Related topics: x rays

European atom-smashers ponder response to Russia's invasion

The Geneva-area research center that houses the world's largest atom smasher is grappling with ways to punish Russia's government while protecting Russian researchers who work to help solve the deepest mysteries of the universe.

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Imagine dropping a tennis ball onto a bedroom mattress. The tennis ball will bend the mattress a bit, but not permanently—pick the ball back up, and the mattress returns to its original position and strength. Scientists ...

The tiny structures that mimic a cell's natural environment

When biologists study cells under a microscope, they look at them on flat surfaces that are nothing like the environment inside the human body. Now, researchers at NTNU have found a way to mimic some aspects of a cell's native ...

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Cathode ray

Cathode rays (also called an electron beam or e-beam) are streams of electrons observed in vacuum tubes, i.e. evacuated glass tubes that are equipped with at least two metal electrodes to which a voltage is applied, a cathode or negative electrode and an anode or positive electrode. They were discovered by German scientist Johann Hittorf in 1869 and in 1876 named by Eugen Goldstein kathodenstrahlen (cathode rays). Electrons were first discovered as the constituents of cathode rays. In 1897 British physicist J. J. Thompson showed the rays were composed of a previously unknown negatively charged particle, which was named electron.

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