your willful ignorance doesn't change that fact.

Mar 21, 2019
"We know that outflows and winds of material and energy emanating from a galaxy are crucial in sculpting and altering that galaxy's shape over time—they're key players in how galaxies, and other structures, form and evolve throughout the cosmos," said lead author Gabriele Ponti of the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics in Garching, Germany. "Luckily, our galaxy gives us a nearby laboratory to explore this in detail, and probe how material flows out into the space around us."

Translated to non-plasma ignoramics;
"We are finally understanding due tov direct observation that electric currents drive these processes and it is high time we get around to describing this system properly using real plasma physics.

BTW, the z-pinch is clearly pointed out in the image above.

Mar 21, 2019
You are clearly a plasma ignoramus given your repeated claims that electric currents cannot flow through space,


Fool. I never said currents don't flow in space. You pretend they are the cause of everything, not an effect.


Mar 21, 2019
What I observe in these comments, is that many people conflate "Similar" with "Identical" "Interchangeable" "equivalent".

A b-day party helium balloon is "Similar" to a Navy patrol helium blimp. But they are not "equivalent". Though, since they both use the same gas for lift? you could make an argument for "interchangeable".

Yeah, that's how wickedly perverse my sense of humor is. Cause I'd go for that Duff Beer gusto just to annoy my debating opponent.

A star is "similar" to a planet. In that both consist of Matter. Even if the star is a trifle excessively energetic. But obviously not "identical". Even though both star & planet consist of "identical" elements.
{snicker} sorry, private joke...

Each Human Being is "equivalent" of every other Human Being. Even if not "interchangeable" nor "identical"
However, they are "similar" in that they are conceived, born, live & die.

Mar 21, 2019
These "galactic center chimneys" (LOL) are plasma ignoramus speak for the Birkeland currents at the center of the galaxy.


Stop lying.

Mar 21, 2019
"We know that outflows and winds of material and energy emanating from a galaxy are crucial in sculpting and altering that galaxy's shape over time—they're key players in how galaxies, and other structures, form and evolve throughout the cosmos," said lead author Gabriele Ponti of the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics in Garching, Germany. "Luckily, our galaxy gives us a nearby laboratory to explore this in detail, and probe how material flows out into the space around us."

Translated to non-plasma ignoramics;
"We are finally understanding due tov direct observation that electric currents drive these processes and it is high time we get around to describing this system properly using real plasma physics.

BTW, the z-pinch is clearly pointed out in the image above.


Nope, another lie. Why do you comment on things that you clearly have no grasp of?

Mar 21, 2019
Actually, it is exactly what they are saying. From the abstract;
"Evidence has mounted in recent decades that outflows of matter and energy from the central few parsecs of our Galaxy have shaped the observed structure of the Milky Way on a variety of larger scale."

Outflows of plasma equals electric currents, which carries energy (electrical), as they state. And just as Peratt has modeled, those electric currents do shape the observed structure of the Milky Way.
https://www.plasm...ormation

RNP
Mar 22, 2019
Outflows of plasma equals electric currents,........


This is one of your most obvious misconceptions. If the plasma is quasi-neutral, like most plasma (see https://www.plasm...rality), there is NO net current and therefore no induced magnetic field.

Mar 22, 2019
sorry cant but there is an old engineering rule that covers the subject of all particulate matter.
ahem...
You cannot PUSH water.
You have to PULL water.

trouble is cant? you sit in your bath, playing with your little rubber ducky,
pushing it around the tub as you utter chirps of glee.

then you assume that the rest of the universe operates the same. You just lack the capacity to understand the scale of reality.

Mar 22, 2019
If the plasma is quasi-neutral, like most plasma, there is NO net current and therefore no induced magnetic field.

There are many misconceptions regarding plasma, that quasi-neutrality means there is no currents is one of them.
Part of a primer on plasmas;
"While all matter is subject to gravitational forces, the positively charged nuclei, or ions, and the negatively charged electrons react strongly to electromagnetic forces, as formulated by James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879) and Hendrik Antoon Lorentz (1853-1928). because of this strong interaction with electromagnetism, plasmas display a compexity in structure that far exceeds that found in matter in the gaseous, liquid, or solid states. In addition to the cellular structure, most visible to us on the Sun, plasmas most often display a filamentary structure...."

TBC...

Mar 22, 2019
Cont...

"...This structure drives from the fact that plasma, becaue ot its free electrons, is an excellent conductor of electricity, far exceeding the conducting properties of metals such as copper or gold.... Wherever charged particles flow in a neutralizing medium, such as free electrons in a background of ions, the charged particle flow or current produces a ring of magnetic field around the current, pinching the plasma into multi-filamentary strands of conduction currents."

https://plasmauni...tml#what

The charges don't "cancel out", this isn't an equation on a chalkboard.

Mar 23, 2019
Yes because obviously the barycenter is producing magic energy from jebus.

Mar 23, 2019
The charges don't "cancel out", this isn't an equation on a chalkboard.


