The dawn of a new era for Supernova 1987a (Update)

February 24, 2017 by Donna Weaver / Ray Villard, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center
This new image of the supernova remnant SN 1987A was taken by the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope in Jan. 2017 using its Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3). Since its launch in 1990 Hubble has observed the expanding dust cloud of SN 1987A several times and this way helped astronomers to create a better understanding of these cosmic explosions. Credit: NASA, ESA, and R. Kirshner (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics and Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation) and P. Challis (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics)

Three decades ago, astronomers spotted one of the brightest exploding stars in more than 400 years. The titanic supernova, called Supernova 1987A (SN 1987A), blazed with the power of 100 million suns for several months following its discovery on Feb. 23, 1987.

Since that first sighting, SN 1987A has continued to fascinate astronomers with its spectacular light show. Located in the nearby Large Magellanic Cloud, it is the nearest supernova explosion observed in hundreds of years and the best opportunity yet for astronomers to study the phases before, during, and after the death of a star.

To commemorate the 30th anniversary of SN 1987A, new images, time-lapse movies, a data-based animation based on work led by Salvatore Orlando at INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo, Italy, and a three-dimensional model are being released. By combining data from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope and Chandra X-ray Observatory, as well as the international Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), astronomers—and the public—can explore SN 1987A like never before.

Hubble has repeatedly observed SN 1987A since 1990, accumulating hundreds of images, and Chandra began observing SN 1987A shortly after its deployment in 1999. ALMA, a powerful array of 66 antennas, has been gathering high-resolution millimeter and submillimeter data on SN 1987A since its inception.

This Hubble Space Telescope image shows Supernova 1987A within the Large Magellanic Cloud, a neighboring galaxy to our Milky Way. Credit: NASA, ESA, R. Kirshner (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics and Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation), and M. Mutchler and R. Avila (STScI)
"The 30 years' worth of observations of SN 1987A are important because they provide insight into the last stages of stellar evolution," said Robert Kirshner of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation in Palo Alto, California.

The latest data from these powerful telescopes indicate that SN 1987A has passed an important threshold. The supernova shock wave is moving beyond the dense ring of gas produced late in the life of the pre-supernova star when a fast outflow or wind from the star collided with a slower wind generated in an earlier red giant phase of the star's evolution. What lies beyond the ring is poorly known at present, and depends on the details of the evolution of the star when it was a red giant.

"The details of this transition will give astronomers a better understanding of the life of the doomed star, and how it ended," said Kari Frank of Penn State University who led the latest Chandra study of SN 1987A.

The video begins with a nighttime view of the Small and Large Magellanic clouds, satellite galaxies of our Milky Way. It then zooms into a rich star-birth region in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Nestled between mountains of red-colored gas is the odd-looking structure of Supernova 1987A, the remnant of an exploded star that was first observed in February 1987. The site of the supernova is surrounded by a ring of material that is illuminated by a wave of energy from the outburst. Two faint outer rings are also visible. All three rings existed before the explosion as fossil relics of the doomed star’s activity in its final days. Credit: NASA, ESA, and G. Bacon (STScI)

Supernovas such as SN 1987A can stir up the surrounding gas and trigger the formation of new stars and planets. The gas from which these stars and planets form will be enriched with elements such as carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and iron, which are the basic components of all known life. These elements are forged inside the pre-supernova star and during the supernova explosion itself, and then dispersed into their host galaxy by expanding supernova remnants. Continued studies of SN 1987A should give unique insight into the early stages of this dispersal.

Some highlights from studies involving these telescopes include:

Hubble studies have revealed that the dense ring of gas around the supernova is glowing in optical light, and has a diameter of about a light-year. The ring was there at least 20,000 years before the star exploded. A flash of ultraviolet light from the explosion energized the gas in the ring, making it glow for decades.

