Experience of black doctoral students underscores need to increase diversity in STEM fields

The danger and risk of riding out a storm is symbolic of the decision black men make to pursue a graduate degree in engineering. They do so knowing they will face challenges, but the barriers described by black men who shared their experiences as part of a six-year study show how race was a greater obstacle than they expected.

Brian Burt, lead author and an assistant professor in Iowa State University's School of Education, says it is a fitting analogy because these young men faced turbulent times as a result of structural inequalities and a lack of support from faculty and colleagues to weather the storm. Insight from the research is valuable in reversing the trend of underrepresented students and employees in all STEM fields, he said.

Burt and co-authors Krystal Williams, University of Alabama; and William Smith, University of Utah, interviewed 21 pursuing engineering graduate degrees at a research university. Several common themes detailed structural racism within the university, which led to unfair treatment, unwelcoming environments or isolation and unnecessary strain on black graduate students. These factors significantly affect a student's ability to succeed, Burt said.

"There's an assumption that students drop out of an engineering program because they couldn't cut it. That the problem is an individual flaw," Burt said. "Our research shows the main challenges these students faced were beyond their control. They were systemic, structural, historic and rooted in a legacy of science that is counterproductive for broadening student participation in STEM."

Collective high school (3.66) and college (3.58) GPAs show students in the study were strong academically. Black male graduate enrollment across the university was less than 2 percent during the study. A majority of the study participants had parents who went to college, including four with mothers and three with fathers who had doctorates.

The paper, published in the American Educational Research Journal, includes portions of student interviews that describe what it meant to be one of a few or the only black in class. It affected everything from difficulty finding and joining a study group to feeling constant pressure to prove they belonged in the program.

"People are naturally going to want to be around people who look like them," Marcus, a third-year Ph.D. candidate in mechanical engineering, told researchers. "As a black man in engineering, I don't have that camaraderie. So, I am forced to immediately look outside of my comfort zone in order to find people who I can study with, talk with and have overall support."

Some students told researchers they considered leaving their program because of the negativity they faced. Many said they received discouraging messages from their advisers that ranged from passive-aggressive to explicit challenges regarding their ability to perform doctoral-level work. The ripple effect of these actions can affect generations, said Williams.

"If negative experiences cause black men to leave doctoral engineering programs, that hurts national efforts to broaden participation in these fields," Williams said. "It limits the number of black faculty who will train the next generation of engineers and diversify the future pool of researchers and scientists. It also has implications for national security, innovation and technological advancements because different perspectives may be excluded."

Death by a thousand cuts

The discrimination students experienced was overt at times, but they most often had to deal with racial microaggressions, researchers found. Those included verbal comments or behaviors, intentional and unintentional, which came across as hostile or derogatory. Other researchers have described the effect of racial microaggressions as "death by a thousand cuts" – the individual comment or action may seem minor, but the cumulative effect is harmful.

"Race is this constant thought process in which black students are often asking, 'Is this because of my race?' It's exhausting. This is not just happening in the research lab, but it happens in the classroom and study groups, or when looking for a place to eat," Smith said.

Taking corrective action

If colleges and universities are serious about increasing and retaining the number of underrepresented graduate students in STEM fields, faculty, administrators and staff need to investigate existing policies and recruitment strategies that may have unintended consequences, researchers said. Burt recommends the following steps:

  • Get rid of assumptions that there are no qualified black candidates to become faculty members
  • Improve recruitment and retention by admitting more black students
  • Implement programs to help students learn how to interact with students from other cultures

Implementing change at the graduate level will lead to short-term and long-term benefits, Burt said. Not only will it help recruit and retain black graduate students; it also will increase the number of black engineers working in the field and teaching on college campuses.

"We need more black males at the highest level to serve as models for younger generations. If there were more black scientists and engineers, I can only imagine how that would shape a child's mind," Burt said. "It also would bring to the table people with unique skills and insights based on their backgrounds to help address some of the world's most vexing problems."

Explore further

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More information: Brian A. Burt et al. Into the Storm: Ecological and Sociological Impediments to Black Males' Persistence in Engineering Graduate Programs, American Educational Research Journal (2018). DOI: 10.3102/0002831218763587
Citation: Experience of black doctoral students underscores need to increase diversity in STEM fields (2018, April 10) retrieved 23 May 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-04-black-doctoral-students-underscores-diversity.html
This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.

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Apr 10, 2018
Basically just "science", engaging in the propaganda it calls "anti scientific".
Among other things, blacks are always and only right. Even when they do things whites would be criticized for.
For example, if someone is "feeling constant pressure to prove they belong in a program", they're spending too little time doing things that are worthy.
A black student says, "People are naturally going to want to want to be around people who look like them". If a white said that, they'd be called "racist"!
It's declared that some black students "received discouraging messages" from advisers, stating they can't handle doctoral-level work. And note that it's assumed that the messages are purely due to "racism" and not the fact that the blacks can't perform as well as whites.
The parents of students in the study who got advanced degrees likely were given them so the school wouldn't be called "racist"!

Apr 10, 2018
Data in "The Bell Curve" indicate that black, white and Hispanic people of similar IQ have the same academic and salary outcomes. If that is the case, then the information in this article should have included the average IQ of the participants. I would be very inclined to believe in discrimination, if the IQ levels were similar. It would be the best way to absolutely prove discrimination. Lacking that information, there is no means to judge whether or not there was discrimination.

Apr 10, 2018
The above comments are exactly describing the problem. That neither commentator has the self-honesty to admit, even to themselves, that they lack the capacity of intellect to comprehend another person's viewpoint.

They do not want to confront their own fears that a blind-competition would expose that they may be the inferior person. So of course they defend a rigged game.

Which is hilarious when you listen to their bombast about how their innate superiority of 'White Boys-Club Culture'. Sustained by denial of honest competition for those who are showing a few too many melanin pigments.

If this was an article about Women in STEM programs? These very same commentators would be proclaiming their perception of the perceived inferiority of double-X chromosomes.

Contradicting their claim that "Them Colored Folks" are racially inferior and not deserving of opportunity.

Apr 10, 2018
"systemic, structural, historic and rooted in a legacy of science that is counterproductive for broadening student participation in STEM." is meaningless nonsense. Science requires real data not vague opinions and ex cathedra pronouncements. What systemic racism ? How is manifested ? What structural racism ? What are the structures ? Are they there for any reason other than keeping the black man down ? Micro aggressions, feeling uncomfortable or being forced to go outside one's comfort zone are all entirely subjective. I dont come to this website to read racists sociology drivel. This is a worthless, purely political paper,

Read more at: https://phys.org/...y.html#j

Apr 10, 2018
Well, mrburns, those structures are also there to keep the 'red man' down. You just don't hear about that as often.

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