A fraction of the global military spending could save the planet's biodiversity

November 5, 2014, Wildlife Conservation Society
This image shows Murchison Falls National Park in Uganda. A fundamental step-change involving an increase in funding and political commitment is urgently needed to ensure that protected areas deliver their full conservation, social and economic potential, according to an article published today in Nature by experts from Wildlife Conservation Society, the University of Queensland, and the IUCN World Commission on Protected Areas (WCPA). Credit: Julie Larsen Maher (c) WCS

A fundamental step-change involving an increase in funding and political commitment is urgently needed to ensure that protected areas deliver their full conservation, social and economic potential, according to an article published today in Nature by experts from Wildlife Conservation Society, the University of Queensland, and the IUCN World Commission on Protected Areas (WCPA).

The paper, The performance and potential of protected areas, comes ahead of the IUCN World Parks Congress 2014 – a once-in-a-decade global forum on protected areas opening next week in Sydney, Australia.

According to the authors, allocating US$45 - $76 billion to protected areas annually – just 2.5% of the global annual military expenditure – could help adequately manage those areas, ensuring their potential contribution to the well-being of the planet is fully met.

Many threatened species, such as the Asian elephant, the tiger, and all rhinoceros species, as well as numerous plants, reptiles and amphibians, survive thanks to protected areas. Well-managed marine protected areas contain more than five times the total large fish biomass and 14 times the shark biomass compared with fished areas.

"Protected areas offer us solutions to some of today's most pressing challenges" says Dr James Watson of the Wildlife Conservation Society and The University of Queensland and lead author of the study. "But by continuing with 'business as usual', we are setting them up for failure. A step-change in the way we value, fund, govern and manage those areas is neither impossible nor unrealistic and would only represent a fraction of what the world spends annually on defense."

This is Yellowstone National Park in the United States. A fundamental step-change involving an increase in funding and political commitment is urgently needed to ensure that protected areas deliver their full conservation, social and economic potential, according to an article published today in Nature by experts from Wildlife Conservation Society, the University of Queensland, and the IUCN World Commission on Protected Areas (WCPA). Credit: Julie Larsen Maher (c) WCS

According to the latest data, protected areas cover around 15% of land and 3% of oceans. Experts warn, however, that despite the significant increase in their coverage over the past century, this is still short of the global 2020 targets to protect at least 17% of land and 10% of oceans. Many ecosystems remain poorly conserved because protected areas do not always encompass the most important areas for biodiversity.

In addition, the vast majority of existing protected areas that are well placed do not have sufficient resources to be effective, with some studies finding as few as one quarter of them are being effectively managed. Growing threats from climate change and the escalating poaching crisis place additional pressures on protected areas globally.

"Some of the most iconic protected areas, such as Ecuador's Galapagos National Park, are undergoing significant degradation, partly due to an inability to manage them effectively," says Professor Marc Hockings of The University of Queensland,co-author of the study and member of the IUCN WCPA. "But governments cannot be solely responsible for ensuring that protected areas fulfill their potential. We need to find new, innovative ways to fund and manage them, actively involving government, business and community groups."

The paper also highlights an alarming increase in governments - in both developing and developed countries – backtracking on their commitments through funding cuts and changes in policy. A recent global analysis has documented 543 instances where protected areas saw their status downgraded or removed altogether.

For example, recent cuts to the Parks Canada budget have reduced conservation spending by 15%¬. In Uganda, active oil exploration and development is occurring inside many protected areas, including Murchison Falls National Park. In Indonesia, in 2010, mining permits were issued inside 481,000 hectares of protected areas and in the Virgin Komi Forests in Russia, significant boundary changes have been made to reserves such as the Yugyd Va National Park to allow mining. The Arabian Oryx Sanctuary in Oman was removed from the World Heritage List after the government reduced the size of the reserve by 90% to allow for oil and gas extraction.

This image shows Glover's Reef Marine Reserve in Belize. A fundamental step-change involving an increase in funding and political commitment is urgently needed to ensure that protected areas deliver their full conservation, social and economic potential, according to an article published today in Nature by experts from Wildlife Conservation Society, the University of Queensland, and the IUCN World Commission on Protected Areas (WCPA). Credit: Caleb McClennen (c) WCS
"There is a fundamental need for an increase in support of global protected areas, including better recognition, funding, planning and enforcement" says Nigel Dudley, co-author of the paper, from Equilibrium Research and The University of Queensland, member of the IUCN WCPA. "It is government's responsibility to step up but there is also the need for the wider community to take collective responsibility for protected areas."

