IBM demonstrates nonoscale 3D patterning technique (w/ Video)

Apr 23, 2010 by Lin Edwards report
Image credit: IBM/Science.

( -- IBM Research in Zurich has demonstrated a new nanoscale patterning technique that could replace electron beam lithography (EBL). The demonstration carved a 1:5 billion scale three-dimensional model of the Matterhorn, a 4,478 meter high mountain lying on the border between Italy and Switzerland, to show how their technique could be used for a number of applications, such as creating nanoscale lenses on silicon chips for carrying optical circuits at a scale so small that electronic circuits are inefficient.

EBL (also called e-beam lithography) uses a focused beam of electrons to etch micro- or nano-scale patterns into a substrate covered by a film (the resist) that is sensitive to the electrons. It was initially developed for fabricating .

The 25-nanometer (nm) high model of the mountain was sculpted in around three minutes from a glassy using a 500-nm long and 5-nm thick silicon scanning probe heated to above 330°C for a few microseconds — long enough to break within the material without breaking other bonds. The probe was fixed to a flexible cantilever that can scan the substrate to an accuracy of 1 nm. The probe acts like a microscopic milling machine removing layers of the substrate by heat and force.

The demonstration also sculpted a relief map of the world that measured 22 by 11 micrometers. According to the IBM press release the scale of the map is so small 1,000 of them could be drawn on a single grain of salt. IBM says the current technology can go as small as 15 nanometers, but in the future could go even smaller.

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The movie depicts the process of carving the 'Matterhorn' out of the molecular glass resist layer in a series of topographical images. The initial surface was imaged and the following frames were taken with always 12 patterning steps in between the frames. A total of 10 frames was recorded. Credit: IBM/Science.

At that scale IBM’s technique could replace EBL, which costs 80 to 90% more and is slower. According Michel Despont, an IBM physicist and co-author of the research paper, the technique needs fewer processes than EBL, and the fact that it can be used to create structures in 3D means it could be used for applications no one has yet considered.

In their paper, published in the Science journal, the IBM researchers say they plan to use the technique to create meta-materials, optical components, for prototyping CMOS nanoelectronics components, and for making templates for nanorod or nanotube self-assembly. Despont said the system would not be commercially available for around five years, but they hope to make it available for universities and research laboratories before then.

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IBM scientists have created the smallest 3D map of the earth - so small that 1,000 maps could fit on a grain of salt.

3D rendered image showing a heated nanoscale silicon tip, borrowed from atomic force microscopy, that is chiselling away material from a substrate to create a nanoscale replica of the Matterhorn. As reported in the scientific journal Science, IBM Researchers used this new nanopatterning technique to create a 25 nanometer high 3D replica of the Matterhorn, a famous Swiss mountain that soars 4,478 m (14,692 ft) high, in molecular glass, representing a scale of 1:5 billion (1 nanometer of the replica corresponds to 57 altitude meters). Image courtesy of IBM Research - Zurich

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More information: Nanoscale Three-Dimensional Patterning of Molecular Resists by Scanning Probes, David Pires et al., Published Online April 22, 2010
Science DOI:10.1126/science.1187851

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2.5 / 5 (2) Apr 23, 2010
the current technology can go as small as 15 nanometers
hmmm... Still at least 100 times too large features for making the diodes required for Optical Rectena solar cells, but getting there. Reduce the 5 nm probe tip size to 0.25 nm and away. Only problem is, at that size, we're down to single silicon molecules forming the tip, so no mechanical strength.
4 / 5 (4) Apr 23, 2010
Nonoscale? Is that a scale to which we cannot go?

Check titles, Physorg. Cmon.
5 / 5 (2) Apr 23, 2010
We've set the author's related work, published at the same time as the Science paper in Advanced Materials, free to access for the next few week. So, if anyone's interested in more of the science behind this story, you can find it here: http://www.materi..._3D.html

Adrian Miller
Advanced Materials
not rated yet Apr 23, 2010
Adrian, not quite...the link doesn't find the data.
not rated yet Apr 23, 2010
Would be interesting to know how long the tip lasts. If it needs to be replaced all the time that won't be of much use.

Reminds me a lot of their millipede project http://en.wikiped...e_memory
not rated yet Apr 23, 2010
The tip wear is definitely a key issue. I also wonder why no 15 nm line space patterns were shown, maybe the tip stil has some curvature.
not rated yet Apr 24, 2010
The guys in Rueschlikon refuse to give up on the scanning probe. Five years after the millipede was canceled they do lithography instead. Look out for the 1000x1000 tip probe scanner....
Apr 24, 2010
This comment has been removed by a moderator.
not rated yet Apr 24, 2010
At this scale the possibility exists to make a high resolution electronic retina for certain types of blindness.
not rated yet Apr 26, 2010
Adrian, not quite...the link doesn't find the data.

Sorry GDM, quite right; we got the link wrong in the original story, and didn't notice over the weekend. Fixed now!

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