NASA's Voyager 2 probe enters interstellar space

December 10, 2018 by Dwayne Brown / Karen Fox, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center
This illustration shows the position of NASA’s Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 probes, outside of the heliosphere, a protective bubble created by the Sun that extends well past the orbit of Pluto. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

For the second time in history, a human-made object has reached the space between the stars. NASA's Voyager 2 probe now has exited the heliosphere – the protective bubble of particles and magnetic fields created by the Sun.

Members of NASA's Voyager team will discuss the findings at a news conference at 11 a.m. EST (8 a.m. PST) today at the meeting of the American Geophysical Union (AGU) in Washington. The news conference will stream live on the agency's website.

Comparing data from different instruments aboard the trailblazing spacecraft, mission scientists determined the probe crossed the outer edge of the heliosphere on Nov. 5. This boundary, called the heliopause, is where the tenuous, hot meets the cold, dense interstellar medium. Its twin, Voyager 1, crossed this boundary in 2012, but Voyager 2 carries a working instrument that will provide first-of-its-kind observations of the nature of this gateway into .

Voyager 2 now is slightly more than 11 billion miles (18 billion kilometers) from Earth. Mission operators still can communicate with Voyager 2 as it enters this new phase of its journey, but information – moving at the speed of light – takes about 16.5 hours to travel from the spacecraft to Earth. By comparison, light traveling from the Sun takes about eight minutes to reach Earth.

The most compelling evidence of Voyager 2's exit from the heliosphere came from its onboard Plasma Science Experiment (PLS), an instrument that stopped working on Voyager 1 in 1980, long before that probe crossed the heliopause. Until recently, the space surrounding Voyager 2 was filled predominantly with plasma flowing out from our Sun. This outflow, called the solar wind, creates a bubble – the heliosphere – that envelopes the planets in our solar system. The PLS uses the electrical current of the plasma to detect the speed, density, temperature, pressure and flux of the solar wind. The PLS aboard Voyager 2 observed a steep decline in the speed of the solar wind particles on Nov. 5. Since that date, the plasma instrument has observed no solar wind flow in the environment around Voyager 2, which makes mission scientists confident the probe has left the heliosphere.

In addition to the plasma data, Voyager's science team members have seen evidence from three other onboard instruments – the cosmic ray subsystem, the low energy charged particle instrument and the magnetometer – that is consistent with the conclusion that Voyager 2 has crossed the heliopause. Voyager's team members are eager to continue to study the data from these other onboard instruments to get a clearer picture of the environment through which Voyager 2 is traveling.

"There is still a lot to learn about the region of interstellar space immediately beyond the heliopause," said Ed Stone, Voyager project scientist based at Caltech in Pasadena, California. 

Together, the two Voyagers provide a detailed glimpse of how our heliosphere interacts with the constant interstellar wind flowing from beyond. Their observations complement data from NASA's Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX), a mission that is remotely sensing that boundary. NASA also is preparing an additional mission – the upcoming Interstellar Mapping and Acceleration Probe (IMAP), due to launch in 2024 – to capitalize on the Voyagers' observations.

NASA’s Voyager 2 Probe Enters Interstellar Space
Credit: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center
"Voyager has a very special place for us in our heliophysics fleet," said Nicola Fox, director of the Heliophysics Division at NASA Headquarters. "Our studies start at the Sun and extend out to everything the solar wind touches. To have the Voyagers sending back information about the edge of the Sun's influence gives us an unprecedented glimpse of truly uncharted territory."

While the probes have left the heliosphere, Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 have not yet left the solar system, and won't be leaving anytime soon. The boundary of the solar system is considered to be beyond the outer edge of the Oort Cloud, a collection of small objects that are still under the influence of the Sun's gravity. The width of the Oort Cloud is not known precisely, but it is estimated to begin at about 1,000 astronomical units (AU) from the Sun and to extend to about 100,000 AU. One AU is the distance from the Sun to Earth. It will take about 300 years for Voyager 2 to reach the inner edge of the Oort Cloud and possibly 30,000 years to fly beyond it.

The Voyager probes are powered using heat from the decay of radioactive material, contained in a device called a radioisotope thermal generator (RTG). The power output of the RTGs diminishes by about four watts per year, which means that various parts of the Voyagers, including the cameras on both spacecraft, have been turned off over time to manage power.

"I think we're all happy and relieved that the Voyager probes have both operated long enough to make it past this milestone," said Suzanne Dodd, Voyager project manager at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, California. "This is what we've all been waiting for. Now we're looking forward to what we'll be able to learn from having both probes outside the heliopause."

The set of graphs on the left illustrates the drop in electrical current detected in three directions by Voyager 2's plasma science experiment (PLS) to background levels. They are among the key pieces of data that show that Voyager 2 entered interstellar space in November 2018. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/MIT

Voyager 2 launched in 1977, 16 days before Voyager 1, and both have traveled well beyond their original destinations. The spacecraft were built to last five years and conduct close-up studies of Jupiter and Saturn. However, as the mission continued, additional flybys of the two outermost giant planets, Uranus and Neptune, proved possible. As the spacecraft flew across the solar system, remote-control reprogramming was used to endow the Voyagers with greater capabilities than they possessed when they left Earth. Their two-planet mission became a four-planet mission. Their five-year lifespans have stretched to 41 years, making Voyager 2 NASA's longest running mission.

The Voyager story has impacted not only generations of current and future scientists and engineers, but also Earth's culture, including film, art and music. Each spacecraft carries a Golden Record of Earth sounds, pictures and messages. Since the spacecraft could last billions of years, these circular time capsules could one day be the only traces of human civilization.

Voyager's mission controllers communicate with the probes using NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN), a global system for communicating with interplanetary spacecraft. The DSN consists of three clusters of antennas in Goldstone, California; Madrid, Spain; and Canberra, Australia.

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Mark Thomas
5 / 5 (7) Dec 10, 2018
A 21st Century Conversation Made Possible by the Voyager Probes . . .

Child: "Wouldn't it be great, Dad, if people could travel to the stars some day?"

Dad: "Yes, it would! Nobody has gone that far yet, but people have sent machines called probes as far as the space between the stars. We call that 'interstellar space.'"

Child: "Where is interstellar space?"

Dad: "It begins about 11 billion miles away from the Sun in all directions."

Child: "Cool!"
Da Schneib
4.2 / 5 (10) Dec 10, 2018
This is an awesome achievement. Humankind has sent its first functional space probe beyond the heliosphere into interstellar space. Now it's collecting data from an environment we've never seen before.
someone11235813
5 / 5 (3) Dec 10, 2018
"Since the spacecraft could last billions of years, these circular time capsules could one day be the only traces of human civilization."