Protected areas conserve biodiversity and sustain a large proportion of the world's poorest people by providing them with food, water, shelter and medicine. They play a key part in climate change mitigation and adaptation and bolster national economies through tourism revenues. In Rwanda, for example, tourism revenue from visits to see mountain gorillas inside Volcanoes National Park is now the country's largest source of foreign exchange, raising US$200 million annually. In Australia, the 2012–2013 budget for the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority was approximately AUS$50 million, but tourism to the reef was worth more than A$5.2 billion annually to the Australian economy.

"The growth of the modern global protected area movement over the last 100 years is arguably the greatest conservation achievement," says Julia Marton-Lefèvre, IUCN Director General. "It is also increasingly important for livelihoods and global security. The key now is for countries to recognize the return on investment that protected areas offer and realize that those places are fundamental to the future of life on earth. This is exactly what we hope to achieve at the upcoming IUCN World Parks Congress."

Effective management of , the threats they face and the solutions they offer to today's global challenges will be discussed at the IUCN World Parks Congress taking place in Sydney from 12 to 19 November 2014.

Explore further: Protected areas proven to protect biodiversity

More information: Nature, www.nature.com/nature/journal/ … ull/nature13947.html

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October 1, 2014

National parks and other protected areas offer hope for threatened species at a time of plunging wildlife numbers, conservationist group WWF said Tuesday, but their success has not been universal.

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Modernmystic
2.1 / 5 (7) Nov 05, 2014
Or, another way to phrase it is;

"Allocating US $60 billion to protected areas annually – just 3.3% of the United States Welfare expenditure – could help adequately manage those areas, ensuring their potential contribution to the well-being of the planet is fully met."

It just depends on your politics.

FTR, I'd like to see defense money going elsewhere too...as well as a lot of social program spending...
TheGhostofOtto1923
3 / 5 (4) Nov 05, 2014
Without religion and its excesses there would be nothing to fight over. There would be plenty of everything for everybody. No one would think that they and they alone had the right and the responsibility to fill up the earth.
Modernmystic
3 / 5 (4) Nov 05, 2014
Without religion and its excesses there would be nothing to fight over.


Because communists and capitalists don't fight. Neither do people fight over "race" or "tribe". Fascists are generally peaceful folks who live and let live. We have all the resources and food we want so, forget about wars over material goods. No one on the planet has any territorial disputes either.

In the United States, a very religious 1st world country, the birth rate is below replacement, and we have pretty much all the resources we need (if we'd use them)...how long do we generally go before we pick a fight or someone picks one with us?

Yep, it's all about religion all the time.....
kochevnik
1 / 5 (4) Nov 05, 2014
"Allocating US $60 billion to protected areas annually – just 3.3% of the United States Welfare expenditure – could help adequately manage those areas, ensuring their potential contribution to the well-being of the planet is fully met."
Unclear about your rant on welfare. I see that in Los Angeles welfare recipient obtains $221 monthly, which is only 1/3 of requirement to have roof and food. Meanwhile Moscow has full employment and in fact 2million jobs remain unfilled due to lack of applicants

I would suggest you explore FED buying everything in commodity markets, with counterparties exploiting artificial price increase with massive shorts causing massive commodity deflation which may spread to all markets, freezing most world economic activity
Modernmystic
5 / 5 (2) Nov 05, 2014
Unclear about your rant on welfare. I see that in Los Angeles welfare recipient obtains $221 monthly, which is only 1/3 of requirement to have roof and food. Meanwhile Moscow has full employment and in fact 2million jobs remain unfilled due to lack of applicants

I would suggest you explore FED buying everything in commodity markets, with counterparties exploiting artificial price increase with massive shorts causing massive commodity deflation which may spread to all markets, freezing most world economic activity


Unclear on your rant about Russia. I see that it has a stagnant economy;

http://www.worldb...overview

The average wage is far less than half the US average;

http://en.wikiped...r_capita

If you live there I'd buy some dollars, because the ruble's inflation rate is 6.5% whereas the dollar's is 1.7%

Just in case you wanted some facts instead of propaganda...
tritace
Nov 05, 2014
This comment has been removed by a moderator.
TheGhostofOtto1923
3.3 / 5 (3) Nov 05, 2014
The myth that the U.S. is particularly religious
http://religions..../reports

-It's not. Compared with the US a century ago, and with religion-dominated countries today, the US is borderline irreligious. Religionist cultures restrict their women to making and raising babies until it kills them. They require them to be covered from head to toe in public. And they can't vote or get an education. This was the case throughout the US before 1900.

