Nanoscale analysis of materials for future fusion reactors

December 13, 2016, National Research Nuclear University
Credit: National Research Nuclear University

Scientists from the National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Russia) have clarified how changing the nanostructure of materials for future energy fusion reactors influences their plasticity, heat resistance and other important properties.

Developing fast-neutron reactors and an efficient fusion reactor are promising nuclear power engineering projects. The former will make it possible to close the and make the nuclear power industry more environmentally friendly. The latter will enable the creation of a fundamentally new method of energy production. The most well-known project designed to expedite the emergence of energy-producing fusion reactors is the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER).

It is difficult to create new energy devices because they involve creating extreme conditions. Incredibly high demands are made on for new reactors. Exposed to high temperatures and streams of high-energy radiation, existing materials tend to degrade quickly. The most durable of these can sustain radiation doses, in which each atom is displaced between 80 and 90 times. This parameter should be twice as large for thermonuclear energy installations. Material stress resistance determines whether a reactor can be considered efficient and safe.

MEPhI researchers addressed this problem using nanotechnologies. Ferrite-martensite steels based on Fe-Cr alloys and oxide dispersion-strengthened steels are regarded as the most promising materials for future energy installations. MEPhI researchers have demonstrated experimentally how these materials could be restructured at the atomic level and how the atoms were redistributed, leading to a substantial rise in fragility and loss of plasticity. The research was published in the Journal of Nuclear Materials and the Journal of Nuclear Materials and Energy.

Changing the nanostructure of a material can change its properties, and as a consequence, significantly reduce the life cycle of active zones. In some cases, however, scientists can select nanostructure changes that provide materials with unique properties such as high heat resistance. During the experiments, Fe-Cr model alloys and oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) steels were exposed to various impacts, during which nanoscale changes in properties were recorded with the help of atom probe tomography.

Sergei Rogozhkin, deputy head of the Department of Extreme States of Matter Physics at the MEPHi Institute of Nuclear Physics and Technologies, said that they had analyzed the nanoscale state of the materials and their restructuring under various impacts: "We induced thermal aging and used beams of metal ions to establish that their influence could lead to the breakage of nanostructure."

According to S. Rogozhkin, this research could be used to create materials for ITER and for installations. "ITER is meant to demonstrate the efficiency of the thermonuclear reactor concept. Requirements on materials are high at this stage, but a next-generation thermonuclear installation will create even more extreme conditions, so fundamentally new materials, including those we are studying now, are being developed precisely for these requirements," he explained.

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EyeNStein
5 / 5 (1) Dec 13, 2016
Hopefully these materials will enable the high fields of HT superconductor reactors like ARC to be supported long term.
Though it would be better if more of those energetic neutrons were multiplied and weakened , by materials containing Beryllium in order to convert Lithium into Tritium to keep the reactor fuelled, and reduce the radioactive waste metals generated.
gkam
1 / 5 (6) Dec 13, 2016
We do not need it. We are getting more efficient and have available new renewable sources, with no super-high technology with its problems and costs.

This reminds me of the religionists looking for the "true cross".
Captain Stumpy
4 / 5 (4) Dec 13, 2016
@STOLEN VALOR LIAR_bully
We do not need it.
yeah, because solar and wind power work so well at places like Pluto or interstellar space... what would we ever need large amounts of energy for?
we will obviously be so advanced that we can use button batteries to power anything interstellar...

[sarcastic satirical hyperbole - not that you will get it anyway given your emotional fears]

per your own request to clean up the site...
gkam
1 / 5 (6) Dec 13, 2016
I do not plan to live on Pluto.

Do you?

Good luck with your fixation on me. It is taking over your life.
Edenlegaia
5 / 5 (1) Dec 21, 2016
I do not plan to live on Pluto.

Do you?

Good luck with your fixation on me. It is taking over your life.


It's not about where you live or want to live, gkam. Massive amount of energy may be needed in the future, in places where renewables could be unavailables. Would you use a wind turbine in a place with no wind? Solar panels with only little exposition to the sun...if not none?
There are no religionists looking for any cross there, true or not. Only scientists probably more knowledgeable on nuclear stuff than you trying to figure out how to use better materials for the future nuclear reactors....
And don't give us your usual "Blehbleh you love nuclear, go to Fukushima, nasty nasty...." nonsense. If you can't understand why we would even think about having energy somewhere else than near your house, you should stop visiting nuclear related articles.
gkam
1 / 5 (4) Dec 21, 2016
Save the lecture, Eden. I understand all of that , plus what we have already done to the Earth and ourselves. If you want to continue on this silly path go ahead, I cannot stop you from wasting money and talent on something we do not need.

I grew up in the era of centralized power. When I worked at PG&E it was the largest power non-governmental company on Earth, with somewhat diversified power sources. We know how it all works and know where we are going now.

