Researchers apply quantum theory and Einstein's special relativity to plasma physics issues

PPPL applies quantum theory and Einstein's special relativity to plasma physics issues
Sketch of a pulsar, center, in binary star system. Credit: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

Among the intriguing issues in plasma physics are those surrounding X-ray pulsars—collapsed stars that orbit around a cosmic companion and beam light at regular intervals, like lighthouses in the sky. Physicists want to know the strength of the magnetic field and density of the plasma that surrounds these pulsars, which can be millions of times greater than the density of plasma in stars like the sun.

Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) have developed a theory of waves that can infer these properties in greater detail than in standard approaches. The new research analyzes the plasma surrounding the pulsar by coupling Einstein's theory of relativity with , which describes the motion of subatomic particles such as the atomic nuclei—or ions—and electrons in plasma. Supporting this work is the DOE Office of Science.

Quantum field theory

The key insight comes from , which describes charged particles that are relativistic, meaning that they travel at near the speed of light. "Quantum theory can describe certain details of the propagation of waves in plasma," said Yuan Shi, a graduate student in the Princeton Program in Plasma Physics and lead author of a paper published July 29 in the journal Physical Review A. Understanding the interactions behind the propagation can then reveal the composition of the plasma.

Shi developed the paper with assistance from co-authors Nat Fisch, director of the Program in Plasma Physics and professor and associate chair of astrophysical sciences at Princeton University, and Hong Qin, a physicist at PPPL and executive dean of the School of Nuclear Science and Technology at the University of Science and Technology of China. "When I worked out the mathematics they showed me how to apply it," said Shi.

In pulsars, relativistic particles in the magnetosphere, the magnetized atmosphere that surrounds the body, absorb light waves, and this absorption displays peaks against a blackbody background. "The question is, what do these peaks mean?" asks Shi. Analysis of the peaks with equations from special relativity and quantum field theory, he found, can determine the density and field strength of the magnetosphere.

Combining physics techniques

The process combines the techniques of high-energy physics, condensed matter physics, and . In high-energy physics, researchers use quantum field theory to describe the interaction of a handful of particles. In condensed matter physics, people use quantum mechanics to describe the states of a large collection of particles. Plasma physics uses model equations to explain the collective movement of millions of particles. The new method utilizes aspects of all three techniques to analyze the in pulsars.

The same technique can be used to infer the density of the plasma and strength of the magnetic field created by inertial confinement fusion experiments. Such experiments use lasers to ablate—or vaporize —a target that contains plasma fuel. The ablation then causes an implosion that compresses the fuel into plasma and produces fusion reactions.

Standard formulas give inconsistent answers

Researchers want to know the precise density, temperature and field strength of the plasma that this process creates. Standard mathematical formulas give inconsistent answers when lasers of different color are used to measure the plasma parameters. This is because the extreme density of the plasma gives rise to quantum effects, while the high energy density of the gives rise to relativistic effects, says Shi. So formulations that draw upon both fields are needed to reconcile the results.

For Shi, the new technique shows the benefits of combining physics disciplines that don't often interact. Says he: "Putting fields together gives tremendous power to explain things that we couldn't understand before."


Explore further

Explaining a mysterious barrier to fusion known as the 'density limit'

More information: Yuan Shi, Nathaniel J. Fisch, and Hong Qin Effective-action approach to wave propagation in scalar QED plasmas, Phys. Rev. A 94, 012124 – Published 29 July 2016. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.94.012124
Journal information: Physical Review A

Citation: Researchers apply quantum theory and Einstein's special relativity to plasma physics issues (2016, July 29) retrieved 16 September 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2016-07-quantum-theory-einstein-special-relativity.html
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Jul 29, 2016
Neutron stars eventually morph into pulsars' mechanically in particle physics, they lose there surface magnetic field, by the destruction of its iron atom imprinted crust, which leaves only gravity held magnetic electron held field , gravity collect so many electrons in orbit around the mass that it has shells of different speeds of electron fields multiple layered halo shroud electron fields with the closest the high speed on and the farthest half the speed in there orbital rotations, atoms that get drawn in by gravity lose their orbiting electrons and there nucleus get beaten apart in high velocity kinetic collisions into an orbiting particle plasma field around the stars,equator, thats the big picture