The reduction of religious influence is what enabled families to plan for their future and live within their means. THIS is what has reduced growth to sustainable levels.

Communism was the reaction of workers to the fact that there were TOO MANY of them. Overgrowth caused communism, and fascism was the inevitable backlash. And this overgrowth was CAUSED by religions throughout Eurasia which were still intent on outgrowing and overrunning each other, which is what they had been designed to do.

Those cultures no longer exist.
mosahlah
1 / 5 (3) Nov 06, 2014
Of course. Like so many other challenges, we can purchase biodiversity, and cheaply. Hey, as long as Uncle Sam is writing that check, let's buy fixes for global warming, transnational terrorism, and economic inequality. Cool. Now I can focus on what to make for breakfast.
ryggesogn2
1 / 5 (6) Nov 06, 2014
End socialism and you will get better results.
But the authors of this piece are socialists and they refuse to understand how attacking private property rights destroys what they claim to preserve.
kochevnik
1 / 5 (3) Nov 06, 2014
Unclear about your rant on welfare. I see that in Los Angeles welfare recipient obtains $221 monthly, which is only 1/3 of requirement to have roof and food. Meanwhile Moscow has full employment and in fact 2million jobs remain unfilled due to lack of applicants


Unclear on your rant about Russia. I see that it has a stagnant economy;

LOL our "stagnant economy" grew 1.3 percent in September while your banksters attempted to instigate WWIII. What's your ROI for WWIII, MM? China is building us a bullet train from Beging that will reduce shipping time of goods from two month to two days. They're also funding it because they're rich in cash. Meanwhile you're rich in PSTD veterans living on the sidewalk, and you're passing laws against feeding them
Modernmystic
3.7 / 5 (3) Nov 06, 2014
LOL our "stagnant economy" grew 1.3 percent in September


Which is the definition of stagnation. Actually anything less than 3% is stagnation.

http://en.wikiped...agnation

while your banksters attempted to instigate WWIII.


Actually it's Putin's quasi Hitlerish land grabs in the Ukraine which are going to instigate WW III. I'm unclear now, is the Ukraine Russia...or, well, the Ukraine? Putin seems to have trouble with simple stuff like that which can cause you and your countrymen a lot of misery if you don't start keeping his crazy meter to a dull roar.
Modernmystic
3.7 / 5 (3) Nov 06, 2014
Communism was the reaction of workers to the fact that there were TOO MANY of them. Overgrowth caused communism, and fascism was the inevitable backlash. And this overgrowth was CAUSED by religions throughout Eurasia which were still intent on outgrowing and overrunning each other, which is what they had been designed to do.


Well that's one perspective. Most people would say it was a reaction to economic conditions in Czarist Russia...and that Fascism was a reaction to the conditions placed on Germany after WW I....

I understand though that for some people one thing is the cause of every bad thing in the world. I understand it, but I think that the real world is much more complicated than that.
ryggesogn2
1 / 5 (7) Nov 06, 2014
Socialism/Communism/Fascism are the product of greed, envy and hubris. Three of the seven deadly sins.
TheGhostofOtto1923
1 / 5 (2) Nov 06, 2014
Well that's one perspective. Most people would say it was a reaction to economic conditions in Czarist Russia...
Correct. And those conditions were CAUSED by explosive overgrowth in medieval cultures which hadnt learned to modify their repro rates in keeping with reduced attrition, the result of better sanitation and medicine. In addition, the industrial revolution meant that more goods and food could be produced with fewer workers.

Labor is a commodity like any other. For owners it became a buyers market. They HAD to pay workers less or be undercut by competitors who did. The result was mass unemployment and unrest.
and that Fascism was a reaction to the conditions placed on Germany after WW I....
-And here we have evidence of Management. The labor glut made war inevitable. And so conditions were exacerbated to enable it to happen at the proper Time and according to Plan, so it could be safely Controlled and its outcome Predetermined.
cont
TheGhostofOtto1923
1 / 5 (2) Nov 06, 2014
The first world war was halted prematurely because armor and air power threatened to remobilize the front and no one was sure what this would mean. And so the war was suspended while russia and germany could develop these new technologies. They even practiced together out in the steppes.