Some folk can't get over their idea of centralized power, as it has always been, but that will change. We will always probably have these, but they will be more minor, or possibly dedicated to one place or activity.

Why build an exceedingly-complex unit which is extremely costly and delicate? We have been trying for so many decades, it is like waiting for the Savior. Let us hope the odds are better.
Eikka
3 / 5 (2) Dec 22, 2016
Why build an exceedingly-complex unit which is extremely costly and delicate? We have been trying for so many decades, it is like waiting for the Savior. Let us hope the odds are better.


The exact words applies more for the renewables system when you consider the "unit" as the whole network of integrated sources and their load management to get reliable power where needed, when needed - the management part of which doesn't actually exist.

France built 56 reactors in 15 years and covered the entire electricity demand of the country with it, with a surplus to sell for export. We've been throwing boatloads money at wind and solar power for over two decades now all over the world, in some places four or five decades; fusion research is peanuts compared to the renewables subsidies. When is it actually going to start working like it's supposed to?

Or is it just waiting for the Savior?
gkam
1 / 5 (4) Dec 22, 2016
Apparently you are unaware of the disparity in subsidies.

There was an excellent set of graphs in Quora yesterday, but I will have to find a way to get you there.

And France is dumping its reliance on nukes. It will be years before the truth comes out regarding the use of nukes in France, since it is all secret and national security. One of the terrible problems with nukes is the need for a Police State.

Another is the terrible waste products, the nastiest stuff in existence, and all man-made. We do not have the technology to even store it for the required periods, yet some folk want to make more.

Ain't no Savior for that problem.
Captain Stumpy
3.7 / 5 (3) Dec 22, 2016
@STOLEN VALOR LIAR-bully
And France is dumping its reliance on nukes
you should check the facts first

ITER is in France
https://web.archi...ndex.htm

if you want to talk science you should check your facts first - otherwise you look like a complete idiot making comments like the above that are obviously false or easily proven wrong...

you would think an "engineer" with an MS would know that
you would also think that a "real person in the field" would know that Fusion is also nuclear

.

so, per your request to clean up the site from the emotional outbursts of sniping sans actual verifiable content that can be validated (or blatantly false claims)...
gkam
1 / 5 (4) Dec 22, 2016
, . . . . sigh, . .

Okay, Sgt Rumpy, go here:

https://www.scien...ewables/
Captain Stumpy
3 / 5 (2) Dec 23, 2016
@STOLEN VALOR LIAR-bully
go here
1- it's about time you started linking references to validate your claims

2- that is an article: it also stated
France, one of the world's leaders in nuclear energy production, plans to draw down nuclear's share of electricity generation from 75 to 50 percent by 2025
no where in there does it say it's "dumping its reliance on nukes", like you claimed - the best you can offer from that link is "cut back on its reliance"

3- also note, this is on Fission reactors, as i demonstrated above

this is why you have no real credibility
your claim is embellished due to your fear-based emotional neediness and hatred of nuclear anything, mostly because you really don't know anything about it (that's proven - don't bother arguing)

had you decided to post "cut back on" i would have ignored your post

maybe

you still have a lot to learn about nukes and physics
Edenlegaia
4 / 5 (1) Dec 23, 2016
Given how much France relies on nuclear energy and how frightened politicians are to actually hold their words.....i wouldn't even be surprises to see reactors supposed to be closed since few years already, still generating energy for another round of years.
Which is....not really a good thing.
gkam
1 / 5 (4) Dec 23, 2016
Rumpy, It is always heartening to see how my words affect the lives of others. Who knew I had that power over the emotionally-vulnerable?

Like in "It's a Wonderful Whatever", we often do not know the good things we do for others.
TheGhostofOtto1923
1 / 5 (1) Dec 28, 2016
Rumpy, It is always heartening to see how my words affect the lives of others. Who knew I had that power over the emotionally-vulnerable?
"This leads us to an important quesion: what does the psychopath REALLY get from their victims? It's easy to see what they are after when they lie and manipulate for money or material goods or power. But in many instances, such as love relationships or faked friendships, it is not so easy to see what the psychopath is after... we can only say that it seems to be that the psychopath ENJOYS making others suffer."

""The World has only one problem, Psychopaths. There are two basic types of Psychopaths, Social and Anti-Social. The essential feature of Psychopaths is a Pervasive, Obssesive- Compulsive desire to force their delusions on others. Psychopaths completely disregard and violate the Rights of others..."

-Abuse is literally ALL you got.
TheGhostofOtto1923
1 / 5 (1) Dec 28, 2016
Save the lecture, Eden. I understand all of that
-and we know this because 1) george kamburoff posts under his real name and 2) he worked at PG&E. And so we must accept that
the nastiest stuff in existence, and all man-made. We do not have the technology to even store it for the required periods
-even though we know from multiple debunkings that it is all bullshit.

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