Global coral bleaching event expected to last through 2016

June 21, 2016 by Caleb Jones
In a Thursday, Feb. 11, 2016 photo, rare species of Hawaiian coral being used to create a seed bank grows in a tank at the Anuenue Fisheries Research Center's coral nursery in Honolulu. Most of Hawaii's species of coral is unlike other coral around the world in that it grows very slowly, making restoration projects for endangered reefs in the state difficult. But state officials have come with a plan to grow large chunks of coral in a fraction of the time it would normally take. (AP Photo/Caleb Jones)

After the most powerful El Nino on record heated the world's oceans to never-before-seen levels, huge swaths of once vibrant coral reefs that were teeming with life are now stark white ghost towns disintegrating into the sea.

And the world's top marine scientists are still struggling in the face of global warming and decades of devastating reef destruction to find the political and financial wherewithal to tackle the loss of these globally important ecosystems.

The International Coral Reef Symposium convened Monday to try to create a more unified conservation plan for reefs.

Federal officials said Monday the global coral bleaching event that began in 2014 with a super-charged El Nino is ongoing and is now the longest-lasting and largest such event ever recorded.

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration officials said that the event is expected to continue for its third year, lasting at least until the end of 2016.

While forecasters predict a change from El Nino to La Nina conditions, much of the warm water will remain in place or shift to other regions throughout the rest of the year.

All of the reef areas in the northern hemisphere—which includes almost all of the reefs in the United States—will experience another season of bleaching, said Mark Eakin, coordinator for NOAA's Coral Reef Watch program. Eakin noted that places like Hawaii and Florida have already had two consecutive years of severe bleaching, and a third is reason for concern.

This May 2016 photo provided by NOAA shows bleaching and some dead coral around Jarvis Island, which is part of the U.S. Pacific Remote Marine National Monument. Scientists found 95 percent of the coral is dead in what had been one of the world's most lush and isolated tropical marine reserve. More than 2,000 international reef scientists, policymakers and stakeholders are gathering in Hawaii starting Monday, June 20, 2016, to discuss the latest coral science and what can be done to stop widespread death of the world's reefs. (Bernardo Vargas-Angel/NOAA via AP)
"It's not likely to be as severe as last year according to the models, but time will tell," said Eakin. "It's very important for the managers to be ready for the fact that this may be a third year of bleaching."

Consecutive years of coral bleaching have led to some of the most widespread mortality of reefs on record, leaving scientists in a race to save them. While bleached coral often recovers, multiple years weakens the organisms and increases the risk of death.

Eakin said Palau and other Pacific islands in Micronesia face the biggest threats as warm waters push westward. Those islands are dependent on their reefs for both sustenance and the economic value of tourism.

"Local conservation buys us time, but it isn't enough," said Jennifer Koss, NOAA's Coral Reef Conservation Program director. "Globally, we need to better understand what actions we all can take to combat the effects of climate change."

"What we have to do is to really translate the urgency," said Ruth Gates, president of the International Society for Reef Studies and director of the Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology.

Oahu's Hanauma Bay on Wednesday, May 6, 2016 near Honolulu. Much of the inner reef at Hanauma Bay is dead after decades of tourist interaction, but the outter reef is still relatively healthy. More than 2,000 international reef scientists, policymakers and stakeholders are gathering in Hawaii starting Monday, June 20, 2016, to discuss the latest coral science and what can be done to stop widespread death of the world's reefs. (AP Photo/Caleb Jones)

Gates, who helped organize the conference in Honolulu for more than 2,000 international reef scientists, policymakers and others, said the scientific community needs to make it clear how "intimately reef health is intertwined with human health."

She said researchers have to find a way to implement large scale solutions with the help of governments.

Researchers have achieved some success with projects such as creating coral nurseries and growing forms of "super coral" that can withstand harsher conditions. But much of that science is being done on a very small scale with limited funding.

Bob Richmond, director of the University of Hawaii's Kewalo Marine Laboratory, said the problems are very clear: "overfishing of reef herbivores and top predators, land-based sources of pollution and sedimentation, and the continued and growing impacts of climate change."

While reefs are major contributors to many coastal tourist economies, saving the world's coral isn't just about having pretty places for vacationers to explore. Reefs are integral to the overall ecosystem and are an essential component of everyday human existence.