Meanwhile the people were made to suffer and were given the proper enemies to blame their misery on, ensuring that the second phase of this Grand Demographic Exercise would have the proper effect.

Why did the allies strap the germans with penalties so severe that the weimar democracy had no chance of surviving? The only reason must have been that it was meant to collapse. A great conflagration would sweep the continent, destroying the obsolete cultures which had made it necessary and inevitable.

The Result was a stable mock superpower standoff where nuclear power could be safely implemented. The world as it had existed before the wars would have certainly destroyed itself.
TheGhostofOtto1923
1 / 5 (1) Nov 06, 2014
Socialism/Communism/Fascism are the product of greed, envy and hubris. Three of the seven deadly sins.
Yes, and sloth, lust, and gluttony ensure that human numbers will always grow faster than their ability to provide for themselves. Socialism/Communism/Fascism are the response to conditions CAUSED by religion-inspired overgrowth. They are the symptoms of the disease.

Wait a minute - I thought I had shut you off -?
JoeBlue
1 / 5 (1) Nov 06, 2014
Some people don't seem to understand what evolution is or does.
kochevnik
1 / 5 (3) Nov 06, 2014
LOL our "stagnant economy" grew 1.3 percent in September

Which is the definition of stagnation. Actually anything less than 3% is stagnation.

http://en.wikiped...agnation

Actually it's Putin's quasi Hitlerish land grabs in the Ukraine which are going to instigate WW III. I'm unclear now, is the Ukraine Russia...or, well, the Ukraine?.

LOL then by your standard the West is in deep trouble,

A 99% referendum to join Russia is hardly a "land grab" Also by treaty Russia can stage 80,000 troops in Ukraine any time it pleases. And what about the $5 billion USA paid Soros and USAID to incite riots and overthrow the democratically elected Viktor Yanukovych government?

Remember MM the useful idiots always go down 1st. Your Svoboda Ukrainian NAZIS are the Hitler lovers
ryggesogn2
1 / 5 (3) Nov 06, 2014
And those conditions were CAUSED by explosive overgrowth in medieval cultures

Any growth was not the product of medieval culture. It was caused by capitalism creating the tools to improve the lives of others.
Except if you lived in monarchy that kept their people as serfs, as did Russia. And the Russians themselves thought of themselves as serfs to the state, still do apparently.
ryggesogn2
1 / 5 (3) Nov 06, 2014
"The Russian currency has fallen in value by about a quarter this year despite a number of interventions by the central bank costing billions of dollars.

The slide has been more intense over the past month amid falling oil prices, which provide the Russian budget with the majority of its revenue.

The former deputy minister and current chief economist for Vneshekonombank, Andrei Klepach, said this week that Russia might as well "learn to live with" the falling ruble, adding that its current loss also has to do with the economy's enormous capital flight."
http://news.yahoo..._2jQtDMD
TheGhostofOtto1923
1 / 5 (2) Nov 06, 2014
growth caused by capitalism
Our tropical growth rate is preset and endemic. It developed in the context of high attrition rates typical of tropical climes. It hasnt changed since.

Humans became able to eliminate their attritive elements one by one, beginning with the ability to hunt the animals which were hunting them. AT THAT POINT their growth became unsustainable.

Population pressure alone can account for the explosive spread of humans worldwide. And when the earth became full, and easy migration was no longer an option, the major attritive element became the tribe next door that was better at fighting than yours.

The tribal dynamic ensued, that being internal altruism in conjunction with external animosity. Group selection became the main driver of human development.

Capitalism only enabled a burst of prosperity which further accelerated growth. The result was the same as it ever was; inflation, instability, collapse, revolution, and war.
kochevnik
1 / 5 (1) Nov 08, 2014
"The Russian currency has fallen in value by about a quarter this year despite a number of interventions by the central bank costing billions of dollars.

The slide has been more intense over the past month amid falling oil prices, which provide the Russian budget with the majority of its revenue.

That is GOOD for exports ryggie. If you didn't know Russia has an export-based economy. Besides I doubt you could buy even a square meter of central Moscow. It's quite amusing seeing broke foreigners talking about how Russia's gold reserves will suddenly evaporate and how we can't do without your nasty Rothschilds

Unlike the West we don't riot in the streets when financial trouble erupt. We actually have a country not just an economy of mindless backbiting opportunist consumers. When rouble collapsed 2000 times we still managed. Should be interesting seeing you take on the worldwide depression and currency collapse

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