Scientists predict the existence of a new boson: New Madala boson might assist in the understanding of dark matter

September 6, 2016, Wits University
A computer-generated image of the LHC particle accelerator at CERN in the tunnel originally built for the LEP accelerator that was closed in 2000. Credit: CERN

Scientists at the High Energy Physics Group (HEP) of the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg predict the existence of a new boson that might aid in the understanding of Dark Matter in the Universe.

Using data from a series of experiments that led to the discovery and first exploration of the Higgs boson at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) in 2012, the group established what they call the Madala hypothesis, in describing a new boson, named as the Madala boson. The experiment was repeated in 2015 and 2016, after a two-and-a-half year shut-down of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The data reported by the LHC experiments in 2016 have corroborated the features in the data that triggered the Madala hypothesis in the first place.

"Based on a number of features and peculiarities of the data reported by the experiments at the LHC and collected up to the end of 2012, the Wits HEP group in collaboration with scientists in India and Sweden formulated the Madala hypothesis," says Professor Bruce Mellado, team leader of the HEP group at Wits.

The Wits Madala project team consists of approximately 35 young South African and African students and researchers who are currently contributing to the understanding of the data coming out of the LHC experiments, along with phenomenological investigations from theorists such as Prof. Alan Cornell and Dr. Mukesh Kumar and support in the area of detector instrumentation from Prof. Elias Sideras-Haddad (all from Wits University).

Real CMS proton-proton collisions events in which 2 high energy electrons and two high energy muons are observed. Credit: Taylor L; McCauley T/CERN

The hypothesis describes the existence of a new boson and field, similar to the Higgs boson. However, where the Higgs boson in the Standard Model of Physics only interacts with known matter, the Madala boson interacts with Dark Matter, which makes about 27% of the Universe.

"Physics today is at a crossroads similar to the times of Einstein and the fathers of Quantum Mechanics," says Mellado. "Classical physics failed to explain a number of phenomena and, as a result, it needed to be revolutionised with new concepts, such as relativity and quantum physics, leading to the creation of what we know now as modern physics."

The theory that underpins the understanding of fundamental interactions in nature in modern physics is referred to as the Standard Model of Physics. With the discovery of the Higgs boson at the LHC in 2012, for which the Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded in 2013, the Standard Model of Physics is now complete. However, this model is insufficient to describe a number of phenomena such as Dark Matter.

Scientists are seen working on the inside of the ATLAS cryostat. Credit: Claudia Marcelloni/CERN

The universe is made of mass and energy. The mass that we can touch, smell and see, the mass that can be explained by the Higgs boson, makes up only 4% of the mas-energy budget of the Universe. The rest of the mass in the Universe is simply unknown, yet it makes about 27% of the world around us. The next big step for the of fundamental interactions now is to understand the nature of Dark Matter in the Universe: what is it made of? How many different types of particles are there? How do they interact among each other? How does it interact with the known matter? What can it tell us about the evolution of the Universe?

The discovery of the Higgs at the LHC at CERN has opened the door into making even more ground-breaking discoveries, such as the observation of new bosons that are linked to forces and particles unknown before. These new particles can explain where the unknown matter in the Universe comes from.

"With the Madala hypothesis predictions of striking signatures are made, that is being pursued by the young scientists of the Wits HEP group." Some of these scientists include Dr. Deepak Kar and Dr. Xifeng Ruan, two new academic staff in the group, who have years of expertise at the LHC.

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physman
4.3 / 5 (11) Sep 06, 2016
This would be very interesting, if you provided any information at all about this hypothesised boson... on wits.ac.za I have found the following:

Based on a number of features in the proton-proton collision data collected during Run I by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the Large Hadron Collider, the Madala hypothesis was formulated.

These features in the data were interpreted as being due to the existence of a new scalar, the Madala boson, with a mass around 270 GeV. A conservative statistical combination yielded a three sigma effect. The ATLAS and CMS collaboration have just released new data at the international conference ICHEP2016.

Prof. Mellado will summarise the reappearance of these features in the data that were used to formulate the Madala hypothesis, and its implications.

In particular, Mellado will discuss a prediction, namely of the production of anomalously large 4 W bosons, leading to a striking and unequivocal signature.
physman
4.1 / 5 (11) Sep 06, 2016
Also here they have a couple graphs and mention another possible boson at 750GeV http://www.tlabs....ting.pdf
big_hairy_jimbo
3.5 / 5 (4) Sep 06, 2016
I thought the 750Gev was the Di-Photon signature which proved to not be anything at all?

