The first galaxies were even more violent than expected

June 30, 2017, EWASS
The first galaxies were even more violent than expected
M82, a nearby galaxy showing strong galactic winds. The early universe must have contained many more galaxies like this, or with even stronger activity.  X-ray data (Chandra) appears in blue; infrared light (Spitzer) appears in red; visual data (Hubble telescope) appears in orange and yellow-green. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/STScI/CXC/UofA/ESA/AURA/JHU

An international team of researchers has shown that the hot diffuse gas that fills the space between the galaxies has the same concentration of iron in all galaxy clusters that were studied in sufficient detail by the Japanese Suzaku satellite. It seems that most of the iron inside the intergalactic gas arose long before the first clusters of galaxies were formed. The results will be presented this Friday at the annual meeting of the European Astronomical Society, EWASS2017, in Prague, Czech Republic by Norbert Werner, leader of the MTA-Eötvös University Lendület "Hot universe" research group in Budapest, Hungary and associate professor at the Masaryk University in the Czech Republic and Hiroshima University in Japan.

The team studied the hot gas permeating ten nearby clusters of galaxies and showed that the concentration of chemical elements is about the same in all of them – a third of that observed in our Sun.

These results confirm earlier indications, which suggested that most of the iron in the universe was produced and spread throughout before formed, more than 10 billion years ago. The iron, and many other elements, was blown out of galaxies by the combined energy of billions of supernovae, as well as outbursts from growing .

Only hydrogen, helium, and trace amounts of lithium were produced during the big bang. Most of the elements that we are made of were forged inside stars and released by stellar explosions called supernovae. How well are the elements spread through the intergalactic space has long been an open question.

"If these elements were produced relatively recently, astronomically speaking, then we would expect a different concentration of iron from cluster to cluster. The fact that the distribution of iron appears so homogeneous, indicates that it has been produced by some of the first stars and galaxies that formed after the ," says Ondrej Urban, the first author of the study who has been a PhD student at Stanford University when he performed the extensive data analysis presented in the study.

"The remarkably uniform distribution of iron also means that the combined energy of many supernovae and the jets and winds of accreting supermassive black holes were able to mix the elements thoroughly across the universe," says the corresponding author of the study, Norbert Werner.

The results are accepted for publication in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.

Explore further: Researchers show how universe's violent youth seeded cosmos with iron

More information: O. Urban et al. A uniform metallicity in the outskirts of massive, nearby galaxy clusters, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2017). DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stx1542 ; On Arxiv:

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2.6 / 5 (10) Jun 30, 2017
The fact that the distribution of iron appears so homogeneous, indicates that it has been produced by some of the first stars and galaxies that formed after the big bang,"

Said the committed merger maniac, unable to consider any other explanation that contradicts the Huge Bang Fantasy.
Jun 30, 2017
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1 / 5 (4) Jul 01, 2017
What? Didn't Inflation cause the iron to be homogeneous? Superluminal iron seems as logical as everything else being proposed.
4 / 5 (4) Jul 02, 2017
Didn't Inflation cause the iron to be homogeneous?

No. There was no iron in the Universe when inflation occurred, it has all been made in stars SINCE inflation.
Superluminal iron seems as logical as everything else being proposed.

This statement is NOT logical. What in the name of all reason is "superluminal iron"?!!!
not rated yet Jul 02, 2017

I'm of the view the universe is infinite and eternal. Measures of space, based on radiation, expand between galaxies inversely proportional to measures of space, based on gravity, that fall into them. Resulting in overall flat space. Logically it would seem to be more of a cosmic convection cycle.
One of the problems I see, with Big Bang theory, is when they first realized galaxies are redshifted directly proportional to distance, making our point appear as the center of this expanding universe, the argument became that space itself is expanding, because "spacetime." Which overlooks the central premise of GR, that the speed of light remains Constant to the space. If it is taking light longer to cross, than it is not Constant to the space between galaxies. More lightyears, not expanding lightyears. So there has to be this underlaying metric, i.e., "vacuum," distinct from the expanding universe, which remains the basis of the speed of light.
5 / 5 (1) Jul 02, 2017
We are the center of our point of view, so looking for an optical explanation might be a useful scientific exercise.
Instead, every time observations don't match predictions, they add another enormous new force of nature, from inflation to dark energy. How can you falsify anything that way? It's not science.
5 / 5 (1) Jul 02, 2017
If redshift is optical, than beyond a certain point, all visible light is shifted into the radio spectrum, explaining the CMBR as the solution to Olber's paradox.
5 / 5 (1) Jul 02, 2017
Superluminal iron

The smell of 'crank' is strong in this one.
Jul 02, 2017
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