Vatican sceptical about close encounters of the third kind

A man looks at an astronomical telescope at the Vatican Astronomical Observatory, or "Specola Vaticana", in Albano Laz
A man looks at an astronomical telescope at the Vatican Astronomical Observatory, or "Specola Vaticana", in Albano Laziale, 40 km south of Rome, on July 30, 2015

The recent discovery of an Earth twin has boosted chances there is intelligent life on other planets. But while Pope Francis's telescope scans the starlit skies, the Vatican is sceptical of ever meeting Mr. Spock.

On a leafy hilltop near the papal summer home of Castel Gandolfo sits the Vatican's Observatory, one of the oldest astronomical research institutions in the world, where planetary scientists mix the study of meteorites and the Big Bang theory with theology.

Boasting a prestigious research centre at the University of Arizona in the United States, the institute has never shied away from asking whether there could be life on other planets and is thrilled with the discovery of an "Earth 2.0".

Astronomers hunting for a planet like ours announced to huge excitement last week that they have found the closest match yet, Kepler 452b, which is circling its star at the same distance as our home orbits the Sun.

Around 60 