Race at the edge of the sun: Ions are faster than atoms

Race at the edge of the Sun: Ions are faster than atoms
Solar prominence taken from SOT (Solar Optical Telescope) onboard the HINODE satellite showing approx 150,000 km of the curved edge of the sun Credit: Hinode JAXA/NASA

Scientists at the University of Göttingen, the Institut d'Astrophysique in Paris and the Istituto Ricerche Solari Locarno have observed that ions move faster than atoms in the gas streams of a solar prominence. The results of their study were published in The Astrophysical Journal.

In astrophysics, the "fourth state" of matter plays a crucial role. Apart from solid, liquid and gaseous states, there is also plasma, an accumulation of atoms that have lost shell electrons through collisions or high-energy radiation, and thus become ions. These ions are subject to magnetic forces that do not affect electrically . If there are not too many collisions in the plasma, both particle types can flow independently of each other.

The researchers have now succeeded in observing the physics phenomena in just such a partially ionised plasma without impact equilibrium in gas streams of the sun. The result: in clouds above the edge of the sun, also known as prominences, ions of the element strontium move 22 percent faster than sodium atoms.

Sixteen hours later, the ions were only 11 percent faster. "Evidently, the neutral sodium atoms were more strongly carried along by the strontium ions," says Dr. Eberhard Wiehr of the University of Göttingen, first author of the study. This could be caused by an increased particle density, which increases the probability of impact. "In addition, the flow behaviour of the prominence could have changed in the 16 hours," says Wiehr.

Race at the edge of the Sun: Ions are faster than atoms
Solar prominence measuring approx 50,000 km above the solar edge taken at the Tenerife Observatory Credit: Dr Eberhard Wiehr

The faster ions move in sync with the oscillation of the magnetic fields. This keeps the prominence in suspension despite the attraction of the sun. Movements in deeper layers of the sun cause the magnetic lines of force to fluctuate. The ions immediately follow the reversal of the direction of oscillation, while the neutral have to repeatedly reorient themselves with the ions.

The researchers are now planning a systematic search for prominences with suitable oscillations that can be measured over a longer period of time.


Explore further

Image: Majestic solar eruption larger than Earth

More information: E. Wiehr et al. Evidence for the Two-fluid Scenario in Solar Prominences, The Astrophysical Journal (2019). DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ab04a4
Journal information: Astrophysical Journal

Citation: Race at the edge of the sun: Ions are faster than atoms (2019, March 26) retrieved 23 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-03-edge-sun-ions-faster-atoms.html
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Mar 26, 2019
"Evidently, the neutral sodium atoms were more strongly carried along by the strontium ions,"

jonesdumb, how are these neutrals affected by the plasma? LOL!

Mar 26, 2019
If you're referring to your guys' previous discussion on why the Earth is able to hold an atmosphere, I'm not seeing a connection:
https://phys.org/...oon.html

"This could be caused by an increased particle density, which increases the probability of impact."

I could be wrong, but your comment seems to be implying that plasma is affecting the neutral sodium atoms through electromagnetic forces as opposed to primarily kinetic energy as the article is suggesting.

Mar 26, 2019
"Evidently, the neutral sodium atoms were more strongly carried along by the strontium ions,"

jonesdumb, how are these neutrals affected by the plasma? LOL!


Errr, ion-neutral friction?

ON THE SUPPORT OF NEUTRALS AGAINST GRAVITY IN SOLAR PROMINENCES
Terradas, J. et al.
https://arxiv.org...5354.pdf

Mar 26, 2019
Or perhaps chapter 7, in particular, from here;

Solar Prominences
Springer Publishing 2015
Jean-Claude Vial, Oddbjørn Engvold (eds.)

https://ufile.io/lrqwt

Mar 26, 2019
Nah, cant is claiming that the ion's are plasmarazzmatazz & are pulling the atoms away from the Sun.

That's why spaceship designers construct their ion & plasma drives at the bow of their craft instead pf the stern.
To pull the vessel, similar & equivalent to how a pony pulls a cart.
Cause? Let's face it,
cant is a looneytick.

I blame that he hasn't read anything but comicbooks since at least the 1890's.
Ahh, the "Yellow Kid" & Captain Whizbang.
My favorite was the "Katzenjammer Kids."

What do you mean that a ship's drive has to push the craft?
Or it'll melt the ship?

Well for crying out loud,
don't tell cant that!
Too many facts will make his simian brain explode.

Mar 26, 2019
Errr, ion-neutral friction?

Yep, same process works elsewhere in the Universe. Now that you acknowledge this don't ever ask "how does xyz plasma affect neutrals..."

Mar 26, 2019
Would you please sate my own personal curiosity and point out whatever previous discussion you guys were having in regards to plasma affecting neutrals? I'm not being a smart @SS, I'm genuinely curious. I've discounted the importance of plasma in the past, and I'm trying to get a better picture of where your differences are coming from.

Mar 26, 2019
Errr, ion-neutral friction?

Yep, same process works elsewhere in the Universe. Now that you acknowledge this don't ever ask "how does xyz plasma affect neutrals..."


Huh? I've long known about it. It is thought to be the main mechanism (possibly along with electron-neutral friction) of creating the diamagnetic cavity of comets. However, you need a dense enough plasma for this to become possible. Interstellar and intergalactic plasmas are too diffuse for this to be a likely occurrence.

Mar 26, 2019
Would you please sate my own personal curiosity and point out whatever previous discussion you guys were having in regards to plasma affecting neutrals?

Sorry, I wouldn't be able to point to any specific discussion as this is a typical strawman jonesdumb resorts to when the discussion of neutrals and plasmas are brought up.

Mar 26, 2019
Would you please sate my own personal curiosity and point out whatever previous discussion you guys were having in regards to plasma affecting neutrals?

Sorry, I wouldn't be able to point to any specific discussion as this is a typical strawman jonesdumb resorts to when the discussion of neutrals and plasmas are brought up.


I don't need strawmen to demolish your mythology-based nonsense!

Mar 26, 2019
Oh your right Castro.
cant's belief system of pladsmspazzing cant ?

Must have originally been influenced by a museum frieze of the god Apollo in his Solar chariot, being "pulled" through the Sky.

Who'd nellieve that cant has ever been in a museum?
Or a Library?

Finally! A perfectly reasonable explanation for cant's irrational delusions.

"Those the gods would punish?
They first make mad!"

Mar 26, 2019
I don't need strawmen to demolish your mythology-based nonsense!

Yet, all you do is change the subject, as with this comment, and rely almost entirely on logical fallacies.
BTW, what does mythology have to do with these comments? It is impossible for you to stay on subject, isn't it?

Mar 27, 2019
I don't need strawmen to demolish your mythology-based nonsense!

Yet, all you do is change the subject, as with this comment, and rely almost entirely on logical fallacies.
BTW, what does mythology have to do with these comments? It is impossible for you to stay on subject, isn't it?


Your entire cult is based on the idiotic ramblings of the loon Velikovsky. That, my boy, is mythology-based crap. And your comment has nothing to do with much of anything, given that you are clueless in the subject area. Stick to misinterpreting mythology.

Mar 30, 2019
Thanks, Castro. I "cant" have said it better myself!

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