A man rests his hand on a dead reef as he snorkels in Oahu's Hanauma Bay on Wednesday, May 6, 2016 near Honolulu. Much of the inner reef at Hanauma Bay is dead after decades of tourist interaction, but the outer reef is still relatively healthy. The International Coral Reef Symposium convenes Monday, June 20, 2016, to try to create a more unified conservation plan for coral reefs. (AP Photo/Caleb Jones)

Reefs not only provide habitat for most ocean fish consumed by humans, but they also shelter land from storm surges and rising sea levels. Coral has even been found to have medicinal properties.

In one project to help save reefs, researchers at the University of Hawaii's Institute of Marine Biology have been taking samples from corals that have shown tolerance for harsher conditions in Oahu's Kaneohe Bay and breeding them with other strong strains in slightly warmer than normal conditions to create a super coral.

The idea is to make the corals more resilient by training them to adapt to tougher conditions before transplanting them into the ocean.

Another program run by the state of Hawaii has created seed banks and a fast-growing coral nursery for expediting coral restoration projects.

Most of Hawaii's species of coral are unlike other corals around the world in that they grow very slowly, which makes reef rebuilding in the state difficult. So officials came up with a plan to grow large chunks of coral in a fraction of the time it would normally take.

This May 2016 photo provided by NOAA shows bleaching and some dead coral around Jarvis Island, which is part of the U.S. Pacific Remote Marine National Monument. Scientists found 95 percent of the coral is dead in what had been one of the world's most lush and isolated tropical marine reserve. Researchers finishing an emergency U.S. government undersea expedition described what they called a graveyard of coral around Jarvis Island in the Pacific Remote Island Marine National Monument. Normally, a unique ocean current brings cold water up from the deep to make that underwater region vibrant with coral, nutrients, fish and sharks. (Bernardo Vargas-Angel/NOAA via AP)

Coral reefs have almost always been studied up close, by scientists in the water looking at small portions of reefs.

But NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory is taking a wider view, from about 23,000 feet above. NASA and other scientists recently launched a three-year campaign to gather new data on coral reefs worldwide. They are using specially designed imaging instruments attached to aircraft.

"The idea is to get a new perspective on coral reefs from above, to study them at a larger scale than we have been able to before, and then relate condition to the environment," said Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences' Eric Hochberg, principal investigator for the project.

If the scientific community and the world's governments can't come together to address coral's decline, one of earth's most critical habitats could soon be gone, leaving humans to deal with the unforeseen consequences.

"What happens if we don't take care of our reefs?" asked Gates. "It's dire."

Oahu's Hanauma Bay on Wednesday, May 6, 2016 near Honolulu. Much of the inner reef at Hanauma Bay is dead after decades of tourist interaction, but the outter reef is still relatively healthy. More than 2,000 international reef scientists, policymakers and stakeholders are gathering in Hawaii starting Monday, June 20, 2016, to discuss the latest coral science and what can be done to stop widespread death of the world's reefs.(AP Photo/Caleb Jones)

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antigoracle
1.4 / 5 (18) Jun 21, 2016
After the most powerful El Nino on record heated the world's oceans

Uh huh, the Atlantic ocean is not in the world, since anything that defies the AGW cult's globull warming agenda, isn't.
BurnsTrollsAlive
Jun 21, 2016
This comment has been removed by a moderator.
gkam
3.5 / 5 (19) Jun 21, 2016
I usually find such retorts offensive, . . that one, however is right on target.
TheGhostofOtto1923
2.6 / 5 (18) Jun 21, 2016
I usually find such retorts offensive, . . that one, however is right on target.
Uh 'cause theyre usually directed at you.
gkam
2.9 / 5 (14) Jun 21, 2016
Uh, 'cause they come from folk too cowardly to use their real names.

What is yours? Why are you so SCARED to reveal it?

See this?

http://www.bbc.co...35712772

Think you can hide forever?
TheGhostofOtto1923
2.1 / 5 (14) Jun 21, 2016
See this?

http://www.bbc.co...35712772

Think you can hide forever?
See this?

"The high incidence of psychopathy in human society has a profound effect on the rest of us who must live on this planet, too, even those of us who have not been clinically traumatized. The individuals who constitute this 4 percent drain our relationships, our bank accounts, our accomplishments, our self-esteem, our very peace on earth."

