Hubble video shows shock collision inside black hole jet

May 27, 2015 by Rob Garner
[Left] In this NASA Hubble Space Telescope image of the central region of the galaxy NGC 3862, an extragalactic jet of material moving at nearly the speed of light can be seen at the three o'clock position. The jet of ejected plasma is powered by energy from a supermassive black hole at the center of the elliptical galaxy, which is located 260 million light-years away in the constellation of Leo.[Right] A sequence of Hubble images of knots (outlined in red, green, and blue) shows them moving along the jet over a 20-year span of observing. Astronomers were surprised to discover that the central knot (green) caught up with and merged with the knot in front of it (blue). The new analysis suggests that shocks produced by collisions within the jet further accelerate particles that are confined to a narrowly focused beam of radiation. Credit: NASA, ESA, and E. Meyer (STScI)

When you're blasting though space at more than 98 percent of the speed of light, you may need driver's insurance. Astronomers have discovered for the first time a rear-end collision between two high-speed knots of ejected matter. This discovery was made while piecing together a time-lapse movie of a plasma jet blasted from a supermassive black hole inside a galaxy located 260 million light-years from earth.

The finding offers new insights into the behavior of "light saber-like" jets that are so energized that they appear to zoom out of black hole at speeds several times the speed of light. This "superluminal" motion is an optical illusion due to their being pointed very close to our line of sight and very fast speeds.

Such extragalactic jets are not well understood. They appear to transport energetic plasma in a confined beam from the active nucleus of the . The new analysis suggests that shocks produced by collisions within the jet further accelerate particles and brighten the regions of colliding material.

The video of the jet was assembled with two decades' worth of NASA Hubble Space Telescope images of the elliptical galaxy NGC 3862, the sixth brightest galaxy and one of only a few with jets seen in . The jet was discovered in by Hubble in 1992. NGC 3862 is in a rich cluster of galaxies known as Abell 1367, located in the constellation Leo.

The jet from NGC 3862 has a string-of-pearls structure of glowing knots of material. Taking advantage of Hubble's sharp resolution and long-term optical stability, Eileen Meyer of the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) in Baltimore, Maryland assembled a video from archival data to better understand jet motions. Meyer was surprised to see a fast knot with an apparent speed of seven times the speed of light catch up with the end of a slower moving, but still superluminal, knot along the string.

The video will load shortly
This time-lapse movie of an extragalactic jet was assembled from 20 years of Hubble Space Telescope observations of the core of the elliptical galaxy NGC 3862. Credit: NASA, ESA, and E. Meyer STScI

The resulting "shock collision" caused the merging blobs to brighten significantly.

"Something like this has never been seen before in an extragalactic jet," said Meyer. As the knots continue merging they will brighten further in the coming decades. "This will allow us a very rare opportunity to see how the energy of the collision is dissipated into radiation."

It's not uncommon to see knots of material in jets ejected from gravitationally compact objects, but it is rare that motions have been observed with optical telescopes, and so far out from the black hole, thousands of light-years away. In addition to black holes, newly forming stars eject narrowly collimated streamers of gas that have a knotty structure. One theory is that material falling onto the central object is superheated and ejected along the object's spin axis. Powerful magnetic fields constrain the material into a narrow jet. If the flow of the infalling material is not smooth, blobs are ejected like a string of cannon balls rather than a steady hose-like flow.

Whatever the mechanism, the fast-moving knot will burrow its way out into intergalactic space. A knot launched later, behind the first one, may have less drag from the shoveled-out interstellar medium and catch up to the earlier knot, rear-ending it in a shock collision.

Beyond the collision, which will play out over the next few decades, this discovery marks only the second case of superluminal motion measured at hundreds to thousands of light-years from the black hole where the jet was launched. This indicates that the jets are still very, very close to the even on distances that start to rival the scale of the host galaxy. These measurements can give insights into how much energy jets carry out into their host galaxy and beyond, which is important for understanding how galaxies evolve as the universe ages.

Meyer is currently making a Hubble-image video of two more jets in the nearby universe, to look for similar fast motions. She notes that these kinds of studies are only possible because of the long operating lifetime of Hubble, which has now been looking at some of these jets for over 20 years.

Extragalactic jets have been detected at X-ray and radio wavelengths in many active galaxies powered by central , but only a few have been seen in optical light. Astronomers do not yet understand why some jets are seen in visible light and others are not.

