Galaxies in the young cosmos

May 21, 2012
Now you don't see it; now you do - the image of a galaxy from a time when the universe was only a billion years old. The left image, from Hubble, sees nothing in the sky, but the longer wavelength infrared image from Spitzer (right) sees a bright source. The intense star formation activity in the galaxy, its distance, and the expansion of the universe combine to make it appear in the infrared. Credit: K. Caputi

(Phys.org) -- The universe was born about 13.7 billion years ago in the big bang. The Sun and its system of planets formed about five billion years ago. What happened, then, during that long, intervening stretch of nearly nine billion years? This is one of the key questions in modern science. Astronomers think that the very first stars and galaxies appeared only a few hundreds of millions of years after the big bang, and have been evolving ever since. They must have been quite different from the stars and galaxies of today, however, in part because the young universe lacked most of the chemical elements present today - those elements were made gradually in the nuclear furnaces of those stars.

Modern telescopes and infrared and submillimeter techniques have recently enabled astronomers to spot significant numbers of very distant galaxies and begin to piece together a picture of . Galaxies often undergo bursts of star formation that make their dust glow in the infrared. In fact, recent results suggest that at some cosmic epochs star formation was as much as ten times more active than it is today. The power of infrared is twofold: It can measure the luminous dust, and, because shifts starlight into the infrared, it can also see spectral features in that starlight that allow an estimate of the cosmic distance.

Sensitive infrared cameras staring over large fields of view are the best way to find large numbers of very distant objects for analyses SAO astronomers Jia-Sheng Huang, Giovanni Fazio, and Matt Ashby, together with a team of colleagues, used the infrared camera on the to undertake a very deep and sensitive search for distant in an area of the sky one twentieth the size of the full moon. They coordinated their study with infrared images from Hubble.

The scientists discovered twenty five peculiar infrared objects in their field. Follow-up analyses revealed that between eleven and nineteen of them date to cosmic epochs from 1.5 to 3 billion years after the big bang. These galaxies seem to be very massive and to contain significant amounts of warm dust. Two other sources just as massive seem to be even older, dating from a period only one billion years after the big bang. The latter present a serious challenge to current theories about galaxy evolution, which predict very few such objects should exist at such an early time. The new survey is significant not only because it has discovered such distant galaxies, but also because it points to a previously unrecognized galaxy population whose properties are significantly different from those of known galaxies at similar epochs.

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kevinrtrs
1.1 / 5 (18) May 21, 2012
The latter present a serious challenge to current theories about galaxy evolution, which predict very few such objects should exist at such an early time.


At least some people are not shying away from the challenge...

The actual observed facts have been contradicting the nebulous [intentional] theory for a long time now. And it's getting worse everyday as more observations come in at ever increasing rate.

Perhaps it's time to move away from trying to couple [an assumed metaphysical] ORIGINS to the actual observations and simply build a new model based purely on the observations.
Tuxford
1.3 / 5 (19) May 21, 2012
Massive galaxies in the early universe? Say it ain't so!

Don't worry. The irrationally rational scientific mind will quickly patch it's fantasy model to prop up it's limited view of the universe's mysteries, and all will be well again. It simply can't afford embarrassment. Afterall, decades of declaring authority in this area are at stake. Funding is at stake. Careers are at stake. Tenure is at stake. Food on the table is at stake!
dtyarbrough
1 / 5 (18) May 21, 2012
The universe has neither evolved or expanded in 13.5 billion years. There was no big bang and no inflationary period. Read The Mystery of the Spiral Galaxies Explained http://www.scribd...xplained and LOOKING FOR LIFE IN ALL THE WRONG PLACES http://www.scribd...G-PLACES
Phil DePayne
1 / 5 (11) May 21, 2012
Google The Urantia Book...

In the book, a more plausible scenario is put forward that can replace big bang theory until a better one comes along!
jsdarkdestruction
4.7 / 5 (17) May 21, 2012
all you got to do is say "big bang" and the trolls come in droves, we've got quite a selection today-creationists, science fiction fantasy based ancient aliens supporters, and 2 nutjobs that think their theory makes sense.
Fleetfoot
4.5 / 5 (8) May 22, 2012
Current modelling suggests the first stars may have been as early as z~65 or a cosmic age of 32 million years. Those first Pop III stars probably had high masses due to their low metallicity giveing them lifetimes in the tens of millions of years, and pair instability SNe would have returned the bulk of the material to the environment.

There are significant unknowns regarding the effect of the radiation from these stars on galaxy formation and many other influences so there's a lot to be learned. The cranks always imagine scientists are certain about everything when in reality analysis of uncertainties in any conclusion is a major part of producing a paper.

The JWST obviously, and potentially observations of the 21cm line at high redshift, will go a long way to resolving these questions (but probably raise as many new ones).

http://arxiv.org/.../0608032
jsdarkdestruction
1 / 5 (1) May 22, 2012
since tuxford has felt the need to promote laviolette's theory in every astronomy article possible i feel i should show just what it is we are dealing with when it comes time to consider laviolettes cosmological theories.
here are some works from tuxfords idol laviolette, it illustrates how based in reality his worldview really is.this is a book he wrote.
First time proof of the existence of interstellar radio signals of intelligent origin being sent to us.
Evidence that pulsars are part of a vast network of ETI communication beacons.
This exhaustive study presents first time proof that astronomers have been receiving radio signals of intelligent origin. As early as 1967 and continuing to the present, radio astronomers have been carefully studying and cataloging unusual interstellar beacons called pulsars thinking them to be stars of natural origin.Dr. LaViolette, who has been researching pulsars for 27 years, shows that, up to now, the nature of these radio sources has been grossly
jsdarkdestruction
1 / 5 (1) May 22, 2012
misunderstood. He has discovered that a number of very unique pulsars are nonrandomly distributed in the sky and mark key Galactic locatations that have particular significance from an ETI communication standpoint. He also presents evidence of unusual geometric alignments among pulsars and intriguing pulse period relationships. Equally compelling is the message they are sending-a warning about a past Galactic core explosion disaster that should help us avert a future global tragedy.

Contains extensive analysis of pulsar data, revealing new ideas about the origins and functions of pulsars

Provides proof of an extraterrestrial communication network

Includes information about the formation of crop circles and force-field-beaming technology
jsdarkdestruction
3 / 5 (2) May 22, 2012
see, this is what i mean about science fiction fantasy based worldview that laviolette employs in his cosmological theories. and all the others fields of science he's claimed to make breakthroughs in because of it while having no training in the fields he claims to have proven wrong.

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