Research duo suggest possible explanation for rapid growth of seed black holes in early universe

Aug 08, 2014 by Bob Yirka report
This graphic shows the center of a newly formed star cluster (stars are in yellow), within which the seed black hole gets its super boost of gas (shown in blue).

(Phys.org) —A pair of researchers, Tal Alexander of the Weizmann Institute of Science, in Israel and Priyamvada Natarajan with Yale University in the U.S. has come up with a possible explanation for the rapid growth of black holes believed to have existed in the early universe. In their paper published in the journal Science, the two propose that early black holes could have grown much more rapidly than those observed today due to dense gases that existed at the time that allowed for rapid growth in the absence of an accretion disk.

Black holes are thought to exist at the center of most if not all galaxies—but contrary to popular science fiction, they don't simply suck in everything around them like a vacuum cleaner—if that were the case planet Earth would have been sucked into the black hole at the center of the Milky Way long ago. Materials are pulled into a black hole, but are slowed by the buildup of an accretion disk. That disk means that materials can only be pulled in along the plane of the disk. There is also the problem of materials colliding as they are pulled closer, generating enough energetic radiation to push other material away from the black hole. While this all makes sense in the modern era, it causes problems for space scientists seeking to figure out how everything got to where it is now—most theories point to super-massive black holes forming shortly after the Big Bang. But, how did they grow so big so fast?

Alexander and Natarajan think they may have the answer—they note that shortly after the Big Bang, the universe was of course, much smaller and denser. Cold dense gas, they suggest, in the vicinity of a black hole would not have been susceptible to causing heat creation due to collisions. But perhaps more importantly, the gravity pull from other nearby stars could have caused to move around in odd, erratic fashion, preventing the creation of an . That in turn would mean material could be pulled into the black hole from every direction, greatly increasing the speed at which it would build in mass.

A model the two built based on their ideas, suggests such a scenario could lead to a black hole starting with ten times the mass of our modern sun, growing to something ten billion times as big in just a billion years.

Explore further: Black hole that doesn't emit x-rays discovered near massive star

More information: Rapid growth of seed black holes in the early universe by supra-exponential accretion, Science DOI: 10.1126/science.1251053

ABSTRACT
Mass accretion by black holes (BHs) is typically capped at the Eddington rate, when radiation's push balances gravity's pull. However, even exponential growth at the Eddington-limited e-folding time tE ~ few×0.01 Gyr, is too slow to grow stellar-mass BH seeds into the supermassive luminous quasars that are observed when the universe is 1 Gyr old. We propose a dynamical mechanism that can trigger supra-exponential accretion in the early universe, when a BH seed is trapped in a star cluster fed by the ubiquitous dense cold gas flows. The high gas opacity traps the accretion radiation, while the low-mass BH's random motions suppress the formation of a slowly draining accretion disk. Supra-exponential growth can thus explain the puzzling emergence of supermassive BHs that power luminous quasars so soon after the Big Bang.

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Pexeso
1.7 / 5 (6) Aug 08, 2014
The localized accretion model has the problem, that the energy density released during this is so high, the pressure of accretion radiation will effectively stop it soon. Many physicists already support the model of dark matter stars or gravastars, which would allow the condensation of gas without excessive concentration of matter, accretion and premature radiation of energy. This is essentially a time reversed model: the galaxies were formed first in form of dense gas cloud and the black holes gradually separated from their centers like the oil droplets condensing from oil-water mixture. This model doesn't differ so much from gradual star formation from interstellar gas.
Torbjorn_Larsson_OM
5 / 5 (3) Aug 08, 2014
@Pexeso: Your comment has all sorts of problems, mainly that the research rejects your initial claim of "problem": they are showing by way of _radiation modeling_ that it works! "The high gas opacity traps the accretion radiation, while the low-mass BH's random motions suppress the formation of a slowly draining accretion disk."

Other problems is lack of references, and an unsubstantiated claim of "many" scientists supporting an alternative to the accepted black hole theory. [ http://en.wikiped...ravastar ]
yep
5 / 5 (2) Aug 09, 2014
More science creationism.
dogbert
not rated yet Aug 09, 2014
Alexander and Natarajan think they may have the answer—they note that shortly after the Big Bang, the universe was of course, much smaller and denser. Cold dense gas, they suggest, in the vicinity of a black hole would not have been susceptible to causing heat creation due to collisions.


How did the early universe come to have so much cold dense gas? Or how did the gas which existed cool down so quickly?
Arties
1 / 5 (1) Aug 09, 2014
Your comment has all sorts of problems, mainly that the research rejects your initial claim of "problem"
Despite of it, it will soon became the most significant model of black hole formation - wanna bet? BTW The EMDrive finding had "all sorts of problems" too and it was still validated. I'm just expert on ideas and findings, which the mainstream physics proponents consider least perspective in a given moment.
How did the early universe come to have so much cold dense gas? Or how did the gas which existed cool down so quickly
It's already proved, the first black holes were formed long time before reionization period, thus rendering Big Bang as a fringe model (between many others).
Arties
not rated yet Aug 09, 2014
BTW we should realize, that the black hole is defined with Schwarzchild criterion, i.e. with presence of sufficient amount of matter beneath the event horizon, which is formed with this matter. Which doesn't imply the presence of some singularity at all, as the event horizon doesn't care about distribution of matter inside of it: when the amount of interstellar gas gets sufficiently huge (like at the case of protogalaxy), then the event horizon may be formed even without formation of singularity at its center - inside of this cloud of gas.
Arties
not rated yet Aug 09, 2014
The high gas opacity traps the accretion radiation, while the low-mass BH's random motions suppress the formation of a slowly draining accretion disk
It will make the gas hot, sparse and unable to condense into black hole anyway. In AWT the radiation pressure plays a role of antigravitational force, being a dual counterpart of its shielding mechanism. Also, there are another theoretical problems, which effectively prohibit the accretion of sparse gas with event horizon - it's surface behaves like the white hole for it, repelling all infalling matter.
Other problems is lack of references
Not an actual problem in the time of Google powered Internet. Only stupid people who cannot use search need a reference for everything - and such a people aren't opened any other ideas anyway.
Arties
not rated yet Aug 09, 2014
BTW We already have an observational support for the above model: the Milky Way black hole was predicted to swallow gas, but it didn't happen from reasons, which the astronomers are still puzzled with. You cannot get the whole picture, until everything what you know about it are few fifty years old schematic rules described with textbooks - the detailed awareness of many seemingly uncorrelated recent research article is what it's required here.