Cedar tree rings archive Amazon rainfall data

Oct 01, 2012

University of Leeds-led research has used tree rings from eight cedar trees in Bolivia to unlock a 100-year history of rainfall across the Amazon basin, which contains the world's largest river system.

The new study shows that the rings in lowland tropical cedar trees provide a natural archive of data closely related to historic rainfall.

Researchers measured the amounts of two different oxygen isotopes trapped in the wood's rings: oxygen-16 and the heavier oxygen-18. By looking at the varying amounts of the two isotopes, they could see how the pattern of rainfall changed year by year. This allowed them to see how much it rained over the Amazon basin over the past century.

The lead author of the study, Dr Roel Brienen from the School of Geography at the University of Leeds, said: "We already knew that some tropical tree species form and we also anticipated that the in these rings might record changes in the climate.

"What surprised us, however, is that just eight trees from one single site actually tell us how much it rained not just at that site but over the entire Amazon catchment. That is an area about 25 times the size of the UK. The isotope values recorded in tree rings were very closely related to annual variation in the river levels of the Amazon, and thus of the amount of rainfall that flows into the ocean."

The Amazon basin is among the richest in the world, containing about one tenth of the planet's biodiversity and one fifth of the carbon stored in . It is also among the wettest places in the world; about one fifth of the global land precipitation falls in the Amazon basin and drains into the Atlantic Ocean through the world's biggest river.

Because of its vast size and location along the equator, the response of the of the Amazon basin to climate change may significantly affect the magnitude and speed of for the entire globe. It is therefore important to gain a better understanding of its hydrological cycle.

Co-author Dr Manuel Gloor, also at the University of Leeds, said: "Climate models vary widely in their predictions for the Amazon, and we still do not know whether the Amazon will become wetter or dryer in a warmer world. We discovered a very powerful tool to look back into the past, which allows us to better understand the magnitude of natural variability of the system."

"In a similar way that annual layers in polar ice sheets have been used to study past temperatures, we are now able to use of this species as a natural archive for precipitation over the . If we find older trees with similar signal strength then this will greatly help us to advance our knowledge of the system."

Dr Brienen added: "The record is so sensitive that simply from the isotope values we can say which year we are looking at. For example, the extreme El Niño year of 1925-26 which caused very low river levels, clearly stands out in the record."

Although the century-long record provided by the trees is relatively short, some interesting trends are evident.

"The oxygen isotope series shows an increase over time, which may be due to an intensification of the hydrological cycle," said Dr Gloor. "That could also explain the observed long-term trend in river discharge. We need however to replicate this research at different places in the Amazon to really be able to say more."

The study is published online in the journal Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences.

Explore further: Remnants of Tropical Depression Peipah still raining on Philippines

More information: RJW Brienen et al, 'Oxygen isotopes in tree rings are a good proxy for Amazon precipitation and El Niño-Southern Oscillation variability', is published in Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences. (2012) doi/10.1073/pnas.1205977109

Related Stories

Amazon conservation policy working in Brazil (w/Video)

Jun 16, 2009

Contrary to common belief, Brazil's policy of protecting portions of the Amazonian forest from development is capable of buffering the Amazon from climate change, according to a new study led by Michigan State University ...

Amazon carbon sink threatened by drought

Mar 05, 2009

The Amazon is surprisingly sensitive to drought, according to new research conducted throughout the world's largest tropical forest. The 30-year study, published today in Science, provides the first solid evidence that d ...

Recommended for you

New study outlines 'water world' theory of life's origins

1 hour ago

(Phys.org) —Life took root more than four billion years ago on our nascent Earth, a wetter and harsher place than now, bathed in sizzling ultraviolet rays. What started out as simple cells ultimately transformed ...

Agriculture's growing effects on rain

21 hours ago

(Phys.org) —Increased agricultural activity is a rain taker, not a rain maker, according to researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and their collaborators at the University of California Los ...

User comments : 1

Adjust slider to filter visible comments by rank

Display comments: newest first

JoeBlue
1 / 5 (4) Oct 01, 2012
You're telling me that 8 trees that were growing in a locality show the rainfall for the entire rainforest...

Have these people ever even been to the Amazon??? When I was there it would rain under the canopy, and it would be intermittent. The Amazon is so large, and the terrain is not flat. The weather systems rarely if ever have equal distribution. The only thing that is ever distributed equally is the water table.

More news stories

UN weather agency warns of 'El Nino' this year

The UN weather agency Tuesday warned there was a good chance of an "El Nino" climate phenomenon in the Pacific Ocean this year, bringing droughts and heavy rainfall to the rest of the world.

Patent talk: Google sharpens contact lens vision

(Phys.org) —A report from Patent Bolt brings us one step closer to what Google may have in mind in developing smart contact lenses. According to the discussion Google is interested in the concept of contact ...

Wireless industry makes anti-theft commitment

A trade group for wireless providers said Tuesday that the biggest mobile device manufacturers and carriers will soon put anti-theft tools on the gadgets to try to deter rampant smartphone theft.