Jul 29, 2016
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Jul 29, 2016
arXiv preprint – https://arxiv.org...03.03967

Looks like a consistent approach to me, with some interesting results –
- "the effect of vacuum polarization is minuscule,"
- "Faraday rotation is modified by relativistic quantum effects,"
- "... new mechanism for mass generation in gauge theories ... when nontrivial backgrounds are present, gauge bosons acquire masses through a gauge invariant response tensor (Eqs. 22 and 29)."

Can't wait to see what the really smart people think of it. And also the Grand Electric Wizards of Plasma Fantasma Electromagnificence.

Jul 30, 2016
Can't wait to see what the really smart people think of it. And also the Grand Electric Wizards of Plasma Fantasma Electromagnificence.
@Proto
does this mean we can start calling them GEWPFE's??
LOL

considering this is PPPL, the cult will never accept their findings, but it brings to light an important question:
if the eu is so darn correct in their admonishments regarding knowledge of plasma physics, why didn't they publish something like this already?

i mean, Astro's and people like PPPL are stupid and very ignorant of plasma physics, per cantdrive and the eu cult... in fact, they've specifically stated magnetic reconnection is pseudoscience despite the hundred K tests validating it

.

.

@cd, @24, @hannes, @bschitt

well?
answers?
yall got a reason for your silence?
or for not being able to produce something more accurate than MHD?

Jul 30, 2016
@Proto, nicely done. I note that the path integral approach is fundamental to this development.

Jul 30, 2016
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Jul 30, 2016
Gluon fluctuations resemble Bernstein waves in hot magnetized plasma
How exactly?

Jul 30, 2016
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Jul 31, 2016
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Jul 31, 2016
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Jul 31, 2016
I'm still not clear on what you mean when you claim that gluon fluctuations resemble Bernstein waves, @epoxy. You haven't explained it.

@nikola,
The order of appearance and disappearance of matter
appears to violate mass/energy conservation in a consistent frame. Of course, that isn't particularly surprising from someone who appears to accept as if it were real an invisible super magic daddy in the sky with no evidence.

Jul 31, 2016
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Jul 31, 2016
the Lorentz force manifest itself: the magnetic field forces them rotate and collide mutually
Errr, no. You're confusing Lorentz force with Larmor precession. Larmor precession is caused by the EM equivalent of the reason a gyroscope precesses. This also has nothing to do with collision.

This leads into quantization of energy levels inside the plasma and into formation of waves along it.
No, formation of electron waves along it; ion waves also form across it.

There are in fact two different Bernstein waves: one longitudinal one in electron propagation, and one transverse one in ion propagation.

As for the quantization of energy levels, this is an obvious consequence of the quantization of spin.

The hot quark-gluon plasma during nuclear collisions behaves in similar way in magnetic field of colliders
Not really. The quark-gluon plasma is strongly interacting; this means EM effects are negligible.

[contd]

Jul 31, 2016
This leads into quantization of energy levels inside the plasma and into formation of waves along it.
The wave vector for BWs is perpendicular to the magnetic field, not along it. And how do charged particles in an electromagnetic field with U(1) gauge symmetry resemble gluon fluctuations with their color charged self-interactions of SU(3) gauge symmetry?

Jul 31, 2016
[contd]
This is obvious from the ratio of the intrinsic strength of the color force to that of the EM force. The color force acts 137 times faster than the EM force. And this is further constrained by the fact that color is confined, so color interactions are necessarily all over with by the time the EM force begins to have a noticeable effect.

[a quark-gluon plasma] will gain a density fluctuations and the gluon jets will become quantized and fragmented into multiple streams.
Errr, the "density fluctuations" are called "particles." There will be no "gluon jets;" gluons are confined. Gluons are always quantized: they are the quanta of the color force. I don't really think this means anything at all.

neutron stars... black hole jets also exhibit Bernstein waves...
Neither of these has anything to do with quark-gluon plasmas.