This time-lapse video sequence of Hubble Space Telescope images reveals dramatic changes in a ring of material around the exploded star Supernova 1987A. The images, taken from 1994 to 2016, show the effects of a shock wave from the supernova blast smashing into the ring. The ring begins to brighten as the shock wave hits it. The ring is about one light-year across. Credit: NASA, ESA, and R. Kirshner (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics and Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation), and P. Challis (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics)

The central structure visible inside the ring in the Hubble image has now grown to roughly half a light-year across. Most noticeable are two blobs of debris in the center of the supernova remnant racing away from each other at roughly 20 million miles an hour.

From 1999 until 2013, Chandra data showed an expanding ring of X-ray emission that had been steadily getting brighter. The blast wave from the original explosion has been bursting through and heating the ring of gas surrounding the supernova, producing X-ray emission.

In the past few years, the ring has stopped getting brighter in X-rays. From about February 2013 until the last Chandra observation analyzed in September 2015 the total amount of low-energy X-rays has remained constant. Also, the bottom left part of the ring has started to fade. These changes provide evidence that the explosion's blast wave has moved beyond the ring into a region with less dense gas. This represents the end of an era for SN 1987A.

This scientific visualization, using data from a computer simulation, shows Supernova 1987A, as the luminous ring of material we see today. Credit: NASA, ESA, and F. Summers and G. Bacon (STScI); Simulation Credit: S. Orlando (INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo)

Beginning in 2012, astronomers used ALMA to observe the glowing remains of the supernova, studying how the remnant is actually forging vast amounts of new dust from the new elements created in the progenitor star. A portion of this dust will make its way into interstellar space and may become the building blocks of future stars and planets in another system.

These observations also suggest that dust in the early universe likely formed from similar supernova explosions.

Astronomers also are still looking for evidence of a black hole or a neutron star left behind by the blast. They observed a flash of neutrinos from the star just as it erupted. This detection makes astronomers quite certain a compact object formed as the center of the star collapsed—either a neutron star or a black hole—but no telescope has uncovered any evidence for one yet.

These images, taken between 1994 and 2016 by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, chronicle the brightening of a ring of gas around an exploded star. Credit: NASA, ESA, and R. Kirshner (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics and Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation), and P. Challis (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics)
Astronomers combined observations from three different observatories to produce this colorful, multiwavelength image of the intricate remains of Supernova 1987A. Credit: NASA, ESA, and A. Angelich (NRAO/AUI/NSF); Hubble credit: NASA, ESA, and R. Kirshner (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics and Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation) Chandra credit: NASA/CXC/Penn State/K. Frank et al.; ALMA credit: ALMA (ESO/NAOJ/NRAO) and R. Indebetouw (NRAO/AUI/NSF)

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cantdrive85
1.4 / 5 (9) Feb 24, 2017
Sadly due to boundless ignorance regarding plasma the plasma ignoramuses will continue to be perplexed by this laboratory reproduced plasma phenomena.
http://ieeexplore...=4287093
691Boat
5 / 5 (10) Feb 24, 2017
wow, they created a red giant in the lab, then had it go supernova and reproduced the images shown in this press release that look nothing like a z-pinch!? that's amazing!
/sarc
yep
1 / 5 (6) Feb 25, 2017
wow, they created a red giant in the lab, then had it go supernova and reproduced the images shown in this press release that look nothing like a z-pinch!? that's amazing!
/sarc

You might want to google images of the Bennett (Z) pinch, there are several ring images and links to the scientific papers of the lab work that created them.
jonesdave
4 / 5 (12) Feb 25, 2017
wow, they created a red giant in the lab, then had it go supernova and reproduced the images shown in this press release that look nothing like a z-pinch!? that's amazing!
/sarc

You might want to google images of the Bennett (Z) pinch, there are several ring images and links to the scientific papers of the lab work that created them.


And you might want to check the doppler data from 1987A. You'll find that z-pinches don't have the material flowing out in opposite directions from the central 'pinch'. There is nothing remotely z-pinch like in this supernova. Only an idiot would believe that there was. Such as cantthink, or Thornhill, or Don Scott.
https://arxiv.org...5337.pdf (fig. 3; negative velocity is towards us, positive away; z-pinches don't do that)
cantdrive85
1 / 5 (6) Feb 26, 2017
You'll find that z-pinches don't have the material flowing out in opposite directions from the central 'pinch'.

