Heating the solar corona

Heating the solar corona
A coronal loop system in the sun as seen in the ultraviolet by the camera on the Solar Dynamics Observatory. The image covers about fifty thousand miles of the sun's surface. The Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph. measured short-lived brightenings in the loop which enabled astronomers to identify for the first time the possible importance of nonthermal electrons in the heating of nonflaring but active coronal regions of the sun. Credit: Reale et al. 2019

The hot outer layer of the sun, the corona, has a temperature of over a million degrees Kelvin, much more than the surface temperature of the Sun which is only about 5500 degrees Kelvin. Moreover, the corona is very active and ejects a wind of charged particles at a rate equivalent to about one-millionth of the moon's mass each year. Some of these particles bombard the Earth, producing auroral glows and occasionally disrupting global communications. There are two important, longstanding, and related questions about the corona that astronomers are working to answer: how is it heated to temperatures that are so much hotter than the surface? And how does the corona produce the wind?

The role of impulsive events is thought to be key to unraveling this problem. Flares are the most prominent such events, but it is believed that flaring also scales down to much smaller levels of activity—so-called nanoflares. The origins and properties of the energy release mechanisms in flares are often obscured by local heating effects, and instruments need to have good sensitivity, rapid response time, and some luck to retrieve useful data on flares amidst the complex seething cauldron of activity, while nanoflares are faint and elusive. Intermediate scale events are therefore thought to offer important ways to probe the energy release processes.

CfA astronomer Paola Testa is a member of a team of astronomers studying flares using IRIS (the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph), an instrument on the Solar Dynamics Observatory, a NASA small explorer spacecraft that was launched in 2013 (the telescope for IRIS was provided by SAO). Recently, IRIS observed intermediate scale flaring events that were detected through brightenings at the footpoints of and characterized by having , upward motions caused by impulsive heating. IRIS measured the ultraviolet line of highly ionized silicon to reveal highly variable activity over timescales of twenty to sixty seconds, implying the presence of magnetic loops of activity.

The clear correspondence between the brightening seen by IRIS and these coronal loops prompted the scientists to undertake a systematic study of the events. The scientists report that the localized brightenings found at the base of very hot coronal loops can indeed be treated as systems of interacting loops, and argue that the loop interactions determine the characteristic high temperatures and other behaviors that flag the production of intermediate-sized flares.


Explore further

Tiny "nanoflares" might heat the Sun's corona

More information: Fabio Reale et al. Impulsive Coronal Heating from Large-scale Magnetic Rearrangements: From IRIS to SDO/AIA, The Astrophysical Journal (2019). DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ab304f
Journal information: Astrophysical Journal

Citation: Heating the solar corona (2019, September 30) retrieved 19 October 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-09-solar-corona.html
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Sep 30, 2019
There are two important, longstanding, and related questions about the corona that astronomers are working to answer: how is it heated to temperatures that are so much hotter than the surface? And how does the corona produce the wind?

Electric fields.

Sep 30, 2019
There are two important, longstanding, and related questions about the corona that astronomers are working to answer: how is it heated to temperatures that are so much hotter than the surface? And how does the corona produce the wind?

Electric fields.


Wrong. Which way do electrons go in an electric field? Which way do ions go? Which way is the solar wind going? Don't be repeating the dumb errors of Scott.

Sep 30, 2019
There are two important, longstanding, and related questions about the corona that astronomers are working to answer: how is it heated to temperatures that are so much hotter than the surface? And how does the corona produce the wind?

Electric fields.


Wrong. Which way do electrons go in an electric field? Which way do ions go? Which way is the solar wind going? Don't be repeating the dumb errors of Scott.

Your opinion is utterly worthless compared to Dr. Scott's. The dumb errors are most certainly your own.

Sep 30, 2019
There are two important, longstanding, and related questions about the corona that astronomers are working to answer: how is it heated to temperatures that are so much hotter than the surface? And how does the corona produce the wind?

Electric fields.


Wrong. Which way do electrons go in an electric field? Which way do ions go? Which way is the solar wind going? Don't be repeating the dumb errors of Scott.

Your opinion is utterly worthless compared to Dr. Scott's. The dumb errors are most certainly your own.