You still haven't explained how Bernstein waves are "like" quark-gluon plasmas.

Jul 31, 2016
The wave vector for BWs is perpendicular to the magnetic field, not along it.
Careful, @Proto, there are two types of BWs.

Oh and @epoxy, a pretty picture isn't a paper showing Bernstein waves in black hole jets. Just for the record.

Jul 31, 2016
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Jul 31, 2016
The gluons are bosons, i.e. wave packets - but elongated ones, because they also have character of vortices.
First, that article you linked to doesn't talk about gluons, and also doesn't talk about propagating bosons. Second, "wave packets" are just an interpretation- and not a very accurate one- of the quantum mechanics of bosons.

You're just constructing word salads of technical terms. This is speculation, and not particularly good speculation at that, since it's not backed up by any data, for example demonstration of BWs in quark-gluon plasmas.

I have no idea what "dense blobs of vacuum foam" even means. Absent (as usual) any evidence, it looks pretty much like your usual handwaving and buzz word injection without anything to back it up.

I see no further point in this.

Jul 31, 2016
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Jul 31, 2016
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Jul 31, 2016
Sub; Multi-disciplinary Studies- cosmology Vedas Interlinks
Scientists are slow to realize multi--discipline physics- Integration to data.
Cosmologists are yet to realize Knowledge Base necessity-Demand-curiosity- mystery 0f the Universe- Cosmology myth or Science Search further
http://archive.or...osmology
15 Books at LULU. http://www.lulu.c...jnani108

Jul 31, 2016
For Shi, the new technique shows the benefits of combining physics disciplines that don't often interact. Says he: "Putting fields together gives tremendous power to explain things that we couldn't understand before."

Who'da thunk that it'd be a good idea to consider plasma physics as being relevant to plasma processes.

Jul 31, 2016
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Jul 31, 2016
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Jul 31, 2016
Who'da thunk that it'd be a good idea to consider plasma physics as being relevant to plasma processes.

Only every plasma physicist since Alfven. In fact, since William Crookes in about, oh, 1870 or so. Your lack of knowledge about the subject is breathtaking.

Not the EU cranks though - they are too busy looking for pictures that seem to be consistent with imaginary unobserved phenomena they think are similar to pictures drawn on cave walls by people who did not understand where the sun went at night.

And Acolyte, you do realize that you are quoting a plasma physicist who is working at a dedicated plasma lab doing experiments with and working out the physics of plasma right?

Oh, you didn't get that? You should try leaving the interpretation of pretty pictures to actual physicists, and just enjoy them as the uneducated layman you prove yourself to be with every post you make.

Jul 31, 2016
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Jul 31, 2016
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Jul 31, 2016
@ To Schneible,
Many phenomena in the universe have their invisible daddy, who creates as it sees fit, regardless of whether we can understand it or not. Why is there such a large number of speakers who do not disclose their attitude and their understanding, but almost all have been repeated before them, some say, and in this vjerujku, regardless of whether it's true or not. Who were those people that its position is confirmed by other people's claims? These are curious people with no scientific basis and no sense to conclude something yourself.
Here, all the science freak out in explaining what are the gluons, and have no idea how a substance.
All of matter and energy in the universe observational entity (materials and energy), is derived from the ether. Thus, the gluon "liquid" state of ether formed under the influence of the high vibrations of the same.

Holy gawd, are you just the bright and shiney loonie all wrapped up in crazy surrounded by nutbar!

Jul 31, 2016
All of matter and energy in the universe observational entity (materials and energy), is derived from the ether. Thus, the gluon "liquid" state of ether formed under the influence of the high vibrations of the same.
Wow, what a heaping helping of technobabble. I found the last sentence particularly amusing.