-Think you can lie, cheat, and abuse forever?

Please, by all means, continue to educate normal people.

George kamburoff only posts his real name and sensitive personal info 1) because he is uncommonly stupid, 2) because he is a hopeless braggart, and 3) because he is under the delusion that people will be reluctant to expose him for the liar and fact-fabricator that he has proven himself to be.

This is the real george kamburoff.
gkam
3.6 / 5 (14) Jun 21, 2016
Does phys.org understand their own liability?

"CPS to prosecute 'trolls' who use fake online profiles" - presumably that includes accessories to the crime. I asked repeatedly for a moderator, promised by the site. They are liable for damages.
Uncle Ira
4.1 / 5 (17) Jun 21, 2016
Does phys.org understand their own liability?
Psst, glam-Skippy. You are a worse lawyer than you are engineer.

"CPS to prosecute 'trolls' who use fake online profiles" to mock and ridicule couyons on the interweb because they can't stop talking about them selfs.
Don't apply to you because you showed up wearing your very own silly looking pointy cap (with stars and moons on him no less.)

accessories to the crime.
Crime? Cher, making the fun of glam-Skippy is not the crime, it is a service.

I asked repeatedly for a moderator,
Yeah, you did that, along with volunteering your self to clean up the place, and the threats to sue, then the beg for banning the meanies, then the more threats about being libel, then the more offers of being the moderator, then more belly aching about being real..

promised by the site.
That is another lie, nobody promised anything.

They are liable for damages.
For what you postumed on your own?
Uncle Ira
4 / 5 (16) Jun 21, 2016
@ glam-Skippy. Friendly advice about the selling the wolf tickets, be careful what you wish for because what you wish for just might happen,,,, to you. You know I like to buy the wolf tickets, so do a few more goobers here, how that has worked for you up to now? You hear me Cher?
antigoracle
1.3 / 5 (14) Jun 21, 2016
Does phys.org understand their own liability?

"CPS to prosecute 'trolls' who use fake online profiles" - presumably that includes accessories to the crime. I asked repeatedly for a moderator, promised by the site. They are liable for damages.

Your entire life is fake, so you imagine that you are exempted, and why not, you've gotten away with. Well... until now.
gkam
3.3 / 5 (12) Jun 21, 2016
Show me yours. I put mine on the internet.
TheGhostofOtto1923
2.1 / 5 (15) Jun 21, 2016
Does phys.org understand their own liability?

"CPS to prosecute 'trolls' who use fake online profiles" - presumably that includes accessories to the crime. I asked repeatedly for a moderator, promised by the site. They are liable for damages
If they thought your threats were a danger, they would simply ban you. You have no intrinsic right to be here.

But you still are. So youre impotent as usual.

I'm sure they can see like everybody else that you are little else but a liar and a fact-fabricator. And you can't sue people for documenting this and exposing you for what you are; or for allowing it to happen.
Estevan57
4.1 / 5 (14) Jun 21, 2016
Show me yours. I put mine on the internet.
- gkam

Claiming stupid to be brave is a hell of a defense mechanism gkam.

It's also what got you kicked out of Walmart.

Uncle Ira
4.2 / 5 (15) Jun 21, 2016
It's also what got you kicked out of Walmart.


But he is REAL (even though it is going to be me in hot water with the England-Skippys I got to add REAL stupid.). The goobers at the Walmart are NOT REAL and have not done all the things he did not do either so banning him does not count.
gkam
1 / 5 (8) Jun 21, 2016
Petty envy is obvious here. Those too cowardly to take responsibility for their own words have nothing to say, and no credibility if they do.
Uncle Ira
4.2 / 5 (15) Jun 21, 2016
Petty envy is obvious here. Those too cowardly to take responsibility for their own words have nothing to say, and no credibility if they do.


That may be so Cher, or may be not so. But I never got kicked out of the Walmart ever. Hooyeei, you got to be one dumb couyon to get the boot-a-roo from the Walmart. You lucky they did not take you down to the Parish Prison (or whatever you have like that over in California.)
gkam
1 / 5 (6) Jun 21, 2016
Wal*Mart? Are you kidding?

Nope, you folk can buy their cheap crap from China, then watch as they abandon your town, leaving it without all those other merchants which they ran out of business.