I'm guessing that when some entity stumbles upon this in a few billion years, the Universe will not miss us.
Surveillance_Egg_Unit
2.6 / 5 (5) Dec 10, 2018
Just a tad bit curious, I would imagine.
Of course, the probe might land on a planet far, far away, in another galaxy where beings are trekking over a desert with their pack animals.
They stop suddenly - each one peering out of their 3 eyes over the landscape. Then someone shouts - "There it is - over there". They rush up a sand dune and stop. "Yes, it has come to us from beyond the stars" says the leader - his 3 eyes blinking furiously in excitement.
As they clamber up the sand dune, the youngest of the group holds back and suddenly screams.
"Get back. Don't touch it. It is alive".
Da Schneib
3.8 / 5 (10) Dec 10, 2018
@SEU shows up to tell us how jebus made the heliopause.
cantdrive85
1.7 / 5 (11) Dec 11, 2018
Until recently, the space surrounding Voyager 2 was filled predominantly with plasma flowing out from our Sun. This outflow, called the solar wind, creates a bubble – the heliosphere – that envelopes the planets in our solar system. The PLS uses the electrical current of the plasma to detect the speed, density, temperature, pressure and flux of the solar wind.


Hmmmm, weird. They measure the electric current of the solar wind....
jonesdave
4.1 / 5 (10) Dec 11, 2018
Until recently, the space surrounding Voyager 2 was filled predominantly with plasma flowing out from our Sun. This outflow, called the solar wind, creates a bubble – the heliosphere – that envelopes the planets in our solar system. The PLS uses the electrical current of the plasma to detect the speed, density, temperature, pressure and flux of the solar wind.


Hmmmm, weird. They measure the electric current of the solar wind....


I very much doubt that. There is nothing in the PLS package that could do that. And, given that there is no current, I expect it is crappy wording in a PR, which is not unusual. Here is what the PLS measures;

http://web.mit.ed...ata.html
jonesdave
4 / 5 (12) Dec 11, 2018
Ahhh, I think I see where their confusion has come from. As I have said before, never trust PRs!
The spacecraft employs two Faraday cups;

https://en.wikipe...aday_cup

What they measure is the current resulting from the collection, not a current in the solar wind!
Steelwolf
2.2 / 5 (10) Dec 11, 2018
This is the quote from the above pic with article:

NASA's Voyager 2 Probe Enters Interstellar Space
The set of graphs on the left illustrates the drop in electrical current detected in three directions by Voyager 2's plasma science experiment (PLS) to background levels. They are among the key pieces of data that show that Voyager 2 entered interstellar space in November 2018. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/MIT

jd is arguing with NASA/JPL-Caltech/MIT now. Electrical current and potential is how they measure plasmas, in electrons as well as ion flow, both give rise to magnetic fields and current, which the Voyager 2 just proved in passing that heliosphere.

So, perhaps a total rethink on your basic suppositions is direly in order jd. Especially wen MIT says YOU ARE WRONG
jonesdave
4.1 / 5 (9) Dec 11, 2018
This is the quote from the above pic with article:

NASA's Voyager 2 Probe Enters Interstellar Space
The set of graphs on the left illustrates the drop in electrical current detected in three directions by Voyager 2's plasma science experiment (PLS) to background levels. They are among the key pieces of data that show that Voyager 2 entered interstellar space in November 2018. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/MIT

jd is arguing with NASA/JPL-Caltech/MIT now. Electrical current and potential is how they measure plasmas, in electrons as well as ion flow, both give rise to magnetic fields and current, which the Voyager 2 just proved in passing that heliosphere.

So, perhaps a total rethink on your basic suppositions is direly in order jd. Especially wen MIT says YOU ARE WRONG


No they don't. I just explained where the current comes from. Try reading it, instead of making sh!t up due to terminal ignorance.
jonesdave
3.8 / 5 (12) Dec 11, 2018
Some people are so thick, that I suppose I'll have to copy/ paste the first sentence of the Wiki page. So, for the hard of thinking;

A Faraday cup is a metal (conductive) cup designed to catch charged particles in vacuum. The ***resulting current*** can be measured and used to determine the number of ions or electrons hitting the cup.


Which is why you can look at the Voyager plasma data, and find no plots for the non-existent current, but only for speed, density, temperature, flux, and dynamic pressure of the solar wind.
theredpill
2.5 / 5 (8) Dec 11, 2018
"No they don't. I just explained where the current comes from."

You are the absolute most useless moron here...I'm talking by a factor at least. The faraday cups help to determine the number of charge carriers in the solar wind, specifically for the purpose of measuring the current.

" Try reading it, instead of making sh!t up due to terminal ignorance."

My god, YOUR f**cking link describes how the cups work very specifically. I could quote parts of it but if anyone clicks on your link they can read that it does exactly what the article says and the opposite of what you say. Talk about terminal ignorance....get the fuck off this site you useless POS. Normal people want to chat....

Flux is a measure of flow, and the cups count the charged particles...you are an idiot.
jonesdave
3.7 / 5 (12) Dec 11, 2018
Flux is a measure of flow, and the cups count the charged particles...you are an idiot.


No, you fuckwit, it is explained that the current is induced in the cups. Want me to email the PI, you lying piece of crap? Want a bet on it? Whoever loses never posts here again? Want me to ask a plasma physicist who uses data from these instruments? Same bet? Want to take it to a physics forum, you uneducated tosser? Same bet? I'll repeat it again;

A Faraday cup is a metal (conductive) cup designed to catch charged particles in vacuum. The ***resulting current*** can be measured and used to determine the number of ions or electrons hitting the cup.


Even a tosspot like you should be able to understand that.

Steelwolf
2.5 / 5 (8) Dec 11, 2018
JD only sinks himself further and further every time he posts. Even rats learn how to run a maze. JD would starve to death.

He would argue that the US power grid, being AC, is of no net charge since it, alternating like that, is essentially zero, so no work can be derived. That is the degree of foolishness we have had from him continuously.
jonesdave
3.7 / 5 (12) Dec 11, 2018
JD only sinks himself further and further every time he posts. Even rats learn how to run a maze. JD would starve to death.

He would argue that the US power grid, being AC, is of no net charge since it, alternating like that, is essentially zero, so no work can be derived. That is the degree of foolishness we have had from him continuously.


So show me where I'm wrong, loser. You can't. Want to take the bet I offered redpillock?
Steelwolf
2.5 / 5 (8) Dec 11, 2018
I will wait for you to go ahead and lose to him, you already made said bet, I will wait for You to disappear and congratulate him. Easy enough, go ahead and try the e-mail. Wonder how far you get tossed.
theredpill
2.7 / 5 (7) Dec 11, 2018
"JD only sinks himself further and further every time he posts. Even rats learn how to run a maze. JD would starve to death."

If only.