Jul 31, 2016
Careful, @Proto, there are two types of BWs.
Thanks, Schneib. I thought the two types were electron Bernstein waves and ion Bernstein waves. Do you happen to have a link to a ref handy? Here's one of the places I've been looking – https://farside.p...e91.html – in this lecture, they're introduced in the section on wave propagation perpendicular to the "equilibrium magnetic field"; they're "slowly propagating, longitudinal, electrostatic waves"...

Zeph, you're still not off the hook for showing how they resemble a 'gluon fluctuation.' "I can do it with AWT" is hardly helpful.

Jul 31, 2016
Careful, @Proto, there are two types of BWs.
Thanks, Schneib. I thought the two types were electron Bernstein waves and ion Bernstein waves. Do you happen to have a link to a ref handy?
I hunted up the original Bernstein paper- it's paywalled, but the abstract was enough to tell me there were electron and ion waves, and one was transverse and the other longitudinal. I'm pretty sure we've just discussed more than any of these morons know about Bernstein waves.

Here's one of the places I've been looking – https://farside.p...e91.html – in this lecture, they're introduced in the section on wave propagation perpendicular to the "equilibrium magnetic field"; they're "slowly propagating, longitudinal, electrostatic waves"...
I think there's a lot more focus on the electron waves, which are longitudinal, than on the ion waves, which are transverse. Not quite sure why.

Jul 31, 2016
Here's a pretty good derivation and discussion: http://physics.pr...tein.pdf

Again, though, this only treats the longitudinal wave, not the transverse one.

Jul 31, 2016
I hunted up the original Bernstein paper- it's paywalled, ...
Found a copy, I see what you're saying, from the abstract: "When the ion dynamics are included, two classes of low frequency oscillations are found, the existence of both of which has been predicted by the simple hydrodynamic theory, namely longitudinal ion waves and transverse hydromagnetic waves."

Bernstein paper (1958): http://www.sunist...ield.pdf

cont'd >

Jul 31, 2016
> cont'd

I think there's a lot more focus on the electron waves, which are longitudinal, than on the ion waves, which are transverse. Not quite sure why.
Quoting from that lecture:
The appearance of the cyclotron harmonic resonances in a warm plasma is of great practical importance in plasma physics, since it greatly increases the number of resonant frequencies at which waves can transfer energy to the plasma. In magnetic fusion these resonances are routinely exploited to heat plasmas via externally launched electromagnetic waves. Hence, in the fusion literature you will often come across references to "third harmonic ion cyclotron heating'' or "second harmonic electron cyclotron heating."

Aug 01, 2016
Gee, and I thought you folks did not see how the differing fractal iterations apply, and correlate to each other, ye are getting there though.

Aug 01, 2016
@Proto
@Schneib

thanks for the discussion: ignore the eu idiot, she is still pissed that their cult couldn't figure out the power source for the sun
see: http://phys.org/n...ion.html

jonesdave post summed it up beautifully with this link
http://www.imageb...97879586

.

.

Who'da thunk that it'd be a good idea to consider plasma physics as being relevant to plasma processes
@cd
well obviously it wasn't the eu, because otherwise this would be published by you and your cult and it would also have been published, per your regurgitated claims, almost 30 years ago

if your eu is so phenomenally correct, why didn't your cult publish this first?

think on that a spell (if you can, that is)

Aug 01, 2016
The radiation or de/dt is a response to motion of charge. Nothing this esoteric. I'm confused, why does anyone agree with Einstein. A wavelet may have any velocity. The time it pases is defined as the period, i.e. c is a constant, not the velocity of the wavelet! Can't we get pass this. There is so much more besides the nonsense. No speed limit, you get the wrong answers with wrong theory.

Aug 01, 2016
Don't forget to add the velocity of the charge to the field. The field of the charge is updated at the speed of light relative to the charge.

Aug 01, 2016
We can answer Newtons question: "What is within the mass that creates the gravitational force?" something like that. He did not have atomic physics or charge. We do. Juz say'n

Aug 01, 2016
So, back to Bernstein waves:

So far, I know that their frequencies are controlled by the gyroradius of either the electrons or the ions, depending on which wave you're talking about. This is dependent upon the strength of the magnetic field, the mass of the particle, the velocity of the particle, and the charge of the particle.