Yes they do, over the order of the Debye sphere, as any plasma physicist would tell you. Without bothering to look at the densities implied in these outflows, I don't know what that is in this case. However, it won't be far. Yet again, you are making things up despite being totally incompetent in the subject area.

Mar 23, 2019
"the charged particle flow or current produces a ring of magnetic field around the current, pinching the plasma into multi-filamentary strands of conduction currents."


Which looks like this on the large scale;
https://3c1703fe8...wind.jpg

Mar 23, 2019
"the charged particle flow or current produces a ring of magnetic field around the current, pinching the plasma into multi-filamentary strands of conduction currents."


Which looks like this on the large scale;
https://3c1703fe8...wind.jpg


No it doesn't. You are making things up again. Stop lying.

Mar 23, 2019
"We hypothesize that these chimneys are exhaust vents for all the energy released at the center of the galaxy," Morris said.

The level of ignorance regarding plasma physics among astrophysicists is astounding, jonesdumb level of ignorance. Chimneys, exhaust vents...These plasma ignoramuses are playing with their rubber duckies pretending they have a clue trying to relate these plasma processes with what they can see from their mom's basement. Ooh, Billy, doesn't that look like mommy and daddy's chimney, and that one looks like Uncle Bob's exhaust vents... Pathetic!

Mar 23, 2019
"We hypothesize that these chimneys are exhaust vents for all the energy released at the center of the galaxy," Morris said.

The level of ignorance regarding plasma physics among astrophysicists is astounding, jonesdumb level of ignorance. Chimneys, exhaust vents...These plasma ignoramuses are playing with their rubber duckies pretending they have a clue trying to relate these plasma processes with what they can see from their mom's basement. Ooh, Billy, doesn't that look like mommy and daddy's chimney, and that one looks like Uncle Bob's exhaust vents... Pathetic!


Pathetic creature. You know nothing about plasma physics, and are therefore in no position to comment on it, you clueless poser.

Mar 23, 2019
What I observe in these comments, is that many people conflate "Similar" with "Identical" "Interchangeable" "equivalent".

I like "analogous"...
then you assume that the rest of the universe operates the same. You just lack the capacity to understand the scale of reality

I think reality of scale is more appropriate...

Mar 23, 2019
oh cant, really? you cant control your self long enough to hold even a single rational thought?

Those "structures" you are enamored with are NOT real.
No, truly, those plasmastaticelectrippingaethrwoo "structures" do not exist.
What you are imagining you are envisioning are particles & photons getting haplessly pulled everywhichway by a myriad of nearby Gravitational Attractors.

Similar, NOT equivalent, to standing on a street corner when a large truck passes by at a good speed.
Suddenly sucking up all the leaves & trash around you & Pulling it about you.
"Hey!" You yell. Upset because you just had the suit your wearing dry-cleaned!

Out here in reality, where "Push" , all the different forms of "Push" are very weak when compared to the remorseless, never runs out of fuel, never stops or turns off, unflagging "Pull".

Mar 23, 2019
What you are imagining you are envisioning are particles & photons getting haplessly pulled everywhichway by a myriad of nearby Gravitational Attractors.

So you would rather ignore observation and continue along with your erroneous beliefs, sounds kinda religiousy.

Similar, NOT equivalent, to standing on a street corner when a large truck passes by at a good speed

There you go with your rubber duckies applying your own ill-conceived beliefs.

"...because of this strong interaction with electromagnetism, plasmas display a compexity in structure that far exceeds that found in matter in the gaseous, liquid, or solid states."

It's nothing like your truckie, this is plasma. Your claims are misdirected and should be directed at you.

Mar 23, 2019
"...because of this strong interaction with electromagnetism, plasmas display a compexity in structure that far exceeds that found in matter in the gaseous, liquid, or solid states."


Stop quoting from your sacred texts. It is irrelevant here. They are not currents, and nobody is claiming that they are.


Mar 23, 2019
Stop quoting from your sacred texts. It is irrelevant here

So this isn't plasma? That is what the "scared text" is describing, plasma behaviour. The currents are a natural occurrence of all inhomogeneous plasmas, as is stated. I quote this information due to the pervasive ignorance of plasma, shared by the astrophysicists and posters alike.

Mar 23, 2019
Stop quoting from your sacred texts. It is irrelevant here

So this isn't plasma? That is what the "scared text" is describing, plasma behaviour. The currents are a natural occurrence of all inhomogeneous plasmas, as is stated. I quote this information due to the pervasive ignorance of plasma, shared by the astrophysicists and posters alike.


Stop talking crap. That is a very vague statement, and says nothing about currents. What is forming them? How are they being sustained? What is the evidence for them? What are they supposed to be doing? In scientific, please, not pseudoscience word salad. Equations, mechanisms, EMF, observations, outcome. Get on with it.

Mar 23, 2019
Huh, that is an interesting quandary for cant,
While preaching that BH_SO do not exist, because those are invisible.
Now you are asking him to describe invisible magical mechanics of spazzplasmics?