Meyer's results are being reported in the May 28 issue of the journal Nature.

Explore further: Astronomers use Hubble images for movies featuring space slinky

More information: Nature, nature.com/articles/doi:10.1038/nature14481

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Returners
1 / 5 (3) May 27, 2015
Wow the site must be experiencing a bug in the log-in.
Uncle Ira
2.8 / 5 (9) May 28, 2015
Wow the site must be experiencing a bug in the log-in.


@ Returnering-Skippy. Wow your self Skippy. Maybe you should log-in so you can give a comment to tell them about the bugs.
Returners
2 / 5 (4) May 28, 2015
It asks me to log in even while I'm already logged in.

Here is the error I'm getting. Never seen it before yesterday.

This XML file does not appear to have any style information associated with it. The document tree is shown below.
400

The email address or password you have provided is not valid or incomplete
Returners


Meh, it doesn't preserve the coded format, but the site administrator might recognize it.

Obviously my email address is valid, because it has never been changed.
cantdrive85
1.4 / 5 (9) May 28, 2015
A better understanding of real (not theoretical) plasma processes should help these scientists out, they can start here;

http://www.plasma...PS-I.pdf
Tuxford
1.7 / 5 (6) May 28, 2015
Just more clear evidence of periodicity in the outbursts from the core star. Why assume it must be soley from external accretion? Really? On this scale? Really? Would such an unstable core environment likely including stellar winds radiating in all directions really lend itself to accretion on this scale? Really?
Bigbangcon
1.5 / 5 (8) May 28, 2015
Halton (Chip) Arp proposed the formation of new galaxies from material ejected/dissipated from a parent galaxy. He was silenced, went to exile and died un-noticed at Munich, Germany December 28, 2013.

"Astronomers were surprised to discover that the central knot (green) caught up with and merged with the knot in front of it (blue)". There is no "surprise" at all. since the "knots" are gradually slowed (as the move away) down by the gravity of the mother galaxy.
http://redshift.v...2MAL.pdf



Captain Stumpy
4 / 5 (8) May 28, 2015
A better understanding of real (not theoretical) plasma processes should help these scientists out, they can start here;
@cd
almost comical
first you post in threads that demonstrate that your aged and fallacious belief that plasma physics is not understood by astrophysicists is not only wrong but completely debunked in the very thread you posted in
but now you attempt to spread the lie as though it never happened?
wow

not sure if you are being ironic, sharing hyperbole or simply too stupid to comprehend the situation!
so, the easy debunking would be to simply share this link: http://phys.org/n...ars.html

but i will add more:
http://arxiv.org/...92v1.pdf
http://phys.org/n...een.html

your "secret mind control" conspiracy theory is showing:
http://phys.org/n...html#jCp
Captain Stumpy
3.9 / 5 (7) May 28, 2015
It asks me to log in even while I'm already logged in.

Here is the error I'm getting. Never seen it before yesterday.
@returners
try copy/paste-ing the information to the site under stie problems:
go here:
http://phys.org/help/feedback/

make sure you share as much information as you can about what happened as well as anything you copied from the original mistake

also- check your servers/ISP and make sure there isnt a local problem that might have cropped up
you can usually do this on your providers site/home page

you can also test your own connection here: http://en.utrace.de/
it will give you your own IP as well as a link to do a speed test (which is good to try now and again, especially if you have ISP problems)

also take some time to re-boot your wi-fi or simply shut down your PC/laptop and internet connection because sometimes long term use w/o shutdown makes problems

another helpful hint: periodically clean out your cookies/temp files
DeliriousNeuron
1.5 / 5 (8) May 28, 2015
Why is stumpy so determined to try and debunk the electric universe theory? I'm still not 100% sold on the planet realignment, but the physics of the electric universe is FARRRR more comprehensible than the "standard" model. Several times a week, I come here and find more and more articles that support the eu model and completely discredits the "standard" model.
Its becoming more and more obvious plasma and electricity play a greater role in astrophysics. But yet little ol stumpy tries and tries so desperately to post outdated links on debunking the electric universe theory.
Learn, comprehend and expand your mind and you'll see just how silly 100 year old theories and mathematical equations are becoming when applied incorrectly. We measure, observe and photograph the wonders of our universe and try to apply/manipulate these ancient theories to make sense of what we actually experience through observation.
Why do you insist on defending a losing battle stumpy? Electricity wins!
Captain Stumpy
4.2 / 5 (10) May 28, 2015
try and debunk the electric universe theory?
@delirious
there is no need for me to "try" anything
the science has already proven that your "eu" dogma is nothing more than a religion followed by the scientifically illiterate and ignorant, or in some cases, being lead by the charlatan and inexperienced in an attempt to make money off the stupid and gullible

