Related topics: carbon dioxide

Scientists measure temperature under shock conditions

Temperature is tough to measure, especially in shock compression experiments. A big challenge is having to account for thermal transport—the flow of energy in the form of heat.

From rust to riches: Computing goes green—or is that brown?

Current silicon-based computing technology is energy-inefficient. Information and communications technology is projected to use over 20% of global electricity production by 2030. So finding ways to decarbonise technology ...

Much of Earth's nitrogen was locally sourced

Where did Earth's nitrogen come from? Rice University scientists show one primordial source of the indispensable building block for life was close to home.

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Iron (pronounced /ˈаɪ.ərn/) is a chemical element with the symbol Fe (Latin: ferrum) and atomic number 26. Iron is a group 8 and period 4 element. Iron and iron alloys (steels) are by far the most common metals and the most common ferromagnetic materials in everyday use. Fresh iron surfaces are lustrous and silvery-grey in colour, but oxidise in air to form a red or brown coating of ferrous oxide or rust. Pure single crystals of iron are soft (softer than aluminium), and the addition of minute amounts of impurities, such as carbon, significantly strengthens them. Alloying iron with appropriate small amounts (up to a few per cent) of other metals and carbon produces steel, which can be 1,000 times harder than pure iron.

Iron-56 is the heaviest stable isotope produced by the alpha process in stellar nucleosynthesis; heavier elements than iron and nickel require a supernova for their formation. Iron is the most abundant element in the core of red giants, and is the most abundant metal in iron meteorites and in the dense metal cores of planets such as Earth.

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