Six degrees of separation: Why it is a small world after all

October 19, 2017, University of Leicester
social network
Social network diagram. Credit: Daniel Tenerife/Wikipedia

It's a small world after all - and now science has explained why. A study conducted by the University of Leicester and KU Leuven, Belgium, examined how small worlds emerge spontaneously in all kinds of networks, including neuronal and social networks, giving rise to the well-known phenomenon of "six degrees of separation".

Many systems show complex structures, of which a distinctive feature is small-world organization. They arise in society as well as ecological and protein networks, the networks of the mammalian brain, and even human-built networks such as the Boston subway and the World Wide Web.

The researchers set out to examine whether this is a coincidence that such structures are so wide-spread or is there a common mechanism driving their emergence?

A study recently published in Scientific Reports by an international team of academics from the University of Leicester and KU Leuven showed that these remarkable structures are reached and maintained by the network diffusion, i.e. the traffic flow or information transfer occurring on the network.

The research presents a solution to the long-standing question of why the vast majority of networks around us (WWW, brain, roads, power grid infrastructure) might have a peculiar yet common structure: small-world topology.

The study showed that these structures emerge naturally in systems in which the information flow is accounted for in their evolution.

Nicholas Jarman, who recently completed his PhD degree at the Department of Mathematics, and is first author of the study, said: "Algorithms that lead to small-world networks have been known in scientific community for many decades. The Watts-Strogatz algorithm is a good example. The Watts-Strogatz algorithm, however, was never meant to address the problem of how small-world structure emerges through self-organisation. The algorithm just modifies a network that is already highly organised."

Professor Cees van Leeuwen, who led the research at KU Leuven said: "The network diffusion steers network evolution towards emergence of complex network structures. The emergence is effectuated through adaptive rewiring: progressive adaptation of structure to use, creating short-cuts where is intensive while annihilating underused connections. The product of diffusion and adaptive rewiring is universally a small-world structure. The overall diffusion rate controls the system's adaptation, biasing local or global connectivity patterns, the latter providing a preferential attachment regime to adaptive rewiring. The resulting small-world structures shift accordingly between decentralised (modular) and centralised ones. At their critical transition, network is hierarchical, balancing modularity and centrality - a characteristic feature found in, for instance, the human brain."

Dr Ivan Tyukin from the University of Leicester added: "The fact that diffusion over network graph plays crucial role in keeping the system at a somewhat homeostatic equilibrium is particularly interesting. Here we were able to show that it is the process, however small or big gives rise to small-world network configurations that remain in this peculiar state over long intervals of time. At least as long as we were able to monitor the network development and continuous evolution".

Alexander Gorban, Professor in Applied Mathematics, University of Leicester commented:

"Small-world networks, in which most nodes are not neighbours of one another, but most nodes can be reached from every other node by a small number of steps, were described in mathematics and discovered in nature and human society long ago, in the middle of the previous century. The question, how these networks are developing by nature and society remained not completely solved despite of many efforts applied during last twenty years. The work of N. Jarman with co-authors discovers a new and realistic mechanism of emergence of such networks. The answer to the old question became much clearer! I am glad that the University of Leicester is a part of this exciting research."

Explore further: A new method provides better insights into real-world network evolution

More information: Nicholas Jarman et al, Self-organisation of small-world networks by adaptive rewiring in response to graph diffusion, Scientific Reports (2017). DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-12589-9

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5 / 5 (1) Oct 19, 2017
The group for the article "SCIENTISTS SEE ORDER IN COMPLEX PATTERNS OF RIVER DELTAS" could learn much from collusion with the group from this article.
"Diffusion" and "breakdown" [oh wait, they didn't say breakdown, I am] of the "emergence" makes smaller networks which they call, here, "small world" -- which indeed it is [world = cosmos]
Love it! Its COSMIC! [What kismet for two articles with differing perspectives on the same phenomenon to be in the same mailing of a newsletter; was that planned?]
not rated yet Oct 20, 2017
I don't think it's kismet, I actually see such articles here and elsewhere all the time. The problem is that over-specialization makes the patterns across domains invisible to those inside each domain-- the hidden large scale of the small scale-- can't see the forest for all the trees. Of course, the branching of trees and their roots and of the fungi, microbes and other organisms/processes connected "down" and "out" to infinity are also examples of this so that's both literal and figurative.

Order emerges spontaneously from evolving disorder-- this has long been an idea that many in science have danced around without stopping on-- hopefully more interest will be expressed in following up on chaos theory, fractals, strange attractors, basis in initial conditions, and all the other as yet to be discovered aspects of this mysterious and multifaceted Universal phenomenon that seems to underlie everything with what has happened since the Big Bang possibly being just one iteration.
not rated yet Oct 24, 2017
Well, I hope someone from this site can tell the group of the other article--since both are on the same site and letter.

I can't agree about science skirting the idea, they are the ones that have proven it. Emergence, diffusion are not just subjective observations, they are scientifically evident in society, history, physics, evolution of the species, even thought, and group thought. The only reason I know about them is due to my studies of science, while I may be able to see patterns of repeating comparability, it is science that has jumped in on it all fours and proved it.

Isn't whole mindeness a blast, seeing all those connections.

Order from disorder to disorder that is actually ordered at a smaller cosmic level: incense smokes straight up in a stream in stagnant air; the stream gets longer then collapses in a seemingly chaotic diffusion, but the diffusion makes it's own order; the smoke streams again. Science proved that both emergence and diffusion are not so chaotic.

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