The female brain reacts more strongly to prosocial behavior than the male brain

October 9, 2017
Credit: Wikimedia Commons

Behavioral experiments have shown that women are likely to share a sum of money more generously than men. To gain a more in-depth understanding of this behavior, neuroscientists from the Department of Economics looked at the areas of the brain that are active when decisions of this kind are made. They are the first to demonstrate that the brains of men and women respond differently to prosocial and selfish behavior.

The striatum, located in the middle of the , is responsible for the assessment of reward and is active whenever a decision is made. The findings show that the striatum was more strongly activated in female brains during prosocial decisions than during selfish decisions. By contrast, selfish decisions led to a stronger activation of the reward system in male brains.

In the second experiment, the reward system was disrupted by administering medication to the participants. Under these conditions, women behaved more selfishly, while men became more prosocial. The latter result surprised the researchers. Soutschek says, "These results demonstrate that the brains of women and men also process generosity differently at the pharmacological level." The results also have consequences for further brain research. Soutschek says, "Future studies need to take into account gender differences more seriously."

Even if these differences are evident at the biological level, Soutschek warns against assuming that they must be innate or of evolutionary origin. "The reward and learning systems in our brains work in close cooperation. Empirical studies show that girls are rewarded with praise for , implying that their reward systems learn to expect a reward for helping behavior instead of selfish behavior. With this in mind, the gender differences that we observed in our studies could best be attributed to the different cultural expectations placed on men and women." This learning account is also supported by findings that indicate significant differences in the sensitivity of the system to prosocial and across cultures.

The study is published in Nature Human Behaviour.

Explore further: High moral reasoning associated with increased activity in the human brain's reward system

More information: The dopaminergic reward system underpins gender differences in social preferences, Nature Human Behaviour, nature.com/articles/doi:10.1038/s41562-017-0226-y

Related Stories

Brain connectivity reveals hidden motives

March 3, 2016

To understand human behaviors, it is crucial to understand the motives behind them. So far, there was no direct way to identify motives. Simply observing behavior or eliciting explanations from individuals for their actions ...

Generous people live happier lives

July 11, 2017

Generosity makes people happier, even if they are only a little generous. People who act solely out of self-interest are less happy. Merely promising to be more generous is enough to trigger a change in our brains that makes ...

Lending a hand, or a paw—what drives us to help others?

June 4, 2015

Our social connections and social compass define us to a large degree as human. Indeed, our tendency to act to benefit others without benefit to ourselves is regarded by some as the epitome of human nature and culture. But ...

Recommended for you

New paper answers causation conundrum

November 17, 2017

In a new paper published in a special issue of the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A, SFI Professor Jessica Flack offers a practical answer to one of the most significant, and most confused questions in evolutionary ...

Chance discovery of forgotten 1960s 'preprint' experiment

November 16, 2017

For years, scientists have complained that it can take months or even years for a scientific discovery to be published, because of the slowness of peer review. To cut through this problem, researchers in physics and mathematics ...

0 comments

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.