Wrong. Scott is a clown. Answer the questions, woo boy. Which way do particles of opposite charge go in an electric field? And why doesn't the clown Scott know this?

Sep 30, 2019
The temp is caused by EM flow, because atomic strucutres are growing at and around the corona weight space.

Before you start arguing about Electricity maybe you should describe Magnetism first.

Sep 30, 2019
The temp is caused by EM flow, because atomic strucutres are growing at and around the corona weight space.

Before you start arguing about Electricity maybe you should describe Magnetism first.


And what, pray tell, is 'EM flow'?

Sep 30, 2019
EM Field = Cold Photons in the weight range 1C^3 to 8C^3
EM Flow is the field turbulence caused by EM Field photon(1c^3) condensation into heavier structures.
All EM Flow causes heat production (Read electrical currents through to nuclear explosions).

Sep 30, 2019
Could you show us the equations for that? I'm not aware photons have weight, nor where this supposed turbulence is coming from considering photons move in straight lines (geodesics) and do not interact with one another, and this is all information from many, many lab experiments confirmed by astronomical observations.

Sep 30, 2019
Good point DS, photons are peculiar in there persistence for sure, the theory goes that photons are the perfect weight scale that exposes no external gravity in the observational space, but time dilation skin implies they have to have a depth in the G space scale, hence 1C^3, but the entire scale for EM is 1c^3 up to 8C^3 electrons do have a observable weight at the 5C^3 weight range.

Oct 01, 2019
Good point DS, photons are peculiar in there persistence for sure, the theory goes that photons are the perfect weight scale that exposes no external gravity in the observational space, but time dilation skin implies they have to have a depth in the G space scale, hence 1C^3, but the entire scale for EM is 1c^3 up to 8C^3 electrons do have a observable weight at the 5C^3 weight range.


Total gibberish.

Oct 01, 2019
Here you go Castro, if you want to change it , you do not understand it 8-) ...

Draw a scale on paper going down (i.e. Y axis) and the scale is in nC^3

Then draw the Electron and the Proton on their appropriate weight scale.
Then draw a skin line from the zero weight down around each particle and back to the 0 weight line.

(The Q.G.R. Might have better numbers for these scales but it explains it well enough,
Photons/EM fill the 1C^3 ~ 4C^3 weights
Electrons 5C^3~6C^3
And Protons 7C^3 ~ 10C^3
Neutrons 11C^3 and higher

Anything below the Proton equatorial boundary has a Time dilation high enough to prevent energy transfer.
The Heavier a particle is the higher it's time dilation boundary condition, so energy transfer is slower.
(I.E. The G-Zero weight boundary is light and the bottom of the G-Curve is heavy)

(C) 1981 Marcel Bernhard Eringa

Oct 01, 2019
As for actual calcs DS, the best real world example I have is super high current power distribution faults causing a plasma reaction in the cable.
The corona effect can last months and the cable remnants are highly radioactive after cooling.
The resistance observations would be interesting , I'd theorise there would be resistance plateaus as the time dilation decreases due to heat, versus the increase in heat energy turbulent resistance from the EM density itself.

Oct 01, 2019
The EM feed area would be from the suns corona out to the 1000°C distance band.
(High temps decrease the TDR affect, so this band is high density particle potential)
Particle/proton masses would form in the 1000°C and lower distance temperature bands from the sun.
The actual production rate would be a cubed root of the feed area over time.

Oct 01, 2019
Now I could describe the "work" affect, but instead have this one 8-) ...

Stephen Hawking and I had quite a different outlook on the formation of the Super-Verse, but I like to think we respected each others perspectives.

This is mine ....
1 . The Singularity is a dimensionless space if you disregard time, it contains nothing, and is only time.
2. The 2 spaces in the Reality paper I wrote in 81 (G space and the 3d space) we call space grew from that dimensionless space .
3. Photons started forming.
4. As the weight of light increased, heavier particles (protons) started forming.
5. At this early stage of the Super-Verse, there was not enough Gravity/Weight to stabalise the proton shell structures with Time Dilation (Which is simply caused by spacial compression), so it started "Banging", i.e. protons structures collapse/explode back into photon structures.
6. Our Big Bang is something that happened a very very very long time after that.