there are no "physics of the electric universe" that overwrite modern physics
plasma physics is a known part of astrophysics
all these things have already been proven by science itself
Why do you insist on defending a losing battle stumpy? Electricity wins!
and i use your own words to demonstrate that your knowledge is not only limited, but that you ignore actual physics for the sake of a faith/religion

its proven:
the electric universe is nothing but pseudoscience wrapped in techy word salads spread by engineers who don't know astrophysics in an attempt to get $$ from the easily conned

period
DeliriousNeuron
1 / 5 (6) May 28, 2015
Its all around you. Its part of you. Its powering the device you are using to read this. Its scalable even at the quantum level. Its in the ground you walk on. Its measured in thunderstorms. Its measured in our atmosphere. Its measured on other planets and moons in our solar system. Its visible through our astronomical instruments observing 13.8 billion light years distant. Gravity plays a small role compared to magnetism, but gravity is still needed. Don't go talking about how we have gravity figured out because of the satellites we've launched. Both voyagers have experienced anomalies on thier trajectory. Look it up.
Even NASA is taking new looks at electricity and plasma. I've posted links before. Go look it up. Look at the YouTube video of the knitting needle experiment that was conducted in zero gravity. Look this stuff up stumpy! Quit fearing the inevitable and quit wasting our time with your brainless debunking links. You're fighting a losing battle.
DeliriousNeuron
1.6 / 5 (7) May 28, 2015
Science has proven it continues to baffle itself and you are on an old worn out bandwagon! If you stubborn people would take the time to educate yourselves, you would see just how silly gravity and hot gas is! Sure its there, but mathematically it cannot create what we measure and observe.
Captain Stumpy
3.9 / 5 (11) May 28, 2015
Science has proven it continues to baffle itself and you are on an old worn out bandwagon!
@delirious
this more than anything else shows that you have no idea what the scientific method is nor what science is all about, let alone have any knowledge about science itself:

SCIENCE is always on the cutting edge
the frontier of knowledge
it is always pushing back the envelope of ignorance and finding new things
it does this based upon the SCIENTIFIC METHOD
that method follows the evidence and when it finds some fact or piece of knowledge, then it uses these pieces as stepping stones to find MORE knowledge

there is no "old bandwagon"
there is only the evidence and the continued search for what is the next new piece of knowledge

if you don't believe in gravity, and you truly think electromag is what works, put some powerful magnets all around your body and go jump off the Eiffle tower

PROVE your conjectures

because until there is actual evidence
eu is pseudoscience
Captain Stumpy
4.2 / 5 (10) May 28, 2015
but mathematically it cannot create what we measure and observe
@delirious
you need to get back with cd on this one... or is he using reset or another sock now and just trolling with cd?
according to cd, the only thing mainstream science has is mathematical models and it is eu that has the evidence
of course, he cannot provide any reputable peer reviewed astrophysics impacting journal published articles to prove this, only engineering speculations about astrophysics
Both voyagers have experienced anomalies on thier trajectory
[sic]
they've also been explained using physics, not your eu
how silly gravity and hot gas is
see experiment request above
Look at the YouTube video
youtube is NOT a reputable science journal

this is actually my point, BTW
you want me to trust video's and ignore the physics/astrophysics papers
Why?

i don't read fiction- only NON fict and science papers
thats it
you want to make me believe, give me the STUDIES
not youtube
Captain Stumpy
3.9 / 5 (11) May 28, 2015
now about this
Even NASA is taking new looks at electricity and plasma
again, i point out that science is always on the frontiers of knowledge
and NASA is just another place with scientists wanting to find answers
just because you WANT something to be true (re: your eu) doesn't mean it IS true

that is religion and faith, NOT SCIENCE
Quit fearing the inevitable and quit wasting our time with your brainless debunking links. You're fighting a losing battle
the last proof of your ignorance regarding science

i am not posting "brainless" links, but actual scientific links
those studies/links i gave above prove cd wrong with empirical evidence that is irrefutable
they show where he continues to post known LIES to support his delusional belief

that is how science works

so until you can provide actual evidence and scientific papers that haven't been debunked or actually written by people who know WTF is going on,
you got a CON
or a religion
or both