"A Faraday cup is a metal (conductive) cup designed to catch charged particles in vacuum. The ***resulting current*** can be measured and used to determine the number of ions or electrons hitting the cup.

Even a tosspot like you should be able to understand that."

I do you worthless slimebag, later on in your link they state the reason for doing that,
" By measuring the electric current (the number of electrons flowing through the circuit per second) in the metal part of the circuit the number of charges being carried by the ions in the vacuum part of the circuit can be determined."

They use them to measure the current of the vacuum, exactly as stated in the article, which is the exact opposite of what you said. What is the number for the bet you worthless slug? Your fucking link PROVES that YOU are wrong.

jonesdave
3.5 / 5 (11) Dec 11, 2018
They use them to measure the current of the vacuum, exactly as stated in the article, which is the exact opposite of what you said. What is the number for the bet you worthless slug? Your fucking link PROVES that YOU are wrong.


No, you fucking idiot, it does not. It just proves that you don't understand what the fuck you are talking about, you uneducated twat. The current is ***INDUCED***. They are not measuring a solar wind current, as there isn't one.

Thus we measure the sum i Σ of the electric currents through the load resistor R F (Faraday cup current) plus the current i c ( U g ) = − C F ***induced*** through the capacitor C F by the saw-type voltage of the sweep-generator:


Learn to fucking read. Want to take the bet, woo boy?

theredpill
2.7 / 5 (7) Dec 11, 2018
The whole reason for the faraday cup is to measure the current value (number of charge carriers) of the solar wind.

Take your complete lack of physics understanding to a street corner and rant there you worthless waste of skin, quit using my oxygen, your wasting it every time you breath.

Where do you think the "vacuum part of the circuit" they are referring to is located moron? That would be "space" where the charge carriers are.
jonesdave
3.5 / 5 (11) Dec 11, 2018
Faraday Cups: Basically what the name implies: a cup the ions enter and transfer their charge to the cup.


https://simion.co...ture.pdf

So you split the ions and electrons which allows you to create a current in the detector. If ions AND electrons were entering, there would be no current, as one would cancel the other. That is why they split them. To measure the INDUCED current to calculate the properties of the plasma. Which does not include a non-existent solar wind current.
jonesdave
3.8 / 5 (10) Dec 11, 2018
The whole reason for the faraday cup is to measure the current value (number of charge carriers) of the solar wind.

Take your complete lack of physics understanding to a street corner and rant there you worthless waste of skin, quit using my oxygen, your wasting it every time you breath.

Where do you think the "vacuum part of the circuit" they are referring to is located moron? That would be "space" where the charge carriers are.


Learn to fucking read. Want to take the bet, woo boy? The solar wind is net neutral. It has to be. They are only measuring current because they are splitting the electrons and ions. That is not happening naturally. Total charge of ions + total charge of electrons = 0.
Steelwolf
2.7 / 5 (7) Dec 11, 2018
There happens to be an induced current to the very edge of the heliosphere as evidenced by both the fall off of magnetic field strength as evidenced by higher cosmic rays, and the falloff of both electron and ion particles at the edge of the solar magnetic field.

Wind denotes current, by basic definition, wind of charged particles is very much a current, and at the thermal speed differences the charges stay separated and form a gradient. Electrical current happens ANY time there is a gradient in plasma, whether it be thermal, pressure or chemical gradient across the plasma mass, it Will form currents which is what was recorded out to the edge of the Heliosphere as per the article.

E-mail away, will be nice to not have you here jd
jonesdave
3.4 / 5 (10) Dec 11, 2018
There happens to be an induced current to the very edge of the heliosphere as evidenced by both the fall off of magnetic field strength as evidenced by higher cosmic rays, and the falloff of both electron and ion particles at the edge of the solar magnetic field.

Wind denotes current, by basic definition, wind of charged particles is very much a current, and at the thermal speed differences the charges stay separated and form a gradient. Electrical current happens ANY time there is a gradient in plasma, whether it be thermal, pressure or chemical gradient across the plasma mass, it Will form currents which is what was recorded out to the edge of the Heliosphere as per the article.

E-mail away, will be nice to not have you here jd


Sorry, want to link to where you got that from? It is not from currents in the solar wind. The solar wind is net neutral. The only reason there is a current to measure, is because they split the electrons and ions.
jonesdave
3.4 / 5 (10) Dec 11, 2018
Faraday cups are perhaps the oldest and most simple detectors used in mass spectrometers. At a very base level, a Faraday cup is a piece of metal that resides in the mass spectrometer's vacuum chamber and is connected to the instrument's electronics. ***Electric fields are utilized to push ions into the piece of metal***. When ions strike the metal, electrons flow through the circuit to meet the ions and neutralize them at the Faraday cup's surface. This current can be measured and amplified by the instrument's electronics. The amount of current is proportional to the number of ions hitting the Faraday cup.


http://www.masssp...aday-cup
jonesdave
3.2 / 5 (9) Dec 11, 2018
Another question for the hard of sciencing - what are the following net charges?

1) + + + + +

2) - - - - -

3) + - + - + - + - + -

Let's see shall we children?
jonesdave
3.5 / 5 (8) Dec 11, 2018
Wind denotes current, by basic definition, wind of charged particles is very much a current,


No, it doesn't. Idiot. See part 3) of the above question. Try to answer it. A wind of only one charge of particle would be a current. A wind of equal numbers of oppositely charged particles has zero net current. You need charge separation within that flow to create a current. This will be minor, in charge and area, and restricted to a volume roughly of the order of the Debye sphere. Which is ~ 10m radius in the solar wind. An ambipolar electric field is induced which effectively slows the electrons, and accelerates the ions, until they are in equilibrium again.
theredpill
2.7 / 5 (7) Dec 11, 2018
@ SteelWolfe, he's completely off the rails now. Communicating with someone this far gone will only detract from your life. He now thinks charged particles are neutral, and that neutral atoms hitting the faraday cups are then split, and he claimed ionization wasn't happening Naturally.

He basically just stated the complete opposite to everything happening inside a faraday cup, While posting links to what is actually happening inside the cup. Just when I have had enough of how utterly ridiculous this guy is he says something even more gone...and I wind up in tears from laughing. I changed my mind...let's get him to keep posting....
jonesdave
3.2 / 5 (9) Dec 11, 2018
@ SteelWolfe, he's completely off the rails now. Communicating with someone this far gone will only detract from your life. He now thinks charged particles are neutral, and that neutral atoms hitting the faraday cups are then split, and he claimed ionization wasn't happening Naturally.