Oct 01, 2019
Solving the Mystery of Coronal Heating

https://youtu.be/1N3J_X5hD8M

Oct 02, 2019
Here you go Castro, if you want to change it , you do not understand it 8-) ...

Draw a scale on paper going down (i.e. Y axis) and the scale is in nC^3

Then draw the Electron and the Proton on their appropriate weight scale.
Then draw a skin line from the zero weight down around each particle and back to the 0 weight line.

(The Q.G.R. Might have better numbers for these scales but it explains it well enough,
Photons/EM fill the 1C^3 ~ 4C^3 weights
Electrons 5C^3~6C^3
And Protons 7C^3 ~ 10C^3
Neutrons 11C^3 and higher

Anything below the Proton equatorial boundary has a Time dilation high enough to prevent energy transfer.
The Heavier a particle is the higher it's time dilation boundary condition, so energy transfer is slower.
(I.E. The G-Zero weight boundary is light and the bottom of the G-Curve is heavy)

(C) 1981 Marcel Bernhard Eringa


Still sounds like gibberish.

Oct 02, 2019
@cd
https://youtu.be/1N3J_X5hD8M
1- youtube is not equivalent to peer-reviewed, published and validated literature
http://wp.auburn....opinion/

2- presenting opinion doesn't trump science

3- the eu/thunderdolts is a known pseudoscience site

4- the argument from authority isn't equivalent to an argument from evidence, like peer-reviewed, published and validated literature


Oct 02, 2019
Solving the Mystery of Coronal Heating

https://youtu.be/1N3J_X5hD8M


Lol. By the clown Scott, who is scientifically illiterate when it comes to plasma and astrophysics. Combine the two, and he is f***ed!
Still trying to accelerate the solar wind ions and electrons in the same direction, at the same velocity, using an electric field, is he?
Still got life extinguishing gamma rays from fusion in the chromosphere, yes?
The guy is an idiot.

Oct 02, 2019
4- the argument from authority isn't equivalent to an argument from evidence, like peer-reviewed, published and validated literature



Hello Cap'n. If you think Don Scott is an authority, me and you are going to have to have words!

:)

Oct 02, 2019
@Castro
Hello Cap'n. If you think Don Scott is an authority, me and you are going to have to have words!
LMFAO

he is definitely not an authority. I just didn't write "argumentum ad verecundiam" because cd doesn't know what that is and can't actually internet. LOL


Oct 02, 2019
Well go ahead and ask me 8-)
What part of the Metric justification don't you understand Castro ?


Oct 02, 2019
Well go ahead and ask me 8-)
What part of the Metric justification don't you understand Castro ?



Gibberish. Just point me to a f****ing paper, you loser. Sick of idiotic cranks like you. Get a f&*&*ng life, you wazzock.

Oct 02, 2019
@Castro
Hello Cap'n. If you think Don Scott is an authority, me and you are going to have to have words!
LMFAO

he is definitely not an authority. I just didn't write "argumentum ad verecundiam" because cd doesn't know what that is and can't actually internet. LOL



Don't you be speaking Latin to me, you swine! I did that at school! When schools were schools. And you got nowhere without maths & English. None of this interweb nonsense. Write it; prove it. Those were the days. Had to go to the Uni library to even have a chance of seeing the paper! First papers on Giotto's visit to Halley? Been there, done that. First exoplanet around 51 Peg? Yep, bought the magazine. No chance of nicking it via sci-hub or elsewhere.
You tell kids of today that, and they just laugh at you! Dad used to come home and beat us to sleep with a broken bottle, Gravel for breakfast, we had! Washed down by a cup of cold sick. Seriously, you tell kids that today, and they don't believe you! Wankers!


Oct 02, 2019
You'll have to go to the local library and ask.
Or maybe you couldn't read it when they made you sign the non-disclosure ?
Some people can't even see the paper it's written on.

Oct 02, 2019
You'll have to go to the local library and ask.
Or maybe you couldn't read it when they made you sign the non-disclosure ?
Some people can't even see the paper it's written on.


