Related topics: graphene · carbon · diamonds · carbon atoms

Graphene is 3-D as well as 2-D

Graphene is actually a 3-D material as well as a 2-D material, according to a new study from Queen Mary University of London.

Tracking records of the oldest life forms on Earth

The discovery provides a new characteristic 'biosignature' to track the remains of ancient life preserved in rocks which are significantly altered over billions of years and could help identify life elsewhere in the Solar ...

Exotic 'second sound' phenomenon observed in pencil lead

The next time you set a kettle to boil, consider this scenario: After turning the burner off, instead of staying hot and slowly warming the surrounding kitchen and stove, the kettle quickly cools to room temperature and its ...

Graphite offers up new quantum surprise

Researchers at The University of Manchester in the UK, led by Dr. Artem Mishchenko, Prof Volodya Fal'ko and Prof Andre Geim, have discovered the quantum Hall effect in bulk graphite—a layered crystal consisting of stacked ...

GraphON: Conductive coatings and materials breakthrough

Australia's national science agency, CSIRO, has created a breakthrough new form of graphitic material that's conductive, easy to apply and offers greater control over performance than graphene.

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Graphite

The mineral graphite /ˈɡræfaɪt/ is one of the allotropes of carbon. It was named by Abraham Gottlob Werner in 1789 from the Ancient Greek γράφω (graphō), "to draw/write", for its use in pencils, where it is commonly called lead (not to be confused with the metallic element lead). Unlike diamond (another carbon allotrope), graphite is an electrical conductor, a semimetal. It is, consequently, useful in such applications as arc lamp electrodes. Graphite is the most stable form of carbon under standard conditions. Therefore, it is used in thermochemistry as the standard state for defining the heat of formation of carbon compounds. Graphite may be considered the highest grade of coal, just above anthracite and alternatively called meta-anthracite, although it is not normally used as fuel because it is difficult to ignite.

There are three principal types of natural graphite, each occurring in different types of ore deposit:

Highly ordered pyrolytic graphite or highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) refers to graphite with an angular spread between the graphite sheets of less than 1°. This highest-quality synthetic form is used in scientific research. The name "graphite fiber" is also sometimes used to refer to carbon fiber or carbon fiber-reinforced polymer.

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