No, you fucking thick twat, I did not say they are neutral. I said the total + plus the total - = 0. Idiot. So, for the hard of thinking; the solar wind is composed of ions and electrons. The total charge of the former is cancelled by the total charge of the latter, as I have explained. Try the questions I set you thick twat. An electric field is produced in the cup to separate the ions from the electrons in the flow. How fucking thick can you be? Want to take this to a physics forum, and a plasma physicist? You are an uneducated moron.
jonesdave
3.2 / 5 (9) Dec 11, 2018
@ SteelWolfe, he's completely off the rails now. Communicating with someone this far gone will only detract from your life. He now thinks charged particles are neutral, and that neutral atoms hitting the faraday cups are then split, and he claimed ionization wasn't happening Naturally.

He basically just stated the complete opposite to everything happening inside a faraday cup, While posting links to what is actually happening inside the cup. Just when I have had enough of how utterly ridiculous this guy is he says something even more gone...and I wind up in tears from laughing. I changed my mind...let's get him to keep posting....


So take the bet, chickenshit. What are you scared of? A lot, because you know you are wrong.
Steelwolf
2.5 / 5 (8) Dec 11, 2018
Your idea, jd, is like saying since AC current goes back and forth, and since it does so it really just equals zero and thus does no work.

Have you REALLY stopped to think about how plasma, current, magnetic fields etc REALLY interact, and what they are telling us in the above article is that they have left the electrical current created by the sun's magnetic field constraining the ions and electrons of the solar wind, the leading edge of the heliosphere, behind with the corresponding marked increase of Cosmic rays, proving decrease of magnetic field, further proven by showing a decrease in observed current charge.

Either ya need to re-learn to read in yer dotage, or re-take some science classes to get up to modern speed jd.

Ye made bet with theredpill, he said bring it on, I will be one of the observers and witnesses of such bet.

Someone could make money being bookie on this one.
jonesdave
3.4 / 5 (10) Dec 11, 2018
Have you REALLY stopped to think about how plasma, current, magnetic fields etc REALLY interact, and what they are telling us in the above article is that they have left the electrical current created by the sun's magnetic field constraining the ions and electrons of the solar wind, the leading edge of the heliosphere, behind with the corresponding marked increase of Cosmic rays, proving decrease of magnetic field, further proven by showing a decrease in observed current charge.


No, they are not saying that. There is no net current in the solar wind. They are measuring the solar wind signal fall off as the probe enters the much more tenuous ISM. Don't believe me? Email them. Ask on a physics forum. You are clueless. Once again; they are not measuring currents in the solar wind.

jonesdave
3.4 / 5 (10) Dec 11, 2018
Ye made bet with theredpill, he said bring it on,


No he didn't - he chickened out. I'm still waiting. He's gone quiet.
cantdrive85
2.1 / 5 (7) Dec 11, 2018
Once again; they are not measuring currents in the solar wind.

Must be dark up there where you got your head buried. Maybe why you are such a fan of everything dark and smelly.
Plainly spelled out in article:
"The PLS uses the electrical current of the plasma to detect the speed, density, temperature, pressure and flux of the solar wind."
jonesdumb has still never answered who dresses and feed him in his dementia riddled condition.
jonesdave
3.5 / 5 (8) Dec 11, 2018
Once again; they are not measuring currents in the solar wind.

Must be dark up there where you got your head buried. Maybe why you are such a fan of everything dark and smelly.
Plainly spelled out in article:
"The PLS uses the electrical current of the plasma to detect the speed, density, temperature, pressure and flux of the solar wind."
jonesdumb has still never answered who dresses and feed him in his dementia riddled condition.


Can you not read, you moron? There is no current in the solar wind. They use a Faraday cup, which is negatively charged, to collect ions, and repel electrons. The ions (which were part of the charge neutral solar wind, due to their charge being cancelled out by the electrons,) then impact the inside of the cup, inducing a current. The strength of the current gives them a measure of the parameters you mentioned. Why do you think you've never seen a plot of solar wind current from a Faraday cup?
jonesdave
3.5 / 5 (8) Dec 11, 2018
jonesdumb has still never answered who dresses and feed him in his dementia riddled condition.


I can dress myself just fine. You, however, do not even seem to be able to think for yourself. Do some research on Faraday cups. Follow the links I provided for the hard of thinking, such as yourself. Go ask on a physics forum. Chicken.
granville583762
3.5 / 5 (8) Dec 11, 2018
Quasi net neutral
Steelwolf> Your idea, jd, is like saying since AC current goes back and forth, and since it does so it really just equals zero and thus does no work..

Steelwolf
This electric shock that goes through one arm and out the other
can do no harm
as an alternating
ac currant
is
Quasi net neutral
shocking
is it not Steelwolf
mind you
Steelwolf
as you sound like a lightning conductor
put some rubber boots on
as
even though ac current is quasi neutral
it will shock you to core
in
its
Quasi net neutrality state
granville583762
3.5 / 5 (8) Dec 11, 2018
Interesting Cantdrive85

jonesdumb has still never answered who dresses and feed him in his dementia riddled condition?
cantdrive85> jonesdumb has still never answered who dresses and feed him in his dementia riddled condition

Jonesdave> I can dress myself just fine. You, however, do not even seem to be able to think for yourself. Do some research on Faraday cups. Follow the links I provided for the hard of thinking, such as yourself. Go ask on a physics forum. Chicken.

Jonesdave> I can dress myself just fine?

When JD is choosing his dress
is not a subject
we ever thought
would
in the nether world imagine discussing
Why
on earth is JD discussing his dress
why is JD discussing his ability to get dressed
we all sort of knew
the joints were creaking
but
now there is a doubt
as to whether JD can dress him self
the horrifying
thought
as to whether JD can dress himself
the mind boggles
it does not bear thinking about
Cantdrive85
antialias_physorg
5 / 5 (8) Dec 11, 2018
On this site there's a nice visualization which of the probes we have out there are currently communicating with the the deep space network (DSN).
Particularly interesting is if you click the "more detail" button (lower right). Just drives home how minute the energies are we are receiving from these satellites
https://eyes.nasa...dsn.html
antialias_physorg
5 / 5 (6) Dec 11, 2018
That should be dBm ...not dB. Sorry.
(which means the received power from these satellites is typically around 10^-17 to 10^-22 kW...whiich means if we had a thousand trillion satellites out there sending us data you could run one red LED off of the received power)
Steelwolf
2.7 / 5 (7) Dec 11, 2018
Antialias, really pretty good for the era of tech that was launched in, and re-programmed in flight for new and unplanned for duties at that. Has done pretty good fer a pair of old troopers.

But it says a lot for our reception tech presently as well.

Steelwolf
2.3 / 5 (6) Dec 11, 2018
I was a welder, I know a LOT about working with current, decent amps, voltage and magnetic fields created by the flowing plasma in the molten metal/arc combination anyways. Rubber soles and leather work.

In some configurations the magnetic field can require some very creative things to be able to get the metal to deposit cleanly in the correct place, without excessive spatter. I was X-ray qualified in welding and high pressure sil-brazing.