Yup, you thought you were being Real Smart, buying all that stuff you didn't need and which didn't last. Cultural Anthropologists will well recognize the Wal*Mart Layer when they mine our landfills in the future.
Uncle Ira
4.3 / 5 (17) Jun 21, 2016
Wal*Mart? Are you kidding?
Non Cher, I am not kidding. To get booted out of the Walmart, you first got go to the Walmart. Were you lying then? Or are you lying now? Never mind, probably both. But now that you can not go back there, I can understand why you don't like them anymore.
BongThePuffin
Jun 21, 2016
This comment has been removed by a moderator.
BongThePuffin
Jun 21, 2016
This comment has been removed by a moderator.
gkam
3.2 / 5 (11) Jun 21, 2016
No, . . he's just a Wannabe-turned-Neverwas, who can't get over it.
humy
5 / 5 (8) Jun 22, 2016
After the most powerful El Nino on record heated the world's oceans

Uh huh, the Atlantic ocean is not in the world, ....

They obviously didn't mean the heating of the WHOLE of the world's oceans as in literally every tiny part of it!
It's just an expression. It is like when I say I burned my arm on the cooker; I don't mean I burned every tiny bit of my arm.
leetennant
5 / 5 (11) Jun 22, 2016
Everybody knows warming is neither uniform nor linear but we still have these endless silly comments implying that the fact it's neither uniform nor linear is somehow evidence it isn't happening. This is like saying that you don't have lung cancer because your toe is cancer free.
antigoracle
1.3 / 5 (14) Jun 22, 2016
Everybody knows warming is neither uniform nor linear but we still have these endless silly comments implying that the fact it's neither uniform nor linear is somehow evidence it isn't happening. This is like saying that you don't have lung cancer because your toe is cancer free.

Is it also like saying, you have intelligence, because your head is brain free.
gkam
1 / 5 (6) Jun 22, 2016
Are you mad at Mommy? Is that why you come here to make those silly attacks?
Captain Stumpy
4 / 5 (16) Jun 23, 2016
Does phys.org understand their own liability?
@liar-kam
Ira said it best: "Psst, glam-Skippy. You are a worse lawyer than you are engineer"
I put mine on the internet
this is admission, BTW - it's admissible in court
LMFAO
but more importantly, your lawyer should have discussed this with you as well

in fact, they should have specifically stated to you that further communication on PO should be completely terminated or at the very least minimized

and definitely terminate any and all communication with the subjects of any said litigation, because it can all be used in court (should you actually be attempting litigation, that is)

this leads one to believe that you have not only failed to file charges, but you've also not discussed anything with an actual lawyer at all
(hadn't you wondered why i ignore you most of the time?)

ROTFLMFAO

you had the right to remain silent... you just didn't have the ability
where is my summons, felcher!
gkam
1 / 5 (6) Jun 23, 2016
Frumpy, give it up. You are an admitted phony, hiding behind a silly and phony name. You admitted to me you were HIDING from someone or something. Did your little ego and big mouth get you in trouble again?

Now, let's get back to the science, shall we? That leaves you out.
and oh, . . RUOGHWRYKVDTUY!

I guess I sure told you off in your own adolescent language.
gkam
1 / 5 (6) Jun 23, 2016
Rumpy, we are all getting tired of your silly nonsense and need to punish others for being real. Yeah, you and the other snipers, hiding behind phony names thought this was your own playground, where you could blast and intimidate others.

Well, you have been outed as phony snipers, folk without character. Go hide in your encylopedia.

Oh, . . and give us your name and address, like you said you did, . . but didn't.

Too SCARED of me?
Captain Stumpy
4 / 5 (16) Jun 23, 2016
give us your name and address, like you said you did
see : http://phys.org/n...ane.html

Too SCARED of me?
from the above link
don't bother... not only can he not read maps, he couldn't find the embedded link or the address if you highlighted it, circled it and them e-mailed it separately
ignorance, stupidity and incompetence on your part doesn't mean fear on anyone else part

not continuing this flame war with an incompetent geriatric alzheimer's patient who threatened legal action because you lied and i outed you for said fraud... and you're only seeking attention due to an epic failure in your own life anyway

feel free to continue to flood with posts and dig your hole

OH - and THANKS for the admissions!

