Let's face the liquid-liquid interface

The demand for energy consumption, limited availability of fossil fuels, and pollution caused by the energy production industry challenge scientists to find new, more cost-effective, and greener solutions to produce power. ...

Fatal flaw uncovered in green pigmented concrete

As Xi'an Jiaotong-Liverpool University researchers completed their research on colored architectural concrete, they found a surprising result—green pigmented cement had impurities that produced porous, poor quality concrete. ...

A new theory to explain the transparency of metallic oxides

The electrons of some metal oxides, due to their large effective mass when coupled with the ionic lattice of the material, cannot follow the electric field of light and allow it to pass through the material. Transparent and ...

Stimulating blood vessel formation with magnetic fields

Magnetic fields can be used to stimulate blood vessel growth, according to a study published in the journal Science and Technology of Advanced Materials. The findings, by researchers at the Tecnico Lisboa and NOVA School ...

Thumb-sized device quickly 'sniffs out' bad breath

No one wants bad breath—not when visiting friends and family, at a job interview, and especially not on a first date. Smelly breath can make things awkward, but it also is a natural warning sign, indicating that serious ...

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Redox

Redox (shorthand for reduction-oxidation reaction) describes all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation number (oxidation state) changed. This can be either a simple redox process such as the oxidation of carbon to yield carbon dioxide or the reduction of carbon by hydrogen to yield methane (CH4), or it can be a complex process such as the oxidation of sugar in the human body through a series of very complex electron transfer processes.

The term redox comes from the two concepts of reduction and oxidation. It can be explained in simple terms:

Though sufficient for many purposes, these descriptions are not precisely correct. Oxidation and reduction properly refer to a change in oxidation number — the actual transfer of electrons may never occur. Thus, oxidation is better defined as an increase in oxidation number, and reduction as a decrease in oxidation number. In practice, the transfer of electrons will always cause a change in oxidation number, but there are many reactions that are classed as "redox" even though no electron transfer occurs (such as those involving covalent bonds).

Non-redox reactions, which do not involve changes in formal charge, are known as metathesis reactions.

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