I also got to help re-write the book on welding for the Navy Hull Technician/Fireman class, updating drawings for the tech and metallurgy changes at the time.

They used my silver-braze 'pulled ring' joint as demonstration piece displayed for other classes as it had one defect leaving at at .999 where .97 full adhesion is all that was required, and this was just a tiny dip in the exterior of the inside meniscus of the inside the pipe seal, not visible while working, but the instructor cut just so, as to show that was the Only mini-defect.
theredpill
2.6 / 5 (5) Dec 12, 2018
"I was a welder,"

In my experience, once a welder...always a welder. ( been meaning to take some classes for my own projects but time is a short commodity these days) But I figured with your understanding of the technical aspects of this discussion you had a background in something related...unlike the illiterate asswipe whose bet I took the post below he proposed it ( it was even a duplicate) and as usual, his reading comprehension makes zero look like a big number. Check out how many times he has contradicted himself above, Id show with quotes but when you can read it directly it's that much funnier. Although this one I have to:
"Which is why you can look at the Voyager plasma data, and find no plots for the non-existent current, but only for speed, density, temperature, flux, and dynamic pressure of the solar wind."

He says when they plotted the 3 measured currents and supplied the graphs as part of the article...can you imagine being this utterly useless?

jonesdave
3.7 / 5 (6) Dec 12, 2018

He says when they plotted the 3 measured currents and supplied the graphs as part of the article...can you imagine being this utterly useless?


Stupid prick. You still don't understand, do you,thicko? Those are not measurements of the solar wind electric current. It doesn't have one, you useless loon. It is net neutral. It has to be, otherwise the Sun is charging up, isn't it, you dickhead? Those are graphs of the current ***induced inside the cup***, after the ions have been separated from the electrons in the solar wind. It is essentially a measure of their number. The charges of those ions before they entered the cup was balanced by the electrons in the solar wind. Comprende?

Try to follow this;
https://forum.cos...-current

Note that the poster 'Tusenfem' is a plasma astrophysicist. And you aren't. You are just a confused rank amateur with zero knowledge of the subject.


theredpill
2.6 / 5 (5) Dec 12, 2018
"Note that the poster 'Tusenfem' is a plasma astrophysicist."

Really moron??? From what year? I would have thought that a "plasma astrophysicist" would have been up on the information provided by the LATEST observations instead of the 50 year old shit you base your reality on. "The solar wind is electrified"...first quote from the link below taken from the stereo mission.
http://cse.ssl.be...ce2.html

You may want to read the rest, it's short so you won't tax the void between your ears. "Net neutral" is the broadest description possible of the solar wind. Everything we have been observing as the effects of the solar wind are all related to the motions of separate charges and their effects. Not one paper sites an effect of the "neutral" solar wind, they all refer to the charged particles and their effects.

But considering how big of an idiot you have made yourself here, grasping at non existent straws actually is your best bet.
jonesdave
3.7 / 5 (6) Dec 12, 2018
Here is a 2-D representation of 1 cm^3 of the solar wind at 1 AU;

+ - + -
+ - + -

What is the net charge? If I take away the electrons, and let the ions enter a Faraday cup, and induce a current inside it, is that a measure of what was there before? Thick buggers.
jonesdave
3.7 / 5 (6) Dec 12, 2018
Really moron??? From what year?


As of now, shitforbrains. And your link is not saying the solar wind is a net current, you twat, it is saying it is formed of ions and electrons. The charges of which balance each other, you fucking uneducated poser.. You won't find a single plasma or astrophysicist to say otherwise. Ever. Including Alfven. You are simply out of your depth, and have no knowledge of the subject matter.
jonesdave
3.7 / 5 (6) Dec 12, 2018
But considering how big of an idiot you have made yourself here..


Really? Where did that happen? I'm not the idiot claiming the solar wind is a fucking current, you dipshit, or that that current can be measured by a Faraday cup! Get an education, you loser.
Steelwolf
3 / 5 (6) Dec 12, 2018
Actually Faraday Cups happen to directly measure electrons as well as the indirect detection of ions due to their induction of electron current in the metal the Faraday Cup is made from. The charges are rarely equal, which is why there has been such interest in following such missions. But the fact that the charges are still separate gives allowance for electric flow potential anywhere said solar wind is interrupted. Recent story shows more of a magnetic field than expected at G-67P with induced, asymmetric bow-shock wave of electromagnetic nature.

https://phys.org/...met.html

You keep saying things about physics, gravity, ions, magnetism, solar wind and electricity but you do not seem to understand that these things do not mean what you think they mean.

1 cm^3 with 10 particles is not what is measured, it is a 1 cm square with several kilometers per second of particles, at 10 to the cm linear. So you are talking >10^8 particles/sec
theredpill
2.6 / 5 (5) Dec 12, 2018
"You keep saying things about physics, gravity, ions, magnetism, solar wind and electricity but you do not seem to understand that these things do not mean what you think they mean."

He doesn't understand a bloody thing, you can tell by what he says in response to an article that measures the solar wind current in 3 directions using faraday cups to ascertain the value of the vacuum portion of the circuit. That he linked the very text I just quoted yet continues to debate its validity is a clear indication of some sort of tremendous mental short coming either in info. processing or perception.

"1 cm^3 with 10 particles is not what is measured, it is a 1 cm square with several kilometers per second of particles, at 10 to the cm linear. So you are talking >10^8 particles/sec"

His reply - - & + + equals neutral...it's all he can comprehend. I almost feel bad perpetuating this but the guy is such a dick I can't stop.

jonesdave
3.5 / 5 (8) Dec 12, 2018
1 cm^3 with 10 particles is not what is measured, it is a 1 cm square with several kilometers per second of particles, at 10 to the cm linear. So you are talking >10^8 particles/sec


Yes, I do know what these things mean. Far better than you do, obviously. I was talking a cubic cm of that space at an instant in time. And it saves having to post 10^8 +'s ad _'s! The principle is the same. There are sufficient electrons and ions to balance the overall charge. The flow is quasi-neutral. There is no current to measure. A Faraday cup is not (cannot) measure a non-existent current in the SW. It is separating the charges, so it can't. Even if there were a current. Spacecraft tent to charge up negatively, so repel electrons, and attract ions.

And the bow shock at comets has been known about since 1986, and was predicted in 1967 by Biermann. It is nothing new. Another nice case of mainstream theory, based on mainstream science, being borne out by measurement.

jonesdave
3.3 / 5 (7) Dec 12, 2018
He doesn't understand a bloody thing, you can tell by what he says in response to an article that measures the solar wind current in 3 directions....


