Rail link is new 'silk road' from China to heart of Europe

Mar 29, 2014 by Estelle Peard
Freight cars (right) filled with coal parked inside a coal mining facility in Huaibei, in northern China's Anhui province on March 5, 2014

It is one of the world's longest railways—an approximately 11,000-kilometre "modern-day silk road" that traverses Russia and Kazakhstan to link a megacity in the heart of China with a key commercial hub in western Germany.

On Saturday, as part of his landmark visit to Germany, Chinese President Xi Jinping is set to visit the last stop on the "Yuxinou" rail line, an industrial feat that promises to revolutionise between Europe and Asia.

Duisburg is a steel-making town of around half a million on the confluence of the Rhine and Ruhr rivers that boasts the world's biggest inland port and is one of Germany's most important transport and commercial hubs.

Despite the vast distances between them, it takes just 16 days for trains crammed with laptops and electronics to travel to Duisburg from Chongqing, a sprawling metropolitan symbol of rising China with a population of more than 30 million.

Xi is scheduled to welcome a freight train on Saturday afternoon as it completes a journey that has taken it through Central Asia, Russia, Belarus and Poland.

Set up in 2011 by a group of rail companies, the Yuxinou is just 2,000 km short of the world's longest rail line that links Germany to Shanghai. It has shaved more than 20 days off the sea route.

The route is particularly useful for Chongqing—home to vast car-parts and IT factories—since it lies 1,500 km from China's main seaports.

"The value of this rail link, known in China as the 'new ', is more than just symbolic," the spokesman of the port of Duisburg, Julian Boecker, told AFP.

"It has found itself a position in the market and now operates up to three weekly services," he said.

But one of the biggest challenges will be to boost traffic in both directions to make it more profitable.

A man rides a tricycle over the rails next to a cargo train in Beijing on August 7, 2009

It is not uncommon for the Yuxinou trains, which can transport as many as 50 containers, to be full when they arrive in Duisburg but empty when they return to China.

"At the moment, the amount of goods travelling from China to Europe is much larger than the other way round. That's a problem," said Maria Leenen, director of market research group SCI Verkehr.

Alternative to sea transport

It was sea transport which gradually supplanted the historic Silk Road trade route linking Asia with Europe centuries ago.

Sea transport still accounts for more than 95 percent of goods trading between the two regions, said Burkhard Lemper of the logistics consultants ISL.

Rail's share of the market remains tiny, and for now, the Yuxinou link only compliments existing transport systems.

But "rail is twice as fast as sea transport and twice as cheap as air freight," said Erich Staake, head of the company that operates the Duisburg port.

For Leenen, "both sides benefit" from the link.

Chinese miners unload coal from a train in Hefei, in eastern China's Anhui province on August 4, 2010

"Europe can meet a sudden surge in demand in industry or trade, say in textiles, while China can reach its markets more rapidly," she said.

The link provides a welcome transport connection and gateway for Chinese provinces situated deep inside the country.

"It's still early days yet for this mode of transport. But it could have a promising future if the conditions are right, notably in terms of safety and security, punctuality and a stable political situation," Leenen said.

Other electronics companies, such as Foxconn of Taiwan which supplies Apple, or computer giant Acer, as well as car parts suppliers and machine-tool makers, all have factories in Chongqing.

The port of Duisburg hopes that the importance of the rail link will increase after Xi's visit.

"We're in negotiations with companies, such as automakers, on a possible expansion of the service," said Boecker.

"There are people who aren't aware that it even exists," he said. "We hope to increase customers in both directions."

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baudrunner
not rated yet Mar 29, 2014
It is not uncommon for the Yuxinou trains, which can transport as many as 50 containers..
Only 50 containers at a time? I have heard from a train engineer that there is no theoretical limit to how long a train can be. Trains 6 miles long used to traverse the desert lands of Arizona laden with gold containing earth.
Eikka
5 / 5 (2) Mar 29, 2014
It is not uncommon for the Yuxinou trains, which can transport as many as 50 containers..
Only 50 containers at a time? I have heard from a train engineer that there is no theoretical limit to how long a train can be. Trains 6 miles long used to traverse the desert lands of Arizona laden with gold containing earth.


If you keep adding tractors in between, then yes there's no lenght limit.

However, how different is that from simply having multiple trains?

The longer the train though, the more difficult it is to synchronize and equalize acceleration and braking, so you get a sort of accordion effect going on with really long trains, which can derail the whole thing when some parts don't slow down or speed up simultaneously.
Nik_2213
5 / 5 (3) Mar 29, 2014
"...the Yuxinou link only compliments existing transport systems."

Yes, yes, it is very good, but the word should have been 'complements'...
{Sigh.}
Shakescene21
5 / 5 (1) Mar 29, 2014
The advantage of long trains is that you can save on labor. In China labor is still very cheap, so 50-car trains are probably the most economical length for long trips.
nkalanaga
5 / 5 (1) Mar 29, 2014
It also depends on the couplers. China uses North American-style knuckle couplers, which can easily handle 10,000 to 15,000 ton trains. If the European section uses locomotives with the European screw-link couplers, that would limit the trailing tonnage to a fraction of that. 50 containers, loaded, can easily be 1,500 tons, plus the cars themselves, which would be near the limit for European couplers.
Eikka
5 / 5 (1) Mar 30, 2014
It also depends on the couplers.


The couplers depend on the train. There is no single "European style" coupler, and screw-link couplers are only used in light rail vehicles. Any proper long haul or high speed train would use automatic couplers.
nkalanaga
not rated yet Mar 30, 2014
It seems that most goods trains I've seen pictures of still have the older couplers. As you said, high speed passenger trains use automatic couplers, and some "unit trains".

What I was thinking of was the possibility of using standard locomotives with an adapter car. The train may have automatic couplers, but does the locomotive, or do they use a special car with an automatic coupler on one end and screw-link on the other? The advantage would be that the locomotive could be used on any train regardless of coupler type.
Eikka
not rated yet Mar 30, 2014
It seems that most goods trains I've seen pictures of still have the older couplers.


Many carriages have both. The knuckle coupler can fold down and reveal a hook for the link so the old style coupler acts as a universal connector of sorts.
nkalanaga
not rated yet Apr 02, 2014
OK, that makes sense.

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