Man! his ouiija board is going to melt down doing those calculations!

Mar 23, 2019
That is a very vague statement, and says nothing about currents.

I guess the words "conduction currents" is a bit complex for you.

What is forming them?

Words are difficult for you, aren't they?
"the positively charged nuclei, or ions, and the negatively charged electrons react strongly to electromagnetic forces...the charged particle flow or current produces a ring of magnetic field around the current, pinching the plasma into multi-filamentary strands..."

How are they being sustained?

Ions and electrons flowing due to reacting strongly to electromagnetic forces.

What is the evidence for them?

The filaments, cells, and radiation among others.

What are they supposed to be doing?

An ever ongoing process to maintain quasi-neutrality in a sea of inhomogeneous plasmas.


Mar 23, 2019
^^^^So, another non-answer. No mechanism, no evidence, no observation. You keep making stuff up. Stop it. You haven't got a clue about the subject. Who has written this up? That every moving plasma is a giant current? Show me, or shut up. You really are clueless.

Mar 23, 2019
So, another non-answer. No mechanism, no evidence, no observation.

Right, words are just a bit too much for your brain cell.

Mar 23, 2019
So, another non-answer. No mechanism, no evidence, no observation.

Right, words are just a bit too much for your brain cell.


Word salad is the phrase you are looking for. You don't understand the first thing about the subject, and have almost certainly not read the paper. You have never studied plasma physics, and have never published on it, or anything else. You are a clueless layman on a comments section. You believe Earth used to orbit Saturn! You are a scientifically illiterate clown. Why would anybody listen to any of your cultish rubbish?

Mar 23, 2019
Why would anybody listen to any of your cultish rubbish?


For the same reason you feel compelled to stalk me and respond with comments in the attempt to obfuscate the true nature of plasma. You are scared to admit your gravity only Einsteinian pseudoscientific maths claptrap is dead and Electric and Plasma Cosmology is the future of the space sciences.

Mar 23, 2019
Why would anybody listen to any of your cultish rubbish?


For the same reason you feel compelled to stalk me and respond with comments in the attempt to obfuscate the true nature of plasma. You are scared to admit your gravity only Einsteinian pseudoscientific maths claptrap is dead and Electric and Plasma Cosmology is the future of the space sciences.


Hahahahahahahahaha! Lol. How long has that unscientific, Veilkovskian crap been going? Over 2 decades? Accomplishments? Zero. Impact? Zero. Valid science produced? Zero. Number of plasma/ astrophysicists on board? Zero. Failures? Too many to mention.

Mar 23, 2019
For the same reason you feel compelled to stalk me.....


Lol. Paranoid, much? I'll post in response to any pseudo/ anti-science trolls spewing BS. You just happen to spew more than most. Except Benni, and I hardly avoid him, eh?

Mar 24, 2019
Oh, Castrogiovanni, you are just too polite, too courteous to benni & cant & the rest of the clown car of looneytick woofakirs that infest the phys.org forum.

These vermin scum, partners of child-killing antivaxxers & the denialist cheerleaders for greed driven anti-science cultists.

Deserve no more than the back of your hand.
& while they are down,
cowering on the floor?
Bleating for their mommies.

Whip it out & piss on the useless prats.
So they can emulate the strumpet's WH team
& the executive committees for the RNC & NRA.
Video stars being pissed on by Moscow whores.
Man, I'll bet putin & kim are sharing a bucket of popcorn
as they hoot & holler pointing & laughing at the videos of the weewillies dribbling on themselves as the Moscow whores spray trumpeneella's face.

Now see Castro? This is how you deal with the altright fairytails.
Splattering them right back with their own venomous methods.

Butt with humouresque.
They are Buffoon after all.

Mar 24, 2019
Oh, Castrogiovanni, you are just too polite, too courteous to benni & cant

jonesdumb has shown his true colors, he got himself banned due to his unrepentant vulgarity. Saying he is too polite is a joke.

Mar 25, 2019
well buffoon-who-cant, the jokes are on you & yes, we are all laughing & jeering your displays of ignorance.

Mar 25, 2019
well cant, since you are singularly blessed with the psychotic powers using the super tech of your ouiija board
"conduction currents"

A joke for your self-awareness.
Of the psychic medium who used an old camera to take photos of ghosts at her seances.
The antique started to fall apart, & she takes it to a camera shop for repair.

A few weeks later after taking the repaired camera home?
She returns, complaining that the camera had been ruined by the repairman.

He listens to her tirade until he realizes what she was actually complaining about.
He takes the camera into the back.
Where he sticks a needle into the cloth folding mechanism, poking tiny holes in it.

He returns the "adjusted" camera to her.
Promising the adjustment will allow her to photograph spirits again.
After using it at her next seance?
She returned to his shop to gush how marvelous the camera was working.
"Better than ever!"

So cant, your ouiija board
helps you "see" "conduction currents"?

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