Atrazine alters the sex ratio in Blanchard's cricket frogs

October 13, 2017, Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Atrazine alters the sex ration in Blanchard's cricket frogs
Blanchard's cricket frogs (Acris blanchardi) in amplexus. Credit: Tyler D. Hoskins

A study published recently in Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry found that Blanchard's cricket frogs are highly sensitive to atrazine. When exposed, there were up to 55% fewer males than females compared with the control group, indicating that atrazine can affect the sex ratio. However, cricket frog populations do persist in areas with widespread atrazine application, despite reports of range contractions for enigmatic reasons.

Controversy has long surrounded atrazine and the effects its application has on amphibians in the wild, particularly given that amphibians are facing rapid, global population declines. Atrazine is the second most commonly used herbicide in the United States and evidence suggests that when amphibians are exposed to it gonadal development may be altered, males may develop testicular ova, or they may reverse sexes completely. It has also been traced to disrupting , which is a critical parameter that impacts both ecological and evolutionary trajectories of populations.

Blanchard's cricket frogs were selected for this study because their habitat overlaps the Corn Belt of the Midwest, where atrazine use is intense. Atrazine enters surface and groundwater through spray drift, runoff, or atmospheric deposition (rain, fog or snow). Tyler Hoskins and Michelle Boone of Miami University found that the sex ratio was male-biased when the frogs were not exposed to atrazine, but significantly more feminized upon exposure, suggesting that these frogs are the most sensitive species for which data are available. However, the study by Hoskins and Boone did not find evidence of gonadal abnormalities, such as testicular ova.

This study adds to a corpus of work that has demonstrated that endocrine disrupting chemicals, like , have altered the sex ratio. The authors now see a need to "translate these impacts to their population-level, ecological, and evolutionary consequences in ways that can ultimately generate predictions for risks faced by untested species."

Explore further: Early-life exposure of frogs to herbicide increases mortality from fungal disease

More information: Tyler D. Hoskins et al, Atrazine feminizes sex ratio in Blanchard's cricket frogs (Acris blanchardi ) at concentrations as low as 0.1 μg/L, Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (2017). DOI: 10.1002/etc.3962

Related Stories

Atrazine alternatives in sweet corn

July 19, 2016

Atrazine has been very good at killing weeds in corn fields for more than 50 years. But some of the properties that make it a successful herbicide, such as its persistence in the soil and ability to be transported in water, ...

Recommended for you

Activating a new understanding of gene regulation

November 19, 2018

Regulation of gene expression—turning genes on or off, increasing or decreasing their expression—is critical for defining cell identity during development and coordinating cellular activity throughout the cell's lifetime. ...

Researchers discover a new gear in life's clock: Vitamin D

November 19, 2018

New research from Portland State University finds vitamin D, or a lack thereof can trigger or suspend embryonic development in a species of fish. The study also provides evidence suggesting the vitamin is critical to the ...

1 comment

Adjust slider to filter visible comments by rank

Display comments: newest first

1 / 5 (2) Oct 14, 2017
Most likely the headline should read "Sex Ratio," not "Sex Ration."

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.