NOT SCIENCE
DeliriousNeuron
1.6 / 5 (7) May 28, 2015
You've just demonstrated how big of an idiot you are in front of the readers here. How can you say electrical engineers and plasma physicists are not regarded as scientists? I don't read just any old papers posted because you're right. There are lots of bad ones out there. Its about understanding real papers and putting pieces together piece by piece. Something your bewildered mainstream physicists can't fully grasp due to thier narrowmindedness...just like you. Again, pay close attention to what goes on in science. You just might learn something new and not get left behind in the dark.
By the way, the YouTube video was conducted and recorded by REAL NASA astronauts. Documented by the real deal science boys! But you're too narrowminded to comprehend anything. I'm certain you didn't even bother comprehending what I've typed out. I've gotta go for now, but i shall return in a few hours to continue this long needed discussion here. Anyone else feel free to jump in
Captain Stumpy
4.1 / 5 (9) May 28, 2015
How can you say electrical engineers and plasma physicists are not regarded as scientists?
@delirious
i never said they weren't scientists- i said electrical engineers aren't astrophysicists
get your facts straight before jumping in with both feet... it makes you look stupid when you can't even quote something that is written right above your post
EEngineers do NOT learn astrophysics or most of the things that astro's specialize in for their degree's, and i can prove that with a single simple link: http://ocw.mit.edu/index.htm

That same link also proves that astrophysicists learn plasma physics
but i am sure you will ignore that and jump to another conclusion, just like above
I don't read just any old papers posted because you're right. There are lots of bad ones out there.
THAT is one reason that, though i might enjoy a paper, i do not consider something "gospel" until it is validated by a secondary source
IOW- i follow the evidence
cont'd
Captain Stumpy
4 / 5 (8) May 28, 2015
cont'd
Its about understanding real papers and putting pieces together piece by piece. Something your bewildered mainstream physicists can't fully grasp due to thier narrowmindedness...just like you.
Nope
it is about research that has supporting evidence or second party empirical evidence that demonstrates or supports said conclusions
IOW - VALIDATED evidence
this is the bane of the eu: its evidence is mostly speculation and a lot of what i've seen is based solely upon eyewitness ASSumptions of pictures from experiments
that is NOT validated evidence
want to validate eu? show me the forensic evidence that supports your grand canyon/moon crater formation hypothesis
then show me the validation on EM over gravity, as well as the EM plasma discharge of Shoemaker-Levy 9 when it broke up headed into Juipiter

the world watched
the results matched GRAVITY
NOT eu
and there was NO plasma discharge, despite what cd says

to be cont'd
DeliriousNeuron
1.2 / 5 (5) May 28, 2015
One more thing. Don't get me started on the religious aspect of this discussion. You will be disappointed to find out I don't have a religious bone in my body. I'm all about science and facts! There is a difference between "wanting" something to be right and truth. Its ALL about the evidence. Little by little the ad hock bits of the standard model will be replaced with actual, real data and take us to the next step in human evolution. The standard model holds its own ground to a certain extent, but fails miserably just before the end. This is where magnetism, electricity and plasma fill in the gaps of the 90% complete standard model. That is how science evolves. You cannot expect science to sustain a static state. We'd all still have square wheels if that were the case! LOL!
Captain Stumpy
4 / 5 (8) May 28, 2015
cont'd
Again, pay close attention to what goes on in science
i do
it is all i do, in fact
i got nothing but time to do it, too
i suggest you try getting a foundation in actual physics so that you can comprehend WHY the eu claims are wrong: start here: http://ocw.mit.edu/index.htm
recorded by REAL NASA astronauts
i don't care if John Glen himself came to my office and told me eu was real
NO EVIDENCE
NO PROOF
= PSEUDOSCIENCE
also: youtube is NOT a reputable science site, journal or peer reviewed resource
until it is included in a STUDY and i get the link to the REPUTABLE site publication study that has it in there, it is NOT SCIENCE
just another youtube video
PERIOD
But you're too narrowminded to comprehend anything
nope
i have standards
those standards make it hard for me to be conned into being suckered by engineers WRT astrophysics