TheGhostofOtto1923
2.1 / 5 (14) Jun 23, 2016
Rumpy, we are all getting tired of your silly nonsense and need to punish others for being real
George kamburoff the lying cheating psychopath thinks he has a posse.
Yeah, you and the other snipers, hiding behind phony names thought this was your own playground, where you could blast and intimidate others
Still waiting for you to explain why you think you can claim to have a real MS (and all the knowledge that implies) without having an undergrad degree.

And why, if that MS was worth anything, you had no idea what CFR was. That's not a little thing george. That's a very very big thing.

Just one more bit of info that confirms you to be the lying imbecile that you are.

Everybody here knows the real george kamburoff. A phony, lying, failure who never could keep a real job.

You outed yourself.

@Stump I suggest reposting his personal info/SSN as often as necessary. He obviously gave it away because of a compulsive need to expose himself in public.
TheGhostofOtto1923
2.1 / 5 (14) Jun 23, 2016
It's like giving your money away and then telling people not to spend it, you know? Post the link and I'll repost it every time I post.

George kamburoff had no problem sharing his name, address, family names, work history, etc with the world so it is certainly safe to assume that he felt the same about his SSN.

Despite what he says after the fact. After the meds wear off. Whatever.

I mean, to the normal person, acting this way seems somewhat reckless but george kamburoff is obviously a lunatic.

But it is not up to us to protect him from himself, only to protect our little part of the world from him.

Having said that, the internet is a very big place, isn't it?
gkam
1 / 5 (6) Jun 24, 2016
You folk are the ones HIDING, too SCARED to take responsibility for your own words.

Hiding.

Scared.
Estevan57
4.3 / 5 (16) Jun 25, 2016
So gkam, (your mom named you gkam?) what would you do with our personal information if we put it here on the forum?

Be specific. You keep begging and challenging people to do it. What would you do? Would you call us names?

Or would you show up on our doorsteps, or what?
Phone calls? What would you say?
Email messages? What would you say?
Call our families? And say what?
Mail to our houses?
Credit cards in our names?
Magazine subscriptions?

I have asked this before, but you made a lame excuse and dodged the subject. 3 times!

Maybe you should educate us poor ignorant folk what a real person would do with our personal info.

Daring someone to do the stupid thing that you did is just childish.

Or perhaps you could just shut up about it.
Otto_Szucks
1.4 / 5 (11) Jun 25, 2016
@gkam
Try the name: Morgan REHNBERG, age 26, of Boulder, Colorado for Frumpy - appears on Fraser Cain's Universe Today YouTube videos to ask questions and likes to talk a lot. The guy's head looks like a turtle minus the shell. He may be an invalid. Has a book on a shelf called "Crazy Creatures of the World"
gkam
1 / 5 (6) Jun 25, 2016
I guess Estevan is too scared to identify himself and risk public exposure of his character.
Captain Stumpy
3.7 / 5 (9) Jun 25, 2016
Morgan REHNBERG
sigh

1- Morgan is a PhD student in the University of Colorado at Boulder's Department of Astrophysics and Planetary Science, not a retired Truck Captain

2- if you had any common sense or even minimal internet skills you would see that Morgan and I have logged in at the same time talking to each other in the chat on the UT Live cast every fri

3- you will see Morgan also is referred to as Morgan in all episodes whereas I am always, always, always referred to as "Truck Captain Stumpy" (see any recent UT guide to space video in the past 4 years and read the end credits)

4- just b/c you can't read and you're an idiot doesn't mean we all are

5- idiot boy has a map to my house but can't figure out how to get the address embedded in it, so he knows i don't live in CO

Uncle Ira
3.9 / 5 (11) Jun 25, 2016
So gkam, (your mom named you gkam?) what would you do with our personal information if we put it here on the forum?


He seems to think that if we put our full names, addresses, phone numbers and ssn we would all of sudden quit fooling around and goofy around with. The concept that, well me, for instance,, is just as impertinent, impudent, and irreverent and droll as I am on here is how I act in real life. And nobody has a problem with it except people who take them selfs to serious all the time. About the same percentage as on here, 5 or 4 out of hundreds.

I have asked this before, but you made a lame excuse and dodged the subject. 3 times!
I have asked dozens, good luck getting an answer.

