Better odour recognition in odour-colour synaesthesia

August 21, 2017, Radboud University

People who see colours while perceiving smells are better at distinguishing between different smells and different colours, and are better at naming odours, compared to a group without synaesthesia. Researchers from Radboud University have found this result.

"For centuries olfaction has been considered unimportant for humans, and people in the West are poor at naming odours," Dr Laura Speed, researcher at the Radboud University's Centre for Language Studies, remarks. "Yet there are individuals who experience vivid colour associations when they odours."

Rare: odour-colour synaesthesia

Synaesthesia is an extraordinary phenomenon where a sensation in one of the senses, such as hearing, triggers a sensation in another, such as taste. Letter-colour is the most common form, where people see letters as having colours, thought to be experienced by around 60% of people with synaesthesia. In comparison, -colour synaesthesia is more unique, with only 6% of people with synaesthesia having visual experiences when they smell odours.

Laura Speed—a psychologist interested in the relationship between and perception—and Professor Asifa Majid—a linguist with a special interest in the diversity of languages, cultures and minds, are currently engaged in studying our ability to name smells. They wondered if individuals with odour-colour synaesthesia might differ to people without synaesthesia in the way they think and talk about smells. "Could it be the case that having extra associations between colour and odour somehow helps language related to odour?"

Difficult: discriminating smells, naming odours

Speed and Majid asked synaesthetes and non-synaesthetes to name everyday odours on two separate days, and took established tests of odour and colour perception. The results provide evidence of better perception for both odours and colours. This is the first time improved in the sense that induces synaesthesia (smell), and the sense in which the synaesthesia is experienced (colour) has been documented.

"Synaesthetes are better at discriminating colours and smells, and in naming odours", Speed explains. "We demonstrate humans have greater potential abilities in odour language and thought than is usually observed for typical Western subjects. This is important evidence to understand the human sense of smell, our most neglected sense."

Explore further: App to test synaesthesia

More information: Laura J. Speed et al. Superior Olfactory Language and Cognition in Odor-Color Synaesthesia., Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance (2017). DOI: 10.1037/xhp0000469

Related Stories

App to test synaesthesia

April 1, 2015

Four in hundred people have a special mix up of their senses, called synaesthesia. A new app from Radboud University contains four playful tests for synaesthesia. Should you happen to have synaesthesia, you might be invited ...

Reading in two colours at the same time

March 9, 2011

The Nobel prize-winning physicist Richard Feynman once wrote in his autobiographical book (What do you care what other people think?): "When I see equations, I see letters in colors - I don't know why [...] And I wonder what ...

Seeing red -- in the number 7

October 22, 2008

Hypnosis can induce synaesthetic experiences – where one sense triggers the involuntary use of another – according to a new study by UCL (University College London) researchers. The findings suggests that people with ...

Recommended for you

Great Welsh science helps solve pollinator puzzle

April 18, 2018

Welsh scientists piecing together the giant jigsaw puzzle of plant pollination are a step closer to knowing how it all fits thanks to a new paper by Swansea University PhD researcher Andrew Lucas.

Sharp claws helped ancient seals conquer the oceans

April 18, 2018

If you've ever seen seals frolicking in the water, you know they are agile swimmers, with perfectly adapted paddle-like limbs. But if you think those flippers are just for swimming, then think again.

New Zealand's large moa did not disperse large seeds

April 18, 2018

A new study about New Zealand's extinct moa, involving acid baths and concrete mixers, by researchers from the University of Canterbury and Landcare Research, has revealed a surprising finding about their ability to disperse ...

0 comments

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.