to be cont'd
Captain Stumpy
4 / 5 (8) May 28, 2015
cont'd
Don't get me started on the religious aspect of this discussion. You will be disappointed to find out I don't have a religious bone in my body
i don't care if you are religious or not, just like i don't care if you have a FAITH or not...
HOWEVER
your adherence to a belief regardless of the physical evidence refuting said belief makes your adherence to eu a FAITH or a RELIGION, not science
& that is my point

you don't have the ability or the evidence to refute modern physics, therefore you have a religion
also: see above

i don't care what you call it
you're too narrowminded
the facts are simple: i change my mind based upon the EVIDENCE
not because someone said so

if you have TOO open of a mind, your brain will fall out
i have strict standards
the SAME standards i had as an investigator, which gave me the ability to see when BS was being played, and the same standards SCIENCE uses in its methodology

THAT is why i follow most of the mainstream science
Captain Stumpy
4.5 / 5 (6) May 28, 2015
cont'd
There is a difference between "wanting" something to be right and truth. Its ALL about the evidence
this is absolutely TRUE... but you ruin it with your SPECULATION HERE
Little by little the ad hock bits of the standard model will be replaced with actual, real data and take us to the next step in human evolution.
this is called ASSumption
it is NOT based upon evidence, but it resides in your mind as a faith based construct

this is where you and i differ
UNTIL there is evidence to change my mind, i will follow where the current evidence leads me
IOW- the standard model
You cannot expect science to sustain a static state
i don't
in fact, it would not be SCIENCE if it were static, it would be religion!
and that is one of the problems i find with eu acolytes like cantdrive, etc

even in the FACE of empirical evidence to the contrary, they do NOT change their mind
THAT IS RELIGION, not science

to be cont'd
Captain Stumpy
4.3 / 5 (6) May 28, 2015
last point
I'm certain you didn't even bother comprehending what I've typed out
that is where you are wrong
first and foremost, as an investigator, i follow forensics and psychology
i read what you had to say and tried to figure out your motivations and more

what i see is that you really believe in something: eu
you are trying to get me to open my mind to your eu
but you are trying to do it wrong!

give me EVIDENCE that cannot be refuted
evidence that is validated by outside second parties with no vested interest

IOW- use the scientific method
and stop trying to bully me into believing based upon faith or "what you say"
i don't CARE about what you think/say
just like i don't care what your engineers say
PROVE IT

that was the exact same advice i gave my own daughter who is NOW an electrical engineer building robots
why should YOU be different or special?

take your time replying and THINK about what i said
don't be like the cd parrot

i will be back later
cantdrive85
1.8 / 5 (5) May 29, 2015
I'm gonna go out on a limb here, it's a bit of speculation but I have a feeling I'm going to be correct. I bet that Cap'n Capslock has returned to make an appearance. I cantknow due to the handy dandy ignore button, but after an uninterrupted string of comments I guarantee there are a litany of all caps words, excited dementia affected diatribes, random links to the PPL or MIT, and the over willingness to open up and say ahh to the astrophyte Ol' Timmy Thompson of the anti science brigade. Just a speculation but pretty safe to say.
Captain Stumpy
3.4 / 5 (5) May 29, 2015
@Delirious
the post above by cd is proof of what i was talking about regarding evidence and the eu
so think about it hard when you return

cd is making a bully attempt/argument that is based upon fear and anger because cd has yet to be able to demonstrate his version of any science from his eu based moon craters to his discharge of Shoemaker-Levy9 under world observation as well as every known astro telescope and recording device

so in the face of failure and lack of evidence, he resorts to taunts, lies, denigration and libelous attacks on people (like Thompson or myself) and arguments without any science at all whatsoever (like above)

he states that he "ignores" my posts, but then has data that is specific enough to show that he is reading them

why would that be?
attention? trolling? psychological problems?

one thing is for sure: there is no evidence or provable science
only speculations based upon eu site papers (Not reputable journal papers)
cont'd
Captain Stumpy
3.7 / 5 (6) May 29, 2015
@delirious cont'd
so when you get back, take a hard look at the types and kind of evidence that you & most of the eu are presenting

i am not talking about the actual reputable papers that find their way into your eu, but the other stuff which is "based " upon the papers that are legit, or the engineer's who are writing about astrophysics without the training, knowledge or actual peer reviewed publications because they can't get them published in an astrophysics journal (there is a reason for that and you should seriously consider it)

when it comes to evidence: source is vital
you don't take the word of a drug addled high crack addict when they tell you Santa clause killed the easter bunny for breeding rights with Faeries... nor would you take them seriously when they pontificate about thermodynamics or astrophysics, so why would you take non-astrophysicists at their word without checking with actual astrophysicists about the work?

