A new method for storing and processing hydrogen chloride

A research team at Freie Universit├Ąt Berlin has successfully developed a method for storing and electrolyzing gaseous hydrogen chloride in the form of an ionic liquid. The method allows the hydrogen chloride created as a ...

Researchers observe salt dissolution at the atomic level

A research team, affiliated with UNIST has achieved a groundbreaking feat by observing the dissolution of salt in water at the atomic level and experimentally uncovering the underlying principle.

Sahara dust can enhance removal of methane, study finds

A study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences explores the effects of Saharan dust clouds on atmospheric methane. Its findings have potentially far-reaching implications for understanding the global ...

Biological cleanup discovered for certain 'forever chemicals'

University of California, Riverside, chemical and environmental engineering scientists have identified two species of bacteria found in soil that break down a class of stubborn "forever chemicals," giving hope for low-cost ...

Cancer-causing chemicals detected in toys and headphones

Cancer-causing chlorinated paraffins are still used in a wide range of everyday products sold in North America, despite their known health harm and being banned in Canada for a decade, according to a new study in Environmental ...

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Chlorine

Chlorine ( /ˈklɔəriːn/ klohr-een; from Ancient Greek: χλωρóς khlôros "pale green") is the chemical element with atomic number 17 and symbol Cl. It is the second lightest halogen, found in the periodic table in group 17. The element forms diatomic molecules under standard conditions, called dichlorine. It has the highest electron affinity and the third highest electronegativity of all the elements; for this reason, chlorine is a strong oxidizing agent.

The most common compound of chlorine, sodium chloride, has been known since ancient times; however, around 1630, chlorine gas was obtained by the Belgian chemist and physician Jan Baptist van Helmont. The synthesis and characterization of elemental chlorine occurred in 1774 by Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele, who called it "dephlogisticated muriatic acid air," having thought he synthesized the oxide obtained from the hydrochloric acid. Because acids were thought at the time to necessarily contain oxygen, a number of chemists, including Claude Berthollet, suggested that Scheele's dephlogisticated muriatic acid air must be a combination of oxygen and the yet undiscovered element, and Scheele named the supposed new element within this oxide as muriaticum. The suggestion that this newly discovered gas was a simple element was made in 1809 by Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac and Louis-Jacques. This was confirmed by Sir Humphry Davy in 1810, who named it chlorine, from the Greek word χλωρος (chlōros), meaning "green-yellow."

Chlorine is a component of various compounds, including table salt. It is the second most abundant halogen and 21st most abundant chemical element in Earth's crust. The great oxidizing potential of chlorine led it to its bleaching and disinfectant uses, as well as uses of an essential reagent in the chemical industry. As a common disinfectant, chlorine compounds are used in swimming pools to keep them clean and sanitary. In the upper atmosphere, chlorine-containing molecules such as chlorofluorocarbons have been implicated in ozone depletion. Elemental chlorine is extremely dangerous and poisonous for all lifeforms; however, chlorine is necessary to most forms of life, including humans, in form of chloride ions.

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