Fuck me, you are stupid! How many fucking times? There is no current to measure you dick! It is not measuring a non-existent solar wind current. It is collecting ions, and repelling the electrons that neutralise their charge. It is a measure of the number of ions. That is all. The solar wind is quasi-neutral, as any plasma physicist will tell you, and you have nothing to say otherwise, because you are out of your depth in this subject. You do not understand plasma physics, particularly as it applies to astrophysics. Go ask on a physics forum. They will tell you the same as me, you fuckwit. Read this, and then go look up 'Debye length in the solar wind'.
https://fenix.tec...s_01.pdf
jonesdave
3.3 / 5 (7) Dec 12, 2018
Read this;

https://physics.s...-current

And this;

https://physics.s...1#253491

And download this book that I have kindly uploaded to Zippy for the hard of thinking;

Basics of the Solar Wind
Nicole Meyer-Vernet
https://www76.zip...ile.html

jonesdave
3.3 / 5 (7) Dec 12, 2018
From the book I uploaded above;

Section 2.1.2.

Therefore, we have not to worry about the quasi-neutrality of the solar wind, except when
dealing with scales smaller than tens of metres - a problem that occurs in the environment of space probes (Section 7.2).


Repeat after me; "NO NET CURRENT, NO NET CURRENT."

And I dealt with the spacecraft situation above. They tend to charge up negatively, due to the higher mobility of electrons. It hinders measurement sometimes.

theredpill
2.3 / 5 (6) Dec 12, 2018
"It is not measuring a non-existent solar wind current."

Wiki page on faraday cups

"" By measuring the electric current (the number of electrons flowing through the circuit per second) in the metal part of the circuit the number of charges being carried by the ions in the vacuum part of the circuit can be determined."

Don't link anything that helped you sink to this lack of understanding. You are totally fucked up, and as Steel pointed out you can't comprehend jack shit about this stuff. Go back to the funny farm and stay there.
691Boat
4.4 / 5 (7) Dec 12, 2018
"It is not measuring a non-existent solar wind current."

Wiki page on faraday cups

"" By measuring the electric current (the number of electrons flowing through the circuit per second) in the metal part of the circuit the number of charges being carried by the ions in the vacuum part of the circuit can be determined."

Don't link anything that helped you sink to this lack of understanding. You are totally fucked up, and as Steel pointed out you can't comprehend jack shit about this stuff. Go back to the funny farm and stay there.


This circuit you reference.... could it perhaps be an internal circuit in the probe? Methinks yes.
If not, please tell us what the circuit is that this current is passing through? And how would we measure a current in a space circuit? Where are the source and sink for your space circuit?
jonesdave
3.3 / 5 (7) Dec 12, 2018
"It is not measuring a non-existent solar wind current."

Wiki page on faraday cups

"" By measuring the electric current (the number of electrons flowing through the circuit per second) in the metal part of the circuit the number of charges being carried by the ions in the vacuum part of the circuit can be determined."

Don't link anything that helped you sink to this lack of understanding. You are totally fucked up, and as Steel pointed out you can't comprehend jack shit about this stuff. Go back to the funny farm and stay there.


Did you not read the previous umpteen posts, you fuckwit? It is not measuring a non-existent solar wind current. There isn't one, you blind twat. Get an education, you tosser.
jonesdave
3.7 / 5 (9) Dec 12, 2018

This circuit you reference.... could it perhaps be an internal circuit in the probe? Methinks yes.
If not, please tell us what the circuit is that this current is passing through? And how would we measure a current in a space circuit? Where are the source and sink for your space circuit?


Yes,it is an induced current. The cup is slightly negatively charged, to repel elctrons, and so only collect ions. The ions strike the inside of the cup, causing electrons to flow in the material to neutralise them. That is the current measured. As I have already linked to. The bloke is a moron. He simply doesn't understand it. What would happen if a net current was leaving the Sun? You can work it out, but theredclown can't.
rrwillsj
5 / 5 (4) Dec 12, 2018
jonesdave, I must say how much I admire your stamina. All the effort you put into trying to correct the twaddle from the woo fakirs.

No offense to Da Schnieb & the other intelligent & well-informed contributors to this site.
jd, you well deserve an award as Educator of the Year!
The contrast between your sources & those pf the failed cretins disputing you? Are very educational for me!

Your detractors are the fly-blown fruit fallen from the blighted trees of ignorance.
Da Schneib
4.3 / 5 (6) Dec 12, 2018
I gotta ask, what's a "several kilometers per second of particles?" Is that like a meter of photons?
Da Schneib
4.3 / 5 (6) Dec 12, 2018
Maybe it's like an ampere of flowers.

Or several moles of velocity.
Steelwolf
1.8 / 5 (5) Dec 12, 2018
It happens to depend on actual ion, output and speed of the stream at the time, same for electrons, which due to the heat aspect of the plasma is too hot to recombine, until it cools. There is both source and sink, Electrons are pushed faster and farther than ions by radiation pressure, thus there is a large gradient and leaves the sun with a net Positive Charge.

The Phi angle along the current sheet and the magnetic connections from Earth to Sun show current can run from Sol to Earth, or Earth to Sol, either way.

Interplanetary medium, nor Interstellar space can be truly considered vacuum, as it is a plasma field with multiple gradients to it, thus it has both magnetic field and electric current due to charge disparities at the extremes of the gradients.

Just because it is thin does not mean it is not there, you seem to see through this oxy/nitrogen mix fairly well, and it is certainly thin compared to Jovian, or even stellar densities, and it carries a charge extremely well
jonesdave
3.5 / 5 (8) Dec 13, 2018
It happens to depend on actual ion, output and speed of the stream at the time, same for electrons, which due to the heat aspect of the plasma is too hot to recombine, until it cools. There is both source and sink, Electrons are pushed faster and farther than ions by radiation pressure, thus there is a large gradient and leaves the sun with a net Positive Charge.


Wrong. Electrons and ions leave the Sun at pretty much the same velocity. There is no positive charge in the solar wind. Download the book I uploaded to Zippy, above, and educate yourself.
jonesdave
3.5 / 5 (8) Dec 13, 2018
The Phi angle along the current sheet and the magnetic connections from Earth to Sun show current can run from Sol to Earth, or Earth to Sol, either way.


Wrong. You are thinking of Flux Transfer Events. This is nothing to do with currents flowing from Sun to Earth, or vice-versa.

jonesdave
3.4 / 5 (8) Dec 13, 2018
Interplanetary medium, nor Interstellar space can be truly considered vacuum, as it is a plasma field with multiple gradients to it, thus it has both magnetic field and electric current due to charge disparities at the extremes of the gradients.


