Extraterrestrial platinum was 'stirred' into the Earth

Jul 30, 2009
Extraterrestrial platinum was 'stirred' into the Earth
Outcrop of komatiite lava from the type locality in the Komati Valley, Barberton Mountainland, South Africa, showing the distinctive 'spinifex texture' formed by dendritic plates of olivine. The plates get smaller and more randomly oriented towards the top of the flow, at the top of the image.

(PhysOrg.com) -- A research program aimed at using platinum as an exploration guide for nickel has for the first time been able to put a time scale on the planet’s large-scale convection processes.

The research is reported in a Nature paper titled “Progressive mixing of meteoritic veneer into the early Earth’s deep mantle”.

Report author CSIRO Minerals Down Under Flagship researcher Dr Stephen Barnes said the study group collected a large body of data on the content of lava flows called komatiites, which host some of the world’s major nickel deposits.

“We found that the oldest komatiites have the lowest platinum content,” Dr Barnes said.

“The platinum content gradually increases from about 3.5 billion years to 2.9 billion years ago.

“This tells us that the deep source where the komatiite came from, down near the boundary between the Earth’s core and mantle, was gradually gaining platinum over time”.

The paper’s authors now think they know why.

“When the Earth’s core formed, it took all the available platinum with it, leaving the mantle and crust with none,” Dr Barnes said.

“Following that, a steady rain of meteorites created the so-called Late Veneer - a thin surface layer of debris rich in platinum.”

With time through large-scale convection processes, which now cause plate tectonics, this material was stirred down into the interior of the Earth.

We are seeing the signal of that stirring, which took about 1.5 billion years to occur.

This is the first time a time scale has been put on the stirring, which has important implications for the people who study the dynamics of mantle processes and the mechanisms that cause plate tectonics, earthquakes and volcanoes.

Combined with some other work by the researchers on sister elements to platinum, iridium and osmium, we also now have a new framework for understanding the variations in isotopic ratios of osmium with time.

Osmium isotopes are widely used as tracers of mantle processes, but there has been a mismatch between signals from osmium and from other important isotopic tracer systems which has eluded explanation until now.

Co-authors Dr Marco Fiorentini and Dr Wolfgang Maier from the University of Western Australia are delighted that this is a completely academic outcome which came out of an industry-funded project.

“It is a nice example of an unexpected fundamental discovery arising from a practical applied science study and demonstrates the very positive collaborations that exist between CSIRO and the University of Western Australia,” Dr Fiorentini said.

Provided by CSIRO (news : web)

Explore further: Lava creeps toward road on Hawaii's Big Island

add to favorites email to friend print save as pdf

Related Stories

Diamonds reveal deep source of platinum deposits

Jun 11, 2008

The world's richest source of platinum and related metals is an enigmatic geological structure in South Africa known as the Bushveld Complex. This complex of ancient magmas is known to have formed some two ...

Liverpool scientist discovers new layer of the Earth

Apr 14, 2005

A University of Liverpool scientist has discovered a new layer near the Earth's core, which will enable the internal temperature of the Earth's mantle to be measured at a much deeper level than previously possible.

Increasing levels of rare element found worldwide

Apr 21, 2009

Dartmouth researchers have determined that the presence of the rare element osmium is on the rise globally. They trace this increase to the consumption of refined platinum, the primary ingredient in catalytic converters, ...

Recommended for you

Icelandic volcano sits on massive magma hot spot

Oct 24, 2014

Spectacular eruptions at Bárðarbunga volcano in central Iceland have been spewing lava continuously since Aug. 31. Massive amounts of erupting lava are connected to the destruction of supercontinents and ...

NASA sees Tropical Storm Ana still vigorous

Oct 24, 2014

NASA's TRMM satellite saw that Tropical Storm Ana was still generating moderate rainfall is it pulled away from Hawaii. The next day, NASA's Aqua satellite saw that wind shear was having an effect on the ...

User comments : 3

Adjust slider to filter visible comments by rank

Display comments: newest first

gmurphy
3 / 5 (2) Jul 30, 2009
wow, I really like this idea, it seems a bit hand-wavey though and needs to be buttressed with further observations, that said, the subject matter is inherently difficult to obsevse
omatumr
1.5 / 5 (4) Jul 30, 2009
EARTH'S CORE DID NOT EXTRACT PLATINUM

This is an interesting story. It is true that all platinum on Earth today once came in as extraterrestrial material.

Earth formed by accreting meteorites and perhaps an occasional comet and other extraterrestrial debris. Earth is still accreting extraterrestrial material today.

The incoming material originally consisted almost entirely of iron meteorites. Hence the iron cores of the terrestrial planets.

Stone meteorites formed further from the Sun. Those that later lost angular momentum fell toward the gravitational center of the solar system - the Sun. In crossing the orbits of the inner planets, the iron cores accreted stone meteorites. Hence the stone mantles of the terrestrial planets.

The idea of heterogeneous accretion was proposed by Karl K. Turekian and S. P. Clark, Jr. in 1969 ["Inhomogeneous accumulation of the earth from the primitive solar nebula," Earth & Planetary Science Letters 6 (1969) 346-348].

This scenario was confirmed in 1981 by the distribution of primordial He and Ne, radiogenic Ar-40 and Xe-129 from K-40 and extinct I-129, and fissiogenic Xe-136 from U-238 and extinct Pu-244 in the terrestrial planets today ["The noble gas record of the terrestrial planets," Geochemical Journal 15 (1981) 245-267] http://tinyurl.com/2k8ds3

With kind regards,
Oliver K. Manuel
http://www.omatumr.com

out7x
1 / 5 (2) Jul 31, 2009
Plate tectonics time scale is 100-200million yrs. Much faster than the mixing they describe.