cont'd
Captain Stumpy
3.4 / 5 (5) May 29, 2015
@delirious
so again, without the ability to properly discern yourself because you don't have a PhD in astrophysics, then you are left to the professionals

this is the exact same thing as choosing to accept plumbing code advice from the local basketball coach because he unblocked a clog from his toilet once
or because he saw a picture of a plumber with a plunger, so he must be correct in his extrapolations about the plumbing code

source material on eu sites is flooded with pseudoscience (and that is a proven fact)
if you want to make an informed decision, start first with:
validated studies and proven science
secondly: get an education that will help (see MIT link above)
lastly: accept no one at their word and follow the evidence

that is why i do not accept eu dogma
that is also why cd is always so easily refuted
reset
1.6 / 5 (7) May 29, 2015
You are the dumbest man alive Stump. Nice to see you aren't afraid to keep showing it.

http://phys.org/n...led.html

... or is he using reset or another sock now and just trolling with cd?
according to cd, the only thing mainstream science has is mathematical models and it is eu that has the evidence


So you don't actually understand physics...you can't figure out the difference between a poster and puppet...and you are generally annoying....perhaps a nice vacation to North Korea?
reset
2.5 / 5 (8) May 29, 2015
source material on eu sites is flooded with pseudoscience (and that is a proven fact)


Mainstream "science facts" :

75% of all the matter in the universe is undetectable

Hydrogen gravitationally collapses itself into a star

We found the Higgs, this room full of blue reporters surrounding this red guy is how it works

the mean free path of a photon exiting the core of the sun is thousands of years (according to the math)but supernovas take a few months from onset to completion (according to the math)...my favorite!

Gravity from a planet helps moons form (according to the math)...until it rips them apart (according to the math) or in the instance of the asteroid belt prevents a planet from forming...except a dwarf planet in the middle of it...

Black holes....if you get enough of something in one spot it dissappears...

collisionless shocks...

Thank you mainstream theoretical science for your math based contributions, and for Stump.

All worthless.

denglish
4.3 / 5 (6) May 29, 2015
Has any EU supporter designed and built a working high-precision GPS receiver that can be certified as free of relativistic corrections?
cantdrive85
2 / 5 (4) May 29, 2015
Has any EU supporter designed and built a working high-precision GPS receiver that can be certified as free of relativistic corrections?


https://www.youtu...1GU_HDwY
denglish
5 / 5 (4) May 30, 2015
Has any EU supporter designed and built a working high-precision GPS receiver that can be certified as free of relativistic corrections?

cantdrive85
2 / 5 (4) May 30, 2015
Has any EU supporter designed and built a working high-precision GPS receiver that can be certified as free of relativistic corrections?


It's pointless, as relativistic corrections are unnecessary to the GPS system, as shown in the video. No magic needed.
denglish
5 / 5 (4) May 30, 2015
Has any EU supporter designed and built a working high-precision GPS receiver that can be certified as free of relativistic corrections?


It's pointless, as relativistic corrections are unnecessary to the GPS system, as shown in the video. No magic needed.

Are you saying that it has not been observed that proximity to mass does not affect clocks?
viko_mx
2 / 5 (4) May 30, 2015
@reset
Observant people are a real treasure for true not "politicaly correct main stream " sciense.
cantdrive85
1.7 / 5 (6) May 30, 2015
Has any EU supporter designed and built a working high-precision GPS receiver that can be certified as free of relativistic corrections?


It's pointless, as relativistic corrections are unnecessary to the GPS system, as shown in the video. No magic needed.

Are you saying that it has not been observed that proximity to mass does not affect clocks?

Dr. Hatch has shown in the presentation that GPS/relativity claims are bunk. Pseudoscientific mumbo jumbo. Watch it, it's all there including the math.
rpaul_bauman
not rated yet May 31, 2015
Thanks. I was having a problem with ABELL 520 and this may just explain that problem. Thanks again.

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