This coming from a consummate liar who's ignorance on even the basics of plasma physics is astounding (as if he'd know what a Z-pinch would look like). Irregardless, what does it say about the standard theory? From the first paragraph;
Most of the conventional models assume that the explosion process is roughly spherical. The model assumption of sphericity can be tested by observations.

Hmmm, so it doesn't look like what the conventional models predict. Doesn't bother jonesdumb though, any amount of ad hoc patches are available to save his favored pet guesses.
cantdrive85
1 / 5 (4) Feb 26, 2017
(fig. 3; negative velocity is towards us, positive away; z-pinches don't do that)

Well, thank you jonesdumb for highlighting your ignorance. Here is a 2 minute video which explains that the electron beam fires in one direction, ion in the other. Just as is observed. Oh, and don't forget to check out fig. 4 in your paper which shows just exactly the morphology of the Z-pinch.
jonesdave
3.5 / 5 (8) Feb 26, 2017

Here is a 2 minute video which explains that the electron beam fires in one direction, ion in the other. Just as is observed. Oh, and don't forget to check out fig. 4 in your paper which shows just exactly the morphology of the Z-pinch.


I see no video, and given that the ions and electrons are NOT preferentially scattered either side of the SN, then the point is moot. Ions & electrons both head out in the same direction. Any idiot can read the literature and see that. Except you and the moron Thornhill.
And Fig. 4 is a bloody snapshot of a computer model, that invokes NO Z-pinch! Jesus.

And then, of course, there were the neutrinos from the SN:
http://www.nikhef...ande.pdf
which "coincide remarkably well" with expectation.

Why do you think nobody in the world of real science took Thornhill's nonsense seriously? Or Scott's, when he made the same schoolboy error with M2-9? Because they haven't a clue what they're talking about.
cantdrive85
1 / 5 (4) Feb 26, 2017
And Fig. 4 is a bloody snapshot of a computer model, that invokes NO Z-pinch!

Right, it invokes a magical non-spherical explosion that just looks like the observed Z-pinch.
jonesdave
3.3 / 5 (7) Feb 26, 2017
And Fig. 4 is a bloody snapshot of a computer model, that invokes NO Z-pinch!

Right, it invokes a magical non-spherical explosion that just looks like the observed Z-pinch.


What are you on about? The simulation is of a supernova using normal, mainstream physics. That is what it is expected to look like. Bipolar SN are nothing out of the ordinary, and are expected under some circumstances, and can be modelled as such. The initial explosion will be spherical, but matter can accrete onto the SN remnant, and form jets. No z-pinch required, nor expected, nor observed.
http://iopscience...6/378948
jonesdave
3.3 / 5 (7) Feb 26, 2017
^^^And here is a paper discussing just such a possibility, among others, from 1987, before the 1987A SN. It was based on a subset of non-spherical SN remnants from radio observations. It wasn't as if they made it up to explain 1987A, as the observations predate 1987.
http://adsabs.har...71..205M
cantdrive85
1 / 5 (3) Feb 26, 2017
Right, it was made up prior to that because even before SN1987a it was shown by observations that the supernovae guesses were falsified.
jonesdave
3 / 5 (6) Feb 26, 2017
Right, it was made up prior to that because even before SN1987a it was shown by observations that the supernovae guesses were falsified.


No, you idiot, they are quite obviously supernovae, and nobody believes any differently. As the paper says, there were/ are various reasons why an asymmetric morphology might occur. This has been known for a long time.
Seeing 1987A, with a non-spherical geometry, and subsequent neutrino detection, just confirms that they are, indeed, supernovae.
It takes a special kind of stupid to go into print and claim that they are a bloody z-pinch! Which is why that particular nonsense has been totally ignored. It wouldn't have got past the editor's desk at a decent astronomy/ astrophysics journal, never mind peer review!
I doubt it would see the light of day in IEEE these days, with Peratt not there to pull the strings.
It was trash from an unqualified mythology woo peddler.
nikola_milovic_378
Feb 27, 2017
This comment has been removed by a moderator.
nikola_milovic_378
Feb 27, 2017
This comment has been removed by a moderator.

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