Hubble images spawn theory of how spiral galaxies turn into jellyfish before becoming elliptical

Jan 30, 2014 by Bob Yirka report
HST images of extreme cases of ram-pressure stripping in galaxy clusters at z > 0:2. From left to right: galaxy C153 in A2125 at z = 0:20 (WFPC2, F606W+F814W, Owen et al. 2006); galaxy 234144–260358 in A2667 at z = 0:23 (ACS, F450W+F606W+F814W, Cortese et al. 2007); galaxy F0083 in A2744 at z = 0:31 (ACS, F435W+F606W+F814W, Owers et al. 2012). Credit: arXiv:1312.6135 [astro-ph.CO]

(Phys.org) —A trio of researchers, two from the University of Hawaii, and one from the University of Dunham in the U.K. has found evidence from the Hubble Space Telescope that suggests jellyfish galaxies come about when spiral galaxies are ripped apart as they move towards dense galaxy clusters. In their paper published in The Astrophysical Journal Letters, the team describes how six images of jellyfish captured by Hubble appear to show how spiral galaxies morph into elliptical galaxies.

Prior research has shown that in dense parts of the galaxy, elliptical galaxies tend to outnumber spiral galaxies—likely due, some have suggested, to some unknown transformation process. In this new effort, the researchers suggest that the mysterious transformation process appears to come about as spiral galaxies encounter the enormous heat present in dense galaxy clusters.

Dense galaxy clusters are thought to come about due to happenstance arrangement of galaxies—those that are close enough to others, draw ever closer to each other due to gravity—as the area of space grows more dense the gasses between the galaxies grows hotter. Anything that approaches the dense area is impacted by the heated gas.

In studying images captured by Hubble, the researchers have witnessed what they believe to be the process by which galaxies evolve in such dense parts of space. They believe that when a spiral galaxy nears a dense galaxy cluster, its colder gases tend to get pulled in to the cluster, causing a stretching of the spiral, and resulting in what is known as a jellyfish galaxy—so named because of its resemblance to the sea creature. Stars from the outer edges of the spiral galaxy are pulled into the cluster, wrecking its signature shape. Over time, the entire is pulled into the cluster where it melds with other galaxies to form an elliptical galaxy.

The new theory explains both the presence of jellyfish and so-named orphan stars that don't appear to exist as part of any galaxy—they're actually in transit, the researchers believe, after being pulled from a spiral—eventually they'll wind up as part of an .

Explore further: Hubble views a scattering of spiral and elliptical galaxies

More information: Jellyfish: Evidence of extreme ram-pressure stripping in massive galaxy clusters, H. Ebeling et al. 2014 ApJ 781 L40 DOI: 10.1088/2041-8205/781/2/L40 . On Arxiv: http://arxiv.org/abs/1312.6135

Abstract
Ram-pressure stripping by the gaseous intracluster medium has been proposed as the dominant physical mechanism driving the rapid evolution of galaxies in dense environments. Detailed studies of this process have, however, largely been limited to relatively modest examples affecting only the outermost gas layers of galaxies in nearby and/or low-mass galaxy clusters. We here present results from our search for extreme cases of gas-galaxy interactions in much more massive, X-ray selected clusters at z > 0.3. Using Hubble Space Telescope snapshots in the F606W and F814W passbands, we have discovered dramatic evidence of ram-pressure stripping in which copious amounts of gas are first shock compressed and then removed from galaxies falling into the cluster. Vigorous starbursts triggered by this process across the galaxy-gas interface and in the debris trail cause these galaxies to temporarily become some of the brightest cluster members in the F606W passband, capable of outshining even the Brightest Cluster Galaxy. Based on the spatial distribution and orientation of systems viewed nearly edge-on in our survey, we speculate that infall at large impact parameter gives rise to particularly long-lasting stripping events. Our sample of six spectacular examples identified in clusters from the Massive Cluster Survey, all featuring M F606W < –21 mag, doubles the number of such systems presently known at z > 0.2 and facilitates detailed quantitative studies of the most violent galaxy evolution in clusters.

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Tuxford
1 / 5 (6) Jan 30, 2014
Gosh, just more lunacy from merger maniacs indulging in the Huge Bang Fantasy. And they get published!

'Prior research has shown that in dense parts of the galaxy, elliptical galaxies tend to outnumber spiral galaxies—likely due, some have suggested, to some unknown transformation process.'

Indeed, in dense parts of the universe, such as galactic clusters, older, larger ellipticals outnumber spirals, because they have grown from within to big trees, instead of just large bushes. Again, denser regions of matter inspire accelerated growth rates. And the galaxies are diverging, not converging.

These educated astronomers need to be ashamed. They are stuck between the relativists' irrefutable logic and the nuclear physicists' certainty about uncertainty. Astronomers, learn to think for yourselves!
Nestle
5 / 5 (1) Jan 30, 2014
This article has nothing to do with "Huge Bang Fantasy" and it seem to be legit and noncontroversial for me.
Eternalflame
1 / 5 (2) Jan 31, 2014
Galaxys centre supermassive concentrations expanding all a time and there is pushing out all a time expanding densers "who" are so density that our expanding machine cant register this densers.

If some outside expanding movement get this densers expanding faster, then born visible atoms.

Space dont expanding at all!

.
Eternalflame
1 / 5 (2) Jan 31, 2014
Lets think about what i write before and check out that news

River of hydrogen flowing through space seen with Green Bank Telescope

I say, this hydrogen and all stuff are from galaxys centre supermassivise expanding concentration, where pushing outside all a time expanding densers "who" have nature of visible atoms, if this densers get inside enough some other expanding movement / energy from outside this expanding densers!

Onesimpleprinciple
rockwolf1000
2.3 / 5 (3) Jan 31, 2014
Galaxys centre supermassive concentrations expanding all a time and there is pushing out all a time expanding densers "who" are so density that our expanding machine cant register this densers.

If some outside expanding movement get this densers expanding faster, then born visible atoms.

Space dont expanding at all!

.

Can you repeat that? This time in English.
Gmr
not rated yet Feb 02, 2014
What this paper appears to say is that galaxy morphology may be partly location dependent, rather than age dependent, at least for the transition of spiral to elliptical. In other words, not as much dependent upon age.

I would thing such things would be welcomed by folks insisting on steady-state, but I've been very, very wrong before. Perhaps I'm putting too much faith that reading the actual article would win out over knee-jerk reaction to "establishment science."
Whydening Gyre
not rated yet Feb 03, 2014
I'm starting to move with the vacuum energy crowd...