Wrong. Any electric currents that arise are restricted to the order of the Debye length, which is ~ 10m in the solar wind. The medium consists of ions, electrons, the interplanetary magnetic field and the solar wind convective electric field.

cantdrive85
2.5 / 5 (6) Dec 13, 2018
Any electric currents that arise are restricted to the order of the Debye length, which is ~ 10m in the solar wind.

jonesdumb likes to continue to post lies, deceit, and utter ignorance even in the face of facts. He has been shown numerous times this claim is absolutely false, yet still hangs his hat on it. His old ass mind is utterly incapable of learning anything other than his current beliefs, he suffers from dementia related delusion.
jonesdave
3 / 5 (6) Dec 13, 2018
Any electric currents that arise are restricted to the order of the Debye length, which is ~ 10m in the solar wind.

jonesdumb likes to continue to post lies, deceit, and utter ignorance even in the face of facts. He has been shown numerous times this claim is absolutely false, yet still hangs his hat on it. His old ass mind is utterly incapable of learning anything other than his current beliefs, he suffers from dementia related delusion.


No, it is not false. And has never been shown to be so.
cantdrive85
2 / 5 (4) Dec 13, 2018
Electron beams measured by Ulysses, "flux tubes" measured by ACE, the list goes on and on where the claim has been shown false by direct observation. Yet jonesdumb doubles down with his deceit.
jonesdave
3.4 / 5 (5) Dec 13, 2018
Electron beams measured by Ulysses, "flux tubes" measured by ACE, the list goes on and on where the claim has been shown false by direct observation. Yet jonesdumb doubles down with his deceit.


Nope, you are lying again. We are talking about CURRENTS. Go get an education.
cantdrive85
2 / 5 (4) Dec 13, 2018
Electron beam is an electric current you moron. A "magnetic flux tube" is an electric current you moron. Obviously no education is of any value to you given your old ass mind and its inability to learn even the most rudimentary facts.
Mark Thomas
5 / 5 (3) Dec 13, 2018
Your detractors are the fly-blown fruit fallen from the blighted trees of ignorance.


LOL!
rrwillsj
5 / 5 (3) Dec 13, 2018
Bravo jd, though a rather one-sued debate when you are countering the ignorant apologia expressed by cant,

cant 1 |kant|
noun
1 hypocritical and sanctimonious talk, typically of a moral, religious, or political nature.

As in, cant think, cant reason, cant deliver working inventions, cant find his way out of a wet paper bag!
theredpill
2 / 5 (4) Dec 13, 2018
"This circuit you reference.... could it perhaps be an internal circuit in the probe? Methinks yes."

LMAO....at you, and whomever thought that your complete lack of thought warranted a five star rating. Go read Jones first WIKI link on Faraday cups...it's the source of ammo against every wrong thing he's said here and is especially funny because he linked it...but if you had read it you would know "the circuit I reference" is from that link.

And if you had a clue about physics/engineering you would know that we do not incorporate "vacuum" pathways in any of our circuitry. Nor would there be a reason to have to "calculate" the number of charge carriers in that portion of the circuit.

Here's a hint, if you are going to side with Jones on a physics issue....you'll need a dunce cap and means of uncrossing your eyes when the debate is over.

jonesdave
3.4 / 5 (5) Dec 13, 2018
Electron beam is an electric current you moron. A "magnetic flux tube" is an electric current you moron. Obviously no education is of any value to you given your old ass mind and its inability to learn even the most rudimentary facts.


Nope. You are mostly likely confused by what you read. It happens all the time. and we have to keep correcting you. This is due to you being clueless on the subject of astrophysics and plasma physics.
jonesdave
3.4 / 5 (5) Dec 13, 2018


Here's a hint, if you are going to side with Jones on a physics issue....you'll need a dunce cap and means of uncrossing your eyes when the debate is over.



Hey, dickhead, you already lost the argument, remember? The current is due to electrons in the material moving to offset the charge from the impacting ions. Ions which were preferentially extracted from a solar wind, where their charge was previously cancelled by electrons. The circuit they describe is competed by electrons. Which they didn't capture. So cannot be part of a solar wind circuit, you moron. As in;

.....Faraday cup is the interface to the solid metal where electrons act as the charge carriers (as in most circuits).


As electrons are deliberately excluded from the capture, by negatively charging the cup, then where is this circuit coming from? Bit thick, aren't you? Reading skills aren't up to much, either.

You lost. Get over it.
jonesdave
3.4 / 5 (5) Dec 13, 2018
And if you had a clue about physics/engineering you would know that we do not incorporate "vacuum" pathways in any of our circuitry.


What a dense twat! I already gave you a link that described that, you moron. Read it;

Faraday cups are perhaps the oldest and most simple detectors used in mass spectrometers. At a very base level, a Faraday cup is a piece of metal that resides in the mass ***spectrometer's vacuum chamber*** and is connected to the instrument's electronics. Electric fields are utilized to push ions into the piece of metal. When ions strike the metal, electrons flow through the circuit to meet the ions and neutralize them at the Faraday cup's surface. This current can be measured and amplified by the instrument's electronics. The amount of current is proportional to the number of ions hitting the Faraday cup. Faraday cups have several desirable qualities:

http://www.masssp...aday-cup

Idiot.
jonesdave
3.4 / 5 (5) Dec 13, 2018
theredpill
3 / 5 (4) Dec 13, 2018
" Faraday cup is a piece of metal that resides in the mass ***spectrometer's vacuum chamber***"

But we are talking about the voyager satellites idiot , not mass spectrometers. A faraday cup is the sensing portion of a measurement device. It's function, as per YOUR wiki link "A Faraday cup is a metal (conductive) cup designed to catch charged particles in vacuum. The resulting current can be measured and used to determine the number of ions or electrons hitting the cup"

It's specific function on voyager is to measure the charges in the vacuum of space. The cups aren't chambered on the probe you ignorant ass. Hence why they provided the three graphs detailing those measurements...and referred to the vacuum portion of the circuit..in the case of a space probe, that would be space. Seriously, how fucked up are you to keep trying to say it's something different.

You literally do not know a lick of anything about this stuff, and it is hilarious.
jonesdave
3.4 / 5 (5) Dec 13, 2018
" Faraday cup is a piece of metal that resides in the mass ***spectrometer's vacuum chamber***"

But we are talking about the voyager satellites idiot , not mass spectrometers. A faraday cup is the sensing portion of a measurement device. It's function, as per YOUR wiki link "A Faraday cup is a metal (conductive) cup designed to catch charged particles in vacuum. The resulting current can be measured and used to determine the number of ions or electrons hitting the cup"

You literally do not know a lick of anything about this stuff, and it is hilarious.


Want me to link to the instrument description for Voyager, you clueless fuckwit?
jonesdave
3.4 / 5 (5) Dec 13, 2018
As electrons are deliberately excluded from the capture, by negatively charging the cup, then where is this circuit coming from? Bit thick, aren't you? Reading skills aren't up to much, either.


