RoboClam could lead to 'smart' anchors, more

Nov 24, 2008 By Elizabeth Thomson
Inspired by the amazing ability of the small clam to dig and wedge itself far deeper and more securely than would be thought, they show the robo-clam, a metal device on the right, anchored in sand in a testing device right next to a razor clam in the sand to the left. Photo / Donna Coveney

(PhysOrg.com) -- The simple razor clam has inspired a new MIT robot that could lead to a “smart” anchor that burrows through the ocean floor to reposition itself and could even reverse, making it easier to recover.

The RoboClam is being developed to explore the performance capabilities of clam-inspired digging, as well as to shed light on the behavior of the real animal.

“Our original goal was to develop a lightweight anchor that you could set then easily unset, something that’s not possible with conventional devices,” said Anette “Peko” Hosoi, an associate professor in the Department of Mechanical Engineering whose collaborators on the work are Amos Winter, a graduate student in her lab, and engineers at Bluefin Robotics Corp.

Such devices could be useful, for example, as tethers for small robotic submarines that are routinely repositioned to monitor variables like currents and temperature. Further, a device that can burrow into the seabed and be directed to a specific location could also be useful as a detonator for buried underwater mines.

Winter presented the team’s latest results Nov. 23 at a meeting of the American Physical Society.

For several years Hosoi’s research has focused on novel propulsion mechanisms inspired by nature. So when faced with the anchor problem, “We thought, ‘is there an animal that’s well adapted to moving through sediments on the seafloor?’”

The first stage of the research, said Winter, involved “looking at all the organisms I could find that dig into the ocean bottom, stick to it or cling to it mechanically.”

He found what the researchers dub the Ferrari of underwater diggers: the razor clam. The animals, about seven inches long by an inch wide, “can go about a centimeter a second, so you have to dig fast to catch them,” said Winter, who became a licensed clam digger as a result of the research.

Another reason why razors make a good model for novel anchors: they can dig deeply (up to about 70 centimeters). Plus, in a measure of anchoring force, or how hard you pull before an anchor rips out of the soil, compared to the energy required to embed the anchor, “razor clams beat everything, including the best anchors, by at least a factor of 10,” Winter said.

Research subject in hand, one of the team’s first tests gave perplexing results. They pushed a clam shell cast in epoxy into “sand” composed of glass beads, and compared the amount of force necessary to do so to what the living animal is capable of. They found a major discrepancy between the two.

“They’re much too weak to do what they do,” Hosoi said. “So we knew they were doing something tricky.”

To find out what, Winter created a glass-sided box filled with water and beads, added a living clam, and watched the animal burrow. It turns out to be a multi-step process. The animal’s tongue-like “foot” wiggles down into the sand, then the animal makes a quick up-and-down movement accompanied by opening and closing its shell. Together these movements propel it.

By filming the movement of the beads, Winter made a startling discovery. The clam’s quick up-and-down, opening-and-closing movements turn the waterlogged “sand” around it into a liquid-like quicksand. Experiments showed that “moving through a fluidized substrate [the quicksand] rather than a packed granular medium [ordinary sand] drastically reduces the drag force on the clam’s body, bringing it to a point within the animal’s strength capabilities,” Winter will report Nov. 23.

Over the past summer, Winter completed the RoboClam itself. Although only about the size of a lighter, it is supported by a large apparatus of pressure regulators, pistons and more that control such things as how hard the robot is pushed in each direction.

“Right now we’re getting it up and running” for tests, Winter said. Among them, “we want to use RoboClam to verify the theory we’ve generated to describe how to dig like a clam.”

This work was sponsored by Bluefin, Battelle, and Chevron.

Explore further: SRI microrobots show fast-building factory approach (w/ video)

add to favorites email to friend print save as pdf

Related Stories

Unraveling jellyfish metamorphosis

Jan 27, 2014

How does one genome create two completely different body plans in one animal? This was the question Konstantin Khalturin was attempting to answer when he began working on jellyfish. The fascinating story ...

Extreme winters impact fish negatively

Feb 15, 2013

Ecologists from Umeå University and the Norwegian University of Science and Technology in Trondheim have studied fish communities and fish habitat and reviewed the importance of winter conditions for fish ...

Cormorants cannot capture the benefits of global warming

Feb 05, 2013

(Phys.org)—Even though cormorants seem ideally placed to benefit from global warming, by expanding their breeding range into the far north, the darkness of the polar night is likely to keep them firmly in their place, according ...

Recommended for you

Simplicity is key to co-operative robots

Apr 16, 2014

A way of making hundreds—or even thousands—of tiny robots cluster to carry out tasks without using any memory or processing power has been developed by engineers at the University of Sheffield, UK.

Students turn $250 wheelchair into geo-positioning robot

Apr 16, 2014

Talk about your Craigslist finds! A team of student employees at The University of Alabama in Huntsville's Systems Management and Production Center (SMAP) combined inspiration with innovation to make a $250 ...

Using robots to study evolution

Apr 14, 2014

A new paper by OIST's Neural Computation Unit has demonstrated the usefulness of robots in studying evolution. Published in PLOS ONE, Stefan Elfwing, a researcher in Professor Kenji Doya's Unit, has succes ...

User comments : 0

More news stories

Hackathon team's GoogolPlex gives Siri extra powers

(Phys.org) —Four freshmen at the University of Pennsylvania have taken Apple's personal assistant Siri to behave as a graduate-level executive assistant which, when asked, is capable of adjusting the temperature ...

Better thermal-imaging lens from waste sulfur

Sulfur left over from refining fossil fuels can be transformed into cheap, lightweight, plastic lenses for infrared devices, including night-vision goggles, a University of Arizona-led international team ...

Deadly human pathogen Cryptococcus fully sequenced

Within each strand of DNA lies the blueprint for building an organism, along with the keys to its evolution and survival. These genetic instructions can give valuable insight into why pathogens like Cryptococcus ne ...