Gibberish. Paper. Link. Unicorns.

Oct 02, 2019
OK, if we are going to be subjected to bollocks, might as well have some more comedy;

https://www.youtu...OHfnIpFI

Oct 02, 2019
OK Castro, Mr Genius, Explain Gravity, Magnetism and eternal electron orbits of atoms.
Keep it brief please.

Oct 02, 2019
If you want to understand the Standard Model you need to understand the Gravity space that creates it !.

Oct 02, 2019
Or maybe you would rather explain particle persistence in our Universe ?

Oct 02, 2019
If anyone here wants a copy of all the "Reality" papers
(Read "Justification for the standard model)
Just email me idjyit@outlook.co.nz
Happy to send you a copy of them all 8-)

Oct 02, 2019
@Castro
Loved those videos! LMFAO

.

@idjyit
If anyone here wants a copy of all the "Reality" papers
(Read "Justification for the standard model)
Just email me idjyit@outlook.co.nz
is it peer-reviewed?
if it is not, why are you posting about it here?

where are the abstracts for all 8 papers?

Oct 02, 2019
Peer reviewed accepted, SH and GL who tried to introduce it into the curriculum 3 times.
Stolen by the NZ Government and sold as the Justification for the standard model ever since.
Email me if you want a copy, you can also get the first one from your public library.
Marcel Bernhard Eringa, Murrays Bay Intermediate School, 1981.
Or email me an I'll email them to you.
I was twelve at the time.

Oct 02, 2019
@idjyit
Peer reviewed accepted ... Email me if you want a copy
then there should be links to journals where I can read the abstracts
Stolen by the NZ Government and sold as the Justification for the standard model ever since
Rule 37

PS - do you know how to read an e-mail header?

Oct 02, 2019
Email header? ... yes
"then there should be links to journals where I can read the abstracts"
Theft - NON-Disclosure ring any bells do I have to repeat it again ?

I'm not going to argue with you, I honestly don't care if you believe me or not.
The fact is nobody understands the standard model because of the theft and non-disclosure.
If you do want to understand the standard model, then I'm your only option.
(I wont force you to sign a non-disclosure.)
I did post part of it higher up in the comments.

Oct 02, 2019
So maybe you can answer the questions I posed to Castro ?
Or maybe just describe the standard model for us ?

Oct 03, 2019
@idjyit
Email header? ... yes
then why the h*ll would you want to use an outlook e-mail address here?
think about that a minute...
Theft - NON-Disclosure ring any bells do I have to repeat it again ?
1- rule 37
2- the source is important
3- if it's published, as you stated, then no one can require a nondisclosure agreement
I'm not going to argue with you
I'm not arguing - I'm requiring validatable source material
Oh, and attempting to learn you a little something about the interwebz
The fact is nobody understands the standard model because of the theft and non-disclosure
attitudinal statement
If you do want to understand the standard model, then I'm your only option
rule 37
I did post part
1- specificity required
2- links and references required
So maybe you can answer
you're the one making claims - the onus of evidence is on you
the requirement of peer-review provides the scientific constraint minimizing pseudoscience


Oct 03, 2019
Ever heard of email aliases ?, I've already given you my full name and location.
I'm not trying to hide.
It's patently obvious you can't even explain the standard model, so end of conversation.
Like I said I don't care what you think, you want to keep doubting me, your welcome too 8-)

You want the standard model I wrote in 1981, email me, create an alias email if your paranoia is too much for you to bear.

Oct 03, 2019
@idjyit
I've already given you my full name and location
not smart - you don't know who is reading *or* replying
It's patently obvious you can't even explain the standard model
it's patently obvious that you're lying about "Stolen by the NZ Government" etc, but I was willing to give you a chance since you claimed it was peer-reviewed
given the no links BS you're spouting, its also obvious that you're more interested in fiction and pseudoscience
so end of conversation
then why do you keep posting?
You want the standard model I wrote in 1981
no
I want peer-reviewed papers that can be validated

Who cares what your opinion or untested claims are - this is a science site, not a writers forum where we judge your content and style

no links + no references + outlandish claims = pseudoscience bullsh*t

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