Try to get him to answer what we are all "SCARED" of. Before I can get "SCARED" I should at least have the opportunity to know what he is going to do make me "SCARED". Of glam-Skippy? Choot, he couldn't even handle the rent-a-cop at Walmart, what he going to do to me?
gkam
1 / 5 (6) Jun 25, 2016
So, . . after all that whining and dodging, . .who are you?
Uncle Ira
3.9 / 5 (11) Jun 25, 2016
So, . . after all that whining and dodging, . .who are you?


So after all the whining and dodging, I've told you dozens and more dozens of times. I am Ira-Skippy from Port Fourchon, that's in Louisiana. Now what? If you going to be in town just ask anybody if they can help you find your way to Ira-Skippy's place. Most peoples who live in Lafourche Parish more that a few years know me good. The Ira and the Skippy will be the dead give away that you know who you looking for, and get you some help finding me.

That is who I am Cher. Sorry if that don't meet your approval. (I'm just kidding, I don't care if it meets your approval or not meets it.)

Uncle Ira
3.5 / 5 (11) Jun 25, 2016
P.S. for you glam-Skippy. Be sure to let me know when you are coming, that way I can think about whether I should be "SCARED" or not "SCARED" and find some reason to not be at home until I am sure it is safe to come back. If you just show up out of the blue, you will find out fast what it means to be "SCARED".
Estevan57
4 / 5 (8) Jun 25, 2016
Gkam, So, . . after all that whining and dodging, . .WHY do you want to know?

What would you do with that information? Be specific, if you can.

That's 4 dodges without an answer. Go for 5.

What smart people do out of prudence, stupid people will call out of fear.

A little less aggression would seem to be in order for you, considering how vulnerable you have foolishly made yourself.

Have a pleasant contemplation of what you really want - revenge.

"Please post your information so I can get at you." This your new motto?

Captain Stumpy
3.2 / 5 (9) Jun 26, 2016
Gkam, So, . . after all that whining and dodging, . .WHY do you want to know?
this is how bullies and sociopaths work

it's so he can bully folk with threats of litigation or some other long drawn out costly process that he thinks will keep others in check and attempting to gain his good side

.

hey @liar-kam... tell everyone how you've been reporting folk to the PO site and writing letters to everyone but your own psychologist/psychiatrist trying to get anyone who outs you as a liar deleted from PO -or any other site-

it sure didn't work for the sites that require evidence, did it? you know, the moderated sites? you didn't get far with those sites, did you?
I'm still on them!
LMFAO

BTW- some of the MODS want to know if you've had a brain injury or something

i told them i didn't know... even though i actually do know what is wrong with you, by your own admission
gkam
1 / 5 (5) Jun 26, 2016
Notice how the snipers here cannot discuss the topic? They are only concerned with being the cops on the beat, but only being Big Truck Drivers and Boat Polers, they have had neither the education nor the experience in the fields of science. So they try to be the muscle.

The more they accuse others of sins, the more they demonstrate their own character.

Now, let's get back to saving the earth from Hateful Conservatism.
Uncle Ira
3.7 / 5 (6) Jun 26, 2016
@ glam-Skippy. How you are Cher? I am good, and on the boat, thanks for asking.

only being Big Truck Drivers and Boat Polers
I only drive a regular truck so I guess the Boat Poler is part is me, eh?

Does these mean you are not going to tell me what you need my address, phone number and ssn for? What you going to do with it?

Now, let's get back
Does this mean you are not going to tell me what it is I am so "SCARED" of? Again?

to saving the earth from Hateful Conservatism.


https://www.youtu...a8QgGGkc
Estevan57
5 / 5 (3) Jun 27, 2016
Gkam - "Notice how the snipers here cannot discuss the topic?"
Gkam - "I guess Estevan is too scared to identify himself and risk public exposure of his character. "

Okay, asshat which is it going to be? You address a post about me instead of TO me and expect no response?

Of your 14 posts, NONE are about the topic, yet you use it as cover when you have to give a real answer. What a pussy you are.

George you are truly a damaged piece of uh, work.

It seems I have a legitimate reason to ask what you would do with something of mine that you want. If you wanted to borrow my car, I would ask why.

Am I "scared " to give it to you? No, not at all. Is it a smart thing to do? Hell no.

You sit there and burn in your britches every day trying to get something that you were STUPID enough to give out.

5 for 5 dodges, gkam.

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