I was a bit lost with this article. I think it said, there might be new stuff to learn. Oh really!!!!
Mimath224
3.7 / 5 (3) Sep 06, 2016
If I'm not mistaken Madala is a village in India and it also means 'old man' in Zulu...any more want the fame name?
Osiris1
2 / 5 (4) Sep 07, 2016
Real model of particles probably at least in three dimensions and maybe four..... NEW standard model
dogbert
3.4 / 5 (5) Sep 07, 2016
Finding a new particle is certainly possible. Finding imaginary matter is highly unlikely.
hemitite
3 / 5 (4) Sep 07, 2016
It sounds like they're putting on some sort of travelling medicine show to hawk their new theory: why not just publish it in a reputable journal?
Tangent2
not rated yet Sep 09, 2016
With the discovery of the Higgs boson at the LHC in 2012, for which the Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded in 2013, the Standard Model of Physics is now complete.


And yet they have found evidence of new particles.. so somehow I doubt that the standard model is complete.. far from it.
tinitus
Sep 09, 2016
This comment has been removed by a moderator.
shavera
4 / 5 (4) Sep 09, 2016
I doubt that the standard model is complete.. far from it.


Right... We know it's not complete. It's not meant to be 'complete' per se. It's a very nice description of the simplest field theory that describes the vast majority of the relevant experimental data we observe. But it's neither the first word on the subject nor the last. Just a very important milestone description along the way.
Hyperfuzzy
not rated yet Sep 10, 2016
Sure, why not, we don't know anything or how to correctly interpret the data. So there must exist something that can explain our stupidity.
Mimath224
5 / 5 (1) Sep 10, 2016
@shavera quite. I think the other important factor is that the 'classification' or Std.M. is our way of grouping entities together so the we, as humans, can better understand them. Whether that is true for the entities themselves (that is, exisit in Nature) is quite another question.
Whydening Gyre
5 / 5 (1) Sep 10, 2016
@shavera quite. I think the other important factor is that the 'classification' or Std.M. is our way of grouping entities together so the we, as humans, can better understand them. Whether that is true for the entities themselves (that is, exisit in Nature) is quite another question.

existentialist metaphysical musings, MM?
Mimath224
5 / 5 (1) Sep 11, 2016
@Whydening Gyre, well maybe, but our minds do like to put 'things' into slots so we can make some kind of order out of 'nature' so that it's less confusing...'cos who said 'nature is weird'? As an analogy, wouldn't it take a lot longer when shopping if all fruits were mixed on the shelves/in boxes or all meat was mixed (hell, what a job separating minced meat, Ha!). But do they actually grow like that in the wild?
tinitus
Sep 11, 2016
This comment has been removed by a moderator.
Hyperfuzzy
not rated yet Sep 11, 2016
What exactly is a particle?
tinitus
Sep 11, 2016
This comment has been removed by a moderator.
Hyperfuzzy
1 / 5 (1) Sep 11, 2016
Some local thickening of quantum foam, forming the vacuum, which can have center of mass assigned. There are arbitrary criterion regarding the lifetime of particle: until it doesn't live longer than the photon at distance, which the particle is supposed to occur, it's labeled as a https://en.wikipe...sics%29. IMO most of particles of cold dark matter are actually a resonances on the verge of classical and virtual particles.

I see.
Seeker2
1 / 5 (1) Sep 12, 2016
What exactly is a particle?
A quantized form of energy. At least the rest mass. It displaces dark energy/matter.The lighter weight (gravitational force) of dark energy/matter collects it into objects.
Seeker2
not rated yet Sep 12, 2016
cont
Actually into heavier objects.
Seeker2
1 / 5 (1) Sep 13, 2016
What exactly is a particle?
A quantized form of energy. At least the rest mass. It displaces dark energy/matter.The lighter weight (gravitational force) of dark energy/matter collects it into objects.
That should be dark energy/mass. There is more of it above your head than below your feet. So you get pushed down. Not rocket science.
tinitus
Sep 13, 2016
This comment has been removed by a moderator.
Seeker2
1 / 5 (1) Sep 13, 2016
A quantized form of energy. At least the rest mass
Energy and mass are physical quantities, whereas particle is physical object. It's like to say, that that particle is temperature or electric potential. BTW This is very common way of thinking between contemporary students, who know physics only from abstract equations.
Yes. Try telling your students there's more of it above your head than below your feet. That should get their attention.
Seeker2
not rated yet Sep 13, 2016
cont
Glad I got out of that business. Probably a lot of other people are too.
shavera
3 / 5 (2) Sep 13, 2016
A 'particle' can have many different meanings in physics, depending on context. In classical physics, a particle can simply be an object, usually one much smaller than whatever nominal length scale is under question.