And conveniently ignored this.

theredpill
3 / 5 (4) Dec 13, 2018
"Want me to link to the instrument description for Voyager, you clueless fuckwit?"

From the MIT page regarding the faraday array for voyager and the link to it: "The Voyager plasma instrument consists of four Faraday cup detectors which measure ion and electron current in the energy range 10-5959 eV/Z. Three of the cups look into the solar wind; the fourth looks sideways to the solar wind direction and is used for planetary encounters and detecting electrons."

And the link: http://web.mit.ed...nce.html

As has been demonstrated this entire thread...you are the clueless fuckwit.
jonesdave
3.4 / 5 (5) Dec 13, 2018
"Want me to link to the instrument description for Voyager, you clueless fuckwit?"

From the MIT page regarding the faraday array for voyager and the link to it: "The Voyager plasma instrument consists of four Faraday cup detectors which measure ion and electron current in the energy range 10-5959 eV/Z. Three of the cups look into the solar wind; the fourth looks sideways to the solar wind direction and is used for planetary encounters and detecting electrons."

As has been demonstrated this entire thread...you are the clueless fuckwit.


Nope, the current they measure is induced. As explained. The solar wind is net neutral. As explained. Why don't you go sign up at Cosmoquest;

https://forum.cos...orum.php

And I'll post the question in the Q & A section, because you'll be too chicken to ask, because you know you are wrong, and are merely posing. Then, as a member. you can challenge the answers.
Want to bet on the outcome, chickenshit?
jonesdave
3.4 / 5 (5) Dec 13, 2018
As has been demonstrated this entire thread...you are the clueless fuckwit.


Lol. This from an idiot that thinks the solar wind is a net current! Dear me.
theredpill
3 / 5 (4) Dec 13, 2018
"Nope, the current they measure is induced."

Fuckwit, I have posted how the faraday cup functions on voyager here several times in this thread, I know the charged particles induce a current in the cup, it's how they calculate the number of charges in "the vacuum portion of the circuit"...that being space.

That you thought linking the instrument would somehow bolster your POV, when in reality it just exposed even more incorrect things you have said ( and I knew it would which was A) why I laughed my ass off when you offered to, and B) why I went ahead and did it). Even after that you still responded with more of your insane gibberish....

Take your net neutral fantasy back to the horse and buggy era where you belong, this material is far too advanced for you as you have demonstrated with your constant misinterpretation of the components and their function. That people with "YOUR" level understanding agree with you just indicates how far behind they are...loser.
jonesdave
3.4 / 5 (5) Dec 13, 2018
Fuckwit, I have posted how the faraday cup functions on voyager here several times in this thread, I know the charged particles induce a current in the cup, it's how they calculate the number of charges in "the vacuum portion of the circuit"...that being space.


Nope, you have totally failed to grasp the concept, due to being an uneducated oaf. Hence why you are too chicken to pose the question on a physics forum. Eh, chicken boy?

jonesdave
3.4 / 5 (5) Dec 13, 2018
Take your net neutral fantasy back to the horse and buggy era where you belong, this material is far too advanced for you.


Nope, I understand it perfectly, which is why I'm happy to post the question on a physics forum, where I know astrophysicists and plasma physicists will see it. And net neutrality, you useless piece of posing shit, is accepted by ALL plasma and astrophysicists. You won't find a single one to disagree. You are just too stupid to understand plasma and astrophysics, as demonstrated. Give up, loser.
jonesdave
3.4 / 5 (5) Dec 13, 2018
That people with "YOUR" level understanding agree with you just indicates how far behind they are


How far behind whom, shitforbrains? Please show me a scientist who is saying the solar wind is not net neutral. You can't, because you are making it up.

theredpill
2.6 / 5 (5) Dec 13, 2018
Moron, you would think after I linked what you threatened to just to prove you wrong for the 20th time in this thread you would take the hint that you don't know squat. The entire universe is "net neutral".

Yet every aspect of what we study in it other than radiated heat at certain wavelengths are results of EM interactions, which happen due to charge differential/motion. Now, I have to end this day of "pick on the retard" and move along to people who aren't fucked.

Enjoy your forum and your thumb sucking contest.
jonesdave
3.4 / 5 (5) Dec 13, 2018
Moron, you would think after I linked what you threatened to just to prove you wrong for the 20th time in this thread you would take the hint that you don't know squat. The entire universe is "net neutral".

Yet every aspect of what we study in it other than radiated heat at certain wavelengths are results of EM interactions, which happen due to charge differential/motion. Now, I have to end this day of "pick on the retard" and move along to people who aren't fucked.

Enjoy your forum and your thumb sucking contest.


And WTF is that word salad about? You do not understand the instrument, what it is measuring, and you think the solar wind has a net current! Lol. Back in your box you idiot.
torbjorn_b_g_larsson
5 / 5 (4) Dec 13, 2018
"The faraday cups help to determine the number of charge carriers in the solar wind, specifically for the purpose of measuring the current."

What current, and what relevance would it have, it is still a part of the known solar wind ejection phenomena?

"The solar wind is a stream of charged particles released from the upper atmosphere of the Sun, called the corona. This plasma consists of mostly electrons, protons and alpha particles with kinetic energy between 0.5 and 10 keV. Embedded within the solar-wind plasma is the interplanetary magnetic field.[2] "

[ https://en.wikipe...lar_wind ]

A plasma wind is mostly neutral (electrons and ions balance) by nature, and the way the Voyagers characterize the plasma is multitude (remember the chirps that Voyager 1 used since one of its instruments is dead)? In any case the heliopause is dominated by the ISM, not the solar wind, so why discuss this *now*? Is this some way of trying to deify electric currents?
jonesdave
3.4 / 5 (5) Dec 13, 2018
Enjoy your forum and your thumb sucking contest.


So, you are chickening out of asking the question on a physics forum? Who is surprised? Fucking uneducated poser.
jonesdave
3.7 / 5 (6) Dec 13, 2018
The faraday cups help to determine the number of charge carriers in the solar wind, specifically for the purpose of measuring the current.


And that is where theredpillock is confused. The current is induced in the metal, due to the impacts of the preferentially selected ions. The current created by the flowing electrons in the metal is an indication of the NUMBER of impacting ions. It is pretty straightforward stuff, but obviously beyond him. Any student of astrophysics knows that the solar wind is net neutral. It has to be. Otherwise the Sun is charging up!

JaxPavan
2 / 5 (4) Dec 14, 2018
Have these sensors discovered anything new?
JaxPavan
2 / 5 (4) Dec 15, 2018
Anyone using foul language on a science blog is a troll and a disgrace.
Da Schneib
4 / 5 (4) Dec 15, 2018
Anyone using foul language on a science blog is a troll and a disgrace.
Then stop supporting people who do it.

We'll start with

........ you're gay
since you support @Benni.

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