In a plasma, there are many velocities, but they cluster around a mean; this mean is determined by the temperature. Furthermore, with both mass and velocity involved, we are talking about momentum. Thus, the relation that determines the fundamental frequency of the Bernstein wave for a plasma is determined by the temperature, the momentum of the particles that are participating in the wave, the individual charge of the particles (only one charge moiety participates in a particular Bernstein wave, this is why there are electron and ion waves), and the strength of the magnetic field.

[contd]

Aug 01, 2016
[contd]
Bernstein waves can only have frequencies that are a whole number multiple of their fundamental frequency; otherwise they are not stable. This is the reason for the "quantization" of Bernstein waves.

Electron Bernstein waves are longitudinal; that is, they are fluctuations in density like sound waves. Ion Bernstein waves are transverse; that is, they are fluctuations in position, like water waves.

Bernstein waves can be formed by the action of a magnetic field that agrees with the momentum of the particles (i.e. their temperature and mass) and their charges to form a velocity moiety. Particles moving at somewhat lower than average velocities will be "boosted" by the wave until their velocity matches that to agree with the other parameters, and particles moving somewhat faster will be "retarded" until they too match. The size of the moiety will thus increase and tend toward the average velocity for the temperature.

[contd]

Aug 01, 2016
[contd]
By slightly varying the magnetic field, the frequency of the Bernstein wave can be modified so that it is slightly different from the "natural" frequency of the plasma. In this case an effect called Landau damping occurs; if it is slightly lower, then the plasma will gain energy from it, and the Bernstein wave will be damped; if slightly higher, then the wave will gain energy from the plasma, and the temperature of the plasma will be damped. This is used for transferring energy to a plasma to heat it. In fact, this can also be done with an EM field (usually microwaves) imposed on the plasma at the Bernstein wave's frequency, which causes the net magnetic field to vary due to the superposition of the EM field and the magnetic field, and this is the most common way of heating plasmas.

That's what I know so far.

Aug 02, 2016
[contd]
By slightly varying the magnetic field, the frequency of the Bernstein wave can be modified so that it is slightly different from the "natural" frequency of the plasma. In this case an effect called Landau damping occurs; if it is slightly lower, then the plasma will gain energy from it, and the Bernstein wave will be damped; if slightly higher, then the wave will gain energy from the plasma, and the temperature of the plasma will be damped. This is used for transferring energy to a plasma to heat it. In fact, this can also be done with an EM field (usually microwaves) imposed on the plasma at the Bernstein wave's frequency, which causes the net magnetic field to vary due to the superposition of the EM field and the magnetic field, and this is the most common way of heating plasmas.

That's what I know so far.

WTF!?

Aug 03, 2016
How can be defended the idea with pure scientific methods that the pulsars are neutron stars? Or that the abstract mathematical objects black holes exits not only in human imagination but in physical reality?

Aug 03, 2016
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Aug 09, 2016
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Aug 10, 2016
Steelwolf 1 /5 (6) Aug 01, 2016
Gee, and I thought you folks did not see how the differing fractal iterations apply, and correlate to each other, ye are getting there though.


And thou art still a one-point-nothing loser.

Da Schneib 4.7 /5 (13) Jul 31, 2016
Wow, what a heaping helping of technobabble.


Is that what they're calling it now? Wow. I didn't think of the police dept's mounted unit as being proficient with technobabble, but they just delivered a huge pile of it to our community garden site. I think the problem with nikola_ilovegenocides is that it's not fully composted. Pretty fresh from where I sit.

Are you becoming angry? You might want to get that looked at. Oh, by the way, you're off subject. Keep it together dude. Go get laid.

Aug 10, 2016
[contd]
By slightly varying the magnetic field, the frequency .... way of heating plasmas.

That's what I know so far.

Anyway, do the work yourself, there is an error with energy conservation. Also, heat, entropy, etc. is only conceptual. It doesn't matter how hot it gets, a closed system will always seek stability versus instability. So ... juz say'n

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