In quantum field theories, fields (something you can calculate a value for over all points in space-time) have 'quantized excitations.' eg: imagine small masses connected to one another by springs in 3 dimensions, and you pluck one mass. Its disturbance will push and pull on the other ones around it, causing a ripple/wave throughout the system. That's a classical field theory. A quantum field theory would say that the ripple created can only come in discrete little 'ripple packets.' And when you have enough of these little packets, they all smooth out to looking like the classical example anyway. These little packets are 'particles.' They have momentum and energy and maybe 'mass' (if their momentum doesn't equal their energy).
antialias_physorg
5 / 5 (1) Sep 13, 2016
why not just publish it in a reputable journal?

If you go to the link physman provided then these are based on preliminary analyses from enf of March 2016. Even if they did start to write a paper immediately (which I wouldn't do based merely on preliminary analysis..I'd wait till the full set of anaylses is run) then the entire writing, submission and peer review cycle can take quite a few months to more than a year (in unfortunate circumstances sometimes up to two years). I'm pretty sure they will submit for publishing unless the full analysis alters the picture.

I doubt that the standard model is complete.. far from it.

Saying that the standard model is incomplete isn't a sign of genius (everybody knows that - and yes: this includes every scientist, ever). Coming up with something that augments/replaces it is genius.
shavera
3 / 5 (2) Sep 13, 2016
Within quantum field theories there are 'fundamental fields': ie, things that define the actual 'matter' and 'forces' in our universe, like electron fields, electromagnetic fields, quark fields, and so on. Then there are 'effective fields' where you can use a quantum field theory to describe a complex situation even though it's not a field that exists universally throughout all of space. For instance, the electromagnetic field inside of a material: you could use the 'fundamental' field theory to look at photons and electrons and quarks... or you can use a simplified version of the same that has its own kinds of particles (phonons, eg) that behave in their own way depending on the material.
Hyperfuzzy
not rated yet Sep 13, 2016
OK, I'm an engineer and something is completely wrong with the material budget. I only detect fields, created from the motion of the object whose center moves through space like a ghost, avoids itself; but is attracted to it's own reflection. Immortal ghosts who at one point within its existance someone thinks there is no on/off switch. There's nothing else not even the fleeting thought of any sphere among the infinite spheres, ... boundary conditions exist for all particles, but these claimed as units, +e, -e, are first correct then you add this nonsense. juz say'n
Hyperfuzzy
not rated yet Sep 13, 2016
OK, I'm an engineer and something is completely wrong with the material budget. I only detect fields, created from the motion of the object whose center moves through space like a ghost, avoids itself; but is attracted to it's own reflection. Immortal ghosts who at one point within its existance someone thinks there is no on/off switch. There's nothing else not even the fleeting thought of any sphere among the infinite spheres, ... boundary conditions exist for all particles, but these claimed as units, +e, -e, are first correct then you add this nonsense. juz say'n

Everything is defined by the fields. The non-particles are busy, creating the fields. We call it charge. Simpler to call it an object, it's everywhere.
Hyperfuzzy
not rated yet Sep 13, 2016
OK, I'm an engineer and something is completely wrong with the material budget. I only detect fields, created from the motion of the object whose center moves through space like a ghost, avoids itself; but is attracted to it's own reflection. Immortal ghosts who at one point within its existance someone thinks there is no on/off switch. There's nothing else not even the fleeting thought of any sphere among the infinite spheres, ... boundary conditions exist for all particles, but these claimed as units, +e, -e, are first correct then you add this nonsense. juz say'n

Everything is defined by the fields. The non-particles are busy, creating the fields. We call it charge. Simpler to call it an object, it's everywhere.

Its cloak is updated relative to the center at the speed of light; however, its cloak or center may move relative to you, note how the frequency changes
Hyperfuzzy
not rated yet Sep 13, 2016
still waiting for a selfie of the Higgs.
RealityCheck
3 / 5 (2) Sep 13, 2016
Hi shavera. :)

Careful, mate, or you'll have the abstraction maths junkies after you! Because basically, you just gave a perfectly succinct description of the physical AETHER theories and the various manifestations of same, from the fundamental unified Universally Ubiquitous level, to the various higher level Locally Emergent types!

Recall Einstein's Leyden Address? He explained the abstract 'space-time' construct.

He admitted it took away any physical properties of the [REAL] Aether(s), and just treated the underlying physical reality as abstract fields/maths terms, quantities etc.

In short, he basically GAVE UP on actually explaining the underlying physical entities and properties; so mathematicians finally just treat it all abstractly as 'space-time fields' for their Relativity equations/quantities (without any clue or explanation of what the actual physical entities/properties of the underlying REAL PHYSICAL THING 'FIELD' is).

Inexorably, the return to REALITY. :)
Hyperfuzzy
not rated yet Sep 14, 2016
Hi shavera. :)
...
Inexorably, the return to REALITY. :)

It's a comedy of errors, and its really, really, funny
Mimath224
not rated yet Sep 14, 2016
@Hyperfuzzy No, no, you misunderstood. It's 'return to Innocence' by Enigma...Ha!

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