Not space junk yet: Mars rovers carry on despite age, ailments

Jun 28, 2009 By Robert S. Boyd
mars rover

In one of the most remarkable engineering feats of our time, the aging Mars rovers Spirit and Opportunity are still taking orders and sending home pictures more than five years after they were supposed to turn into slabs of space junk.

Opportunity is still rolling along, but is hung up on a rock and may be reaching the end of its travels. The rovers' masters at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif., hope they can nurse either or both of them through another harsh Martian winter.

"I'm very attached to them," said John Callas, the rover project manager. "They exhibit humanlike qualities. They have trials and tribulations. Like aging humans, they've got arthritic joints, they forget things, their vision is not what it used to be. When something's not right, you get that sinking feeling in your stomach."

Resembling golf carts loaded with cameras and scientific instruments instead of drivers and putters, the six-wheeled robotic geologists have delivered a cornucopia of information.

They've given scientists a sweeping view of the history of -- once warm and wet, now dry and dusty. They've provided many details about the planet's chemistry, geology and atmosphere. They've proved that water once flowed on its surface.

However, they haven't been able to answer the most important question: Did life ever exist there, or do living organisms perhaps still hide in the planet's crust? There have been hints -- both pro and con -- but nothing definite.

Nevertheless, after sending home more than a quarter-million images, the rovers "have made Mars a familiar place," Callas said. "They've made Mars seem like our own neighborhood. It's no longer a foreign or alien or distant world."

"The rovers are our children," wrote Ashley Stroupe, a member of JPL's rover team, on her blog. "Like parents of adult children who have moved away, we worry, we try to keep them safe, we try to teach them what we know, and we give them guidance. Sometimes they listen, and sometimes they don't. But together, we've made amazing discoveries."

The 5.2-by-7.5-foot rovers landed three weeks apart in January 2004, on opposite sides of Mars. They were supposed to survive for 90 days, but they've been at work for almost 2,000 days, even though their warranty expired long ago.

There have been high points, such as detecting the first definite evidence of liquid water, and low points, as when an enormous dust storm blotted out the sun for six weeks in the summer of 2007, coating the robots' solar panels and reducing their power supply.

"It was touch and go every day," Callas said. "We never knew when we came in every day if the rovers would still be there."

Until recently, the rovers have managed to recover from each setback. Now, Spirit is in deep trouble and may not make it much longer.

The rover lost the use of its right front wheel in 2006, so it's had to drive backward, dragging the useless wheel behind it. It can no longer climb steep slopes. It suffers from periodic bouts of amnesia, forgetting data it's collected. Some mornings it fails to wake up to communicate with its masters on Earth.

Worst of all, since May 7 it's been stuck with a rock under its belly and its wheels half-buried in loose soil the consistency of flour, unable to move. NASA engineers are trying to simulate the problem with a rover model in a "sandbox" at the laboratory, but it will be several weeks before they know if it will work.

"We want to make sure we don't do something stupid and make things worse," Callas said.

Opportunity has been the luckier of the pair since the very beginning. On its landing, it surprised and delighted its managers by making an "interplanetary hole-in-one," plopping down inside a small, scientifically intriguing crater, which the team dubbed Eagle.

Since then, Opportunity has explored two larger craters, named Endurance and Victoria. Now, despite an arthritic shoulder and a cranky electric motor on its right front wheel, it's headed toward a fourth crater, Endeavour, 20 times larger than Victoria.

Almost 14 miles across and about 250 feet deep, Endeavour apparently was created by an enormous meteorite billions of years ago. Like other craters, its walls are "time tunnels," Callas said. "By going down into the crater, we're going back in time. The older rocks are toward the bottom."

Opportunity left Victoria last August and got its first glimpse of Endeavour's uplifted rim -- still seven miles away -- on March 18. If its aching body holds up, the rover should arrive there in the fall of 2010.

On May 25, passed a milestone -- a record 10 miles of travel over the Martian landscape. Because of its problems, Spirit has covered a bit less than five miles.

Every year, NASA reviews the rover program to see if it's worth $20 million to keep it going another year. "So far," Callas said, "the answer is yes."

___

(c) 2009, McClatchy-Tribune Information Services.
Visit the McClatchy Washington Bureau on the World Wide Web at www.mcclatchydc.com

Explore further: NASA team lays plans to observe new worlds

add to favorites email to friend print save as pdf

Related Stories

NASA Mars Rover Ready for Descent Into Crater

Jun 28, 2007

NASA's Mars rover Opportunity is scheduled to begin a descent down a rock-paved slope into the Red Planet's massive Victoria Crater. This latest trek carries real risk for the long-lived robotic explorer, ...

NASA Extends Operations for Its Long-Lived Mars Rovers

Oct 16, 2007

NASA is extending, for a fifth time, the activities of the Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity. The decision keeps the trailblazing mobile robotic pioneers active on opposite sides of Mars, possibly ...

Risky Descent

Jun 29, 2007

NASA's Mars rover Opportunity is scheduled to begin a descent down a rock-paved slope into the Red Planet's massive Victoria Crater. This carries real risk for the long-lived robotic explorer, but NASA and ...

Spirit rover's wheels stuck in soft Martian dirt

May 12, 2009

(PhysOrg.com) -- The five wheels that still rotate on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit have been slipping severely in soft soil during recent attempts to drive, sinking the wheels about halfway into the ...

Recommended for you

Heat testing the miniature Aausat 4 satellite

18 hours ago

The miniature Aausat satellite undergoes repeated temperature variations in a vacuum chamber, cooling the CubeSat to –10°C and heating it to +45°C for more than two weeks. This harsh baptism will make ...

New meteor shower "just a memory" of what once was there

18 hours ago

The weak display of last month's Camelopardalids meteor shower, the result of the close passage of comet 209P/LINEAR, may have disappointed backyard observers, but this never-before-seen shower now has scientists ...

User comments : 4

Adjust slider to filter visible comments by rank

Display comments: newest first

deatopmg
1 / 5 (3) Jun 28, 2009
When I read this I could hear the violins playing! So, So sad, growing old and dying alone on dry sic and dusty Mars.

Is Spirit hung up on a rock or is it just touching it's belly, as reported here only a few days ago?

Viking sent back the results of chemical tests in '76 that clearly showed the presence of microbial life. Though NASA did their best to discount the results using PR w/o ever showing us any equivalent test results using proposed inorganic reagents. Viking also sent back photo's of what look suspiciously like higher life forms similar to photo's Spirit and Opportunity have returned.

This is great PR BS that the un-thinking media lambs picked up on to re-enforce the obvious nonsense about Mars from our friends at our military space agency.
Arikin
5 / 5 (1) Jun 29, 2009
Well you can say we are getting our money's worth. More points to the unmanned missions for the amount of scientific data.
ThomasS
5 / 5 (1) Jun 29, 2009
Well you can say we are getting our money's worth. More points to the unmanned missions for the amount of scientific data.

Definitely would like to second that. ISS is costing billions, not millions, and these rovers are doing a lot of data collection for long periods.
Quantum_Conundrum
1 / 5 (1) Jun 30, 2009
Well you can say we are getting our money's worth. More points to the unmanned missions for the amount of scientific data.


Definitely would like to second that. ISS is costing billions, not millions, and these rovers are doing a lot of data collection for long periods.




I've always said the ISS was a complete waste of money. Space probes and landers, as well as manned missions to other planets and moons end up being far cheaper and certainly give far more results than anything I'm aware of which has been done on the ISS. For the amount of time, monetary funds, and other resources spent on the ISS, NASA could have made scores of highly advanced lander missions, mapping missions, and deep space exploration missions, and would have put fewer people at risk (including at least one fewer space shuttle disaster.)

===

It continues to baffle me why manned space flight to the moon is considered to be so challenging today when it was supposedly done 40 years ago, using computers that ran on magnetic tape and probably made up half the weight of the space craft.

Today, the processor in a pocket calculator could run the entire operation easily, so right away, the entire bulk of the space craft is significantly reduced.

We've made all these huge advances in literally every relevant field of technology, and yet it is considered "expensive" and "challenging" to do something which was done successfully on several occassions a full 40 years ago. That simply does not add up.

This is just like the "cheap energy" issue. If our government and energy companies actually wanted us to have affordable energy, they could do it literally within 5 years with nuclear power; electricity would cost pennies on the dollar, and electric vehicles and hydrogen fuel cells actually would be "clean" for once.

Meh, rabbit trail, but still the same issue.

This recession represents failure by design.