New deep-sea coral discovered

Mar 05, 2009
This five-foot tall yellow bamboo coral, standing in 4,787 feet of water, represents a new species and establishes a new genus of bamboo corals. (Credit: Hawaii Deep-Sea Coral Expedition 2007/NOAA)

(PhysOrg.com) -- Scientists identified seven new species of bamboo coral discovered on a NOAA-funded mission in the deep waters of the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument. Six of these species may represent entirely new genera, a remarkable feat given the broad classification a genus represents. A genus is a major category in the classification of organisms, ranking above a species and below a family. Scientists expect to identify more new species as analysis of samples continues.

"These discoveries are important, because deep-sea corals support diverse seafloor ecosystems and also because these corals may be among the first marine organisms to be affected by ocean acidification," said Richard Spinrad, Ph.D., NOAA's assistant administrator for Oceanic and Atmospheric Research. Ocean acidification is a change in ocean chemistry due to excess carbon dioxide. Researchers have seen adverse changes in marine life with calcium-carbonate shells, such as corals, because of acidified ocean water.

"Deep-sea bamboo corals also produce growth rings much as trees do, and can provide a much-needed view of how deep ocean conditions change through time," said Spinrad.

This orange bamboo coral is another new species and new genus found in the Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument. It is between four and five feet tall, and was found 5,745 feet below the surface. (Credit: Hawaii Deep-Sea Coral Expedition 2007/NOAA)

Rob Dunbar, a Stanford University scientist, was studying long-term climate data by examining long-lived corals. "We found live, 4,000-year-old corals in the Monument - meaning 4,000 years worth of information about what has been going on in the deep ocean interior."

"Studying these corals can help us understand how they survive for such long periods of time as well as how they may respond to climate change in the future," said Dunbar.

Among the other findings were a five-foot tall yellow bamboo coral tree that had never been described before, new beds of living deepwater coral and sponges, and a giant sponge scientists dubbed the "cauldron sponge," approximately three feet tall and three feet across. Scientists collected two other sponges which have not yet been analyzed but may represent new species or genera as well.

The mission also discovered a "coral graveyard" covering about 10,000 square feet on a seamount's summit, more than 2,000 feet deep. Scientists estimated the death of the community occurred several thousand to potentially more than a million years ago, but did not know why the community died. The species of coral had never been recorded in Hawaii before, according a Smithsonian Institution coral expert they consulted.

Finding new species was not an express purpose of the research mission, but Dunbar and Christopher Kelley, a scientist with the University of Hawaii, both collected specimens that looked unusual. Kelley's objective was to locate and predict locations of high density deep-sea coral beds in the Monument. NOAA scientist Frank Parrish also led a portion of the mission, focusing on growth rates of deep-sea corals.

The three-week research mission ended in November 2007, but analysis of specimens is ongoing. "The potential for more discoveries is high, but these deep-sea corals are not protected everywhere as they are here, and can easily be destroyed," said Kelley.

The Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument has more deep water than any other U.S. protected area, with more than 98 percent below SCUBA-diving depths and only accessible to submersibles. The Hawaii Undersea Research Laboratory, sponsored by NOAA and the University of Hawaii, piloted the Pisces V submersible from a research vessel to the discovery sites, between 3300 and 4200 feet deep.

Provided by NOAA

Explore further: Recent spike in shark attacks reported off Carolinas coast

Related Stories

Removing lost fishing nets to protect the seabed

Jun 15, 2015

To remove lost fishing nets and gear used in both artisan and leisure fishing from the seabed in order to avoid negative environmental impact on marine ecosystems is the main objective of the campaign that ...

Coral colonies more genetically diverse than assumed

Jun 10, 2015

Coral colonies are more genetically diverse than it has been assumed to date. This is the conclusion drawn by biologists at Ruhr-Universität Bochum, who have conducted comprehensive studies into the genetic ...

Recommended for you

Key element of human language discovered in bird babble

9 hours ago

Stringing together meaningless sounds to create meaningful signals was previously thought to be the preserve of humans alone, but a new study has revealed that babbler birds are also able to communicate in ...

3-D scans of mating fruit flies uncovers female biology

17 hours ago

Following in the footsteps of Leonardo Da Vinci's 1493 anatomical sketch of a man and woman, "The Copulation," Cornell researchers used cutting-edge X-ray technology to noninvasively image fruit flies during ...

User comments : 1

Adjust slider to filter visible comments by rank

Display comments: newest first

Necrophage
not rated yet Mar 05, 2009
If any of you check out Peter Watts' "Starfish" saga, you will gain an even greater appreciation for the awesome potential and diversity of deepsea life. Not for the faint of heart, though.

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.