Researchers sequence pepper genome, find jumping genes enhanced diversity

March 4, 2014 by Marcia Malory report
The image illustrates field performance of Zunla-1 at post-break stage. Credit: Cheng Qin

( —Cheng Qin of Sichuan Agricultural University in China and his colleagues have sequenced the genomes of wild and domesticated peppers and found that a large percentage of the pepper genome consists of transposons, "jumping genes" that change position within the genome. These transposons probably were responsible for the pepper's great degree of genetic diversity. The research appears in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

The pepper (genus Capsicum) is a member of the Solanaceae, or nightshade family, which also includes the tomato, potato and eggplant. At least 32 species of pepper are native to tropical America; Native Americans domesticated five of these around 6000 BC. Peppers adapt easily to different and agricultural and ; consequently, pepper cultivation spread throughout the world after Columbus reached the Americas. In 2011, the worldwide pepper harvest reached 34.6 million tons. Today, come in a wide variety of size, shapes and colors. They range in taste from bland to extremely spicy. People use peppers as food, as spices, as medicine and as ornamental crops.

To gain a better understanding of pepper evolution, Qin's team generated and analyzed the genomes of two types of peppers: a cultivated pepper known as Zunla-1, and its wild ancestor, Chiltepin. The researchers discovered that more than 81% of the pepper genome consists of transposons. In comparison, transposons make up only 50.3% of the tomato genome and only 47.2% of the .

The team found that most of the transposons in the pepper appeared about 300,000 years ago. They concluded that the pepper's genomic expansion would have begun then. When they created a phylogenetic tree by examining pepper, tomato, potato, grape, papaya and rock cress genes, they found that that the Solanaceae family first appeared almost 156 million years ago, and the pepper diverged from the tomato and potato about 36 million years ago. Thus, the expansion of the pepper genome occurred very late in the pepper's evolutionary history.

By resequencing the genomes of 18 different types of Zunla-1, two forms of Chiltepin and the semi-wild pepper Capsicum chinense, Qin's team was able to identify genes, added to the after domestication, associated with seed dormancy, disease resistance and the ripening process, which affects shelf life. The researchers also identified the genes that affect the synthesis of capsaicin, the chemical that makes pepper spicy. The team believes these findings will benefit pepper breeding programs.

Explore further: PhD student grows bell pepper with a hint of chilli

More information: "Whole-genome sequencing of cultivated and wild peppers provides insights into Capsicum domestication and specialization," by Cheng Qin et al. PNAS,

As an economic crop, pepper satisfies people's spicy taste and has medicinal uses worldwide. To gain a better understanding of Capsicum evolution, domestication, and specialization, we present here the genome sequence of the cultivated pepper Zunla-1 (C. annuum L.) and its wild progenitor Chiltepin (C. annuum var. glabriusculum). We estimate that the pepper genome expanded ∼0.3 Mya (with respect to the genome of other Solanaceae) by a rapid amplification of retrotransposons elements, resulting in a genome comprised of ∼81% repetitive sequences. Approximately 79% of 3.48-Gb scaffolds containing 34,476 protein-coding genes were anchored to chromosomes by a high-density genetic map. Comparison of cultivated and wild pepper genomes with 20 resequencing accessions revealed molecular footprints of artificial selection, providing us with a list of candidate domestication genes. We also found that dosage compensation effect of tandem duplication genes probably contributed to the pungent diversification in pepper. The Capsicum reference genome provides crucial information for the study of not only the evolution of the pepper genome but also, the Solanaceae family, and it will facilitate the establishment of more effective pepper breeding programs.

Related Stories

PhD student grows bell pepper with a hint of chilli

May 3, 2012

Martijn Eggink is cultivating a new bell pepper variety with an exotic flavour. This is the basis for his PhD research at Wageningen UR, in which he will correlate the flavour of the bell pepper to sugars, acids and aroma ...

Study reveals genetic diversity of genes in peppers

February 15, 2013

From the small, spicy Thai chiles to the portly, mild bell pepper, researchers at the University of California, Davis, have developed a "family tree" of sorts for peppers and characterized the diversity of genes found in ...

Early uses of chili peppers in Mexico

November 13, 2013

Chili peppers may have been used to make spicy beverages thousands of years ago in Mexico, according to new research published November 13 in the open-access journal PLOS ONE by Terry Powis at Kennesaw State University and ...

Nitrogen management studied in greenhouse pepper production

January 31, 2014

As consumer demand for year-round fresh produce increases, vegetable and fruit producers are facing significant environmental and sustainability issues, and are being challenged to examine traditional production practices ...

New plant species a microcosm of biodiversity

February 7, 2014

Biologists working in the Andes mountains of Ecuador have described a new plant species, a wild relative of black pepper, that is in itself a mini biodiversity hotspot. The new species, Piper kelleyi, is the sole home of ...

Recommended for you

Study suggests fish can experience 'emotional fever'

November 25, 2015

(—A small team of researchers from the U.K. and Spain has found via lab study that at least one type of fish is capable of experiencing 'emotional fever,' which suggests it may qualify as a sentient being. In their ...

New gene map reveals cancer's Achilles heel

November 25, 2015

Scientists have mapped out the genes that keep our cells alive, creating a long-awaited foothold for understanding how our genome works and which genes are crucial in disease like cancer.

How cells in the developing ear 'practice' hearing

November 25, 2015

Before the fluid of the middle ear drains and sound waves penetrate for the first time, the inner ear cells of newborn rodents practice for their big debut. Researchers at Johns Hopkins report they have figured out the molecular ...

How cells 'climb' to build fruit fly tracheas

November 25, 2015

Fruit fly windpipes are much more like human blood vessels than the entryway to human lungs. To create that intricate network, fly embryonic cells must sprout "fingers" and crawl into place. Now researchers at The Johns Hopkins ...


Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.