Related topics: particles · cern · physicists · higgs boson

A quantum leap in particle simulation

A group of scientists at the Department of Energy's Fermilab has figured out how to use quantum computing to simulate the fundamental interactions that hold together our universe.

ATLAS releases first result using full LHC Run 2 dataset

The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is currently shut down for a major two-year upgrade programme. However, LHC researchers are busy analysing the large dataset they have collected during the machine's second run (Run 2), which ...

Search engine for new breakthroughs in physics

Imagine that you have a lot of data, but you do not really know what you are looking for. So what do you do? In that case you use a computer that automatically searches for deviations. According to researcher Sascha Caron, ...

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In particle physics, bosons are subatomic particles that obey Bose–Einstein statistics. Several bosons can occupy the same quantum state. The word boson derives from the name of Satyendra Nath Bose.

Bosons contrast with fermions, which obey Fermi–Dirac statistics. Two or more fermions cannot occupy the same quantum state.

Since bosons with the same energy can occupy the same place in space, bosons are often force carrier particles. In contrast, fermions are usually associated with matter (although in quantum physics the distinction between the two concepts is not clear cut).

Bosons may be either elementary, like photons, or composite, like mesons. Some composite bosons do not satisfy the criteria for Bose-Einstein statistics and are not truly bosons (e.g. helium-4 atoms); a more accurate term for such composite particles would be "bosonic-composites".

All observed bosons have integer spin, as opposed to fermions, which have half-integer spin. This is in accordance with the spin-statistics theorem which states that in any reasonable relativistic quantum field theory, particles with integer spin are bosons, while particles with half-integer spin are fermions.

While most bosons are composite particles, in the Standard Model, there are six bosons which are elementary:

Unlike the gauge bosons, the Higgs boson and Graviton have not yet been observed experimentally.

Composite bosons are important in superfluidity and other applications of Bose–Einstein condensates.

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