Trapping giant Rydberg atoms for faster quantum computers

May 06, 2010
An artist's interpretation of Rydberg atom trapping in an optical lattice. Credit: Kelly Younge

In an achievement that could help enable fast quantum computers, University of Michigan physicists have built a better Rydberg atom trap. Rydberg atoms are highly excited, nearly-ionized giants that can be thousands of times larger than their ground-state counterparts.

As a result of their size, interactions between can be roughly a million times stronger than between regular atoms. This is why they could serve as faster quantum circuits, said Georg Raithel, associate chair and professor in the Department of Physics. Quantum computers could solve problems too complicated for conventional computers. Many scientists believe that the future of computation lies in the quantum realm.

A paper on this research is published in the current edition of . The work will be presented at the American Physical Society's Division of Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics meeting in late May.

Raithel's team trapped the atoms in what's called an optical lattice---a crate made of interfering laser beams.

"The optical lattice is better than any other Rydberg atom trap for or high-precision spectroscopy," Raithel said. "Compared with other traps, optical lattices minimize energy level shifts in the atoms, which is important for these applications."

Raithel and physics doctoral students Kelly Younge and Sarah Anderson started with ground-state atoms of the soft metal rubidium. At room temperature, the atoms whiz around at the speed of sound, about 300 meters per second. The researchers hit them with lasers to cool and slow them to 10 centimeters per second.

"That's about the speed of a mosquito," Younge said. "Cooling lasers combined with a magnetic field allows us to trap the ground-state atoms. Then we excite the atoms into Rydberg states."

In a rubidium atom, just one electron occupies the outer valence shell. With precisely tuned lasers, the researchers excited this electron so that it moved 100 times farther away from the nucleus of the atom, which classified it as a Rydberg atom. That valence electron in this case is so far away from the nucleus that it behaves almost as if it's a free electron.

To trap the Rydberg atoms, the researchers took advantage of what's called the "ponderomotive force" that allows them to secure a whole atom by holding fast to one electron---the sole valence shell particle in the Rydberg atoms. The , formed with intense, interfering laser beams, is what provides the ponderomotive force.

"The laser field holds on to the electron, which behaves almost as if it were free, but the residual weak atomic binding force still holds the atom together. In effect, the entire atom is trapped by the lasers," Raithel said.

The physicists used a technique called "microwave spectroscopy," to determine how the lattice affected the Rydberg atoms, and in general how the atoms behaved in the trap.

"Essentially, we could track the motion of the atoms during the experiment. We could tell if the were sitting in the bottom of a well in the electromagnetic field, or if they were roaming over many wells. In this way, we could optimize the performance of the trap," Younge said.

Explore further: Serious security: Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution guards against the most general attacks

More information: The paper is called "State-dependent Energy Shifts of Rydberg Atoms in a Ponderomotive Optical Lattice."

Related Stories

Scientists discover giant Rydberg atom molecules

Jun 24, 2009

A group of University of Oklahoma researchers led by Dr. James P. Shaffer, Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, have discovered giant Rydberg molecules with a bond as large as a red blood cell. Determining ...

Giant Rydberg atoms confined in a micro-glass cell

Jan 14, 2010

Rydberg atoms are highly sensitive atoms, as one electron is only loosely bound. Compared to 'normal' atoms which are one tenth of a nanometer in size those giant atoms are ~100 nanometers large. Due to their sensitivity ...

Portable Precision: A New Type of Atomic Clock

Dec 10, 2008

(PhysOrg.com) -- The most accurate atomic clocks in the world are based on the output of cesium atoms. These ultra-precise fountain clocks measure the frequency and time interval of seconds by using a fountain-like movement ...

Recommended for you

Cold Atom Laboratory creates atomic dance

2 hours ago

Like dancers in a chorus line, atoms' movements become synchronized when lowered to extremely cold temperatures. To study this bizarre phenomenon, called a Bose-Einstein condensate, researchers need to cool ...

Wild molecular interactions in a new hydrogen mixture

7 hours ago

Hydrogen—the most abundant element in the cosmos—responds to extremes of pressure and temperature differently. Under ambient conditions hydrogen is a gaseous two-atom molecule. As confinement pressure ...

Scientists create possible precursor to life

9 hours ago

How did life originate? And can scientists create life? These questions not only occupy the minds of scientists interested in the origin of life, but also researchers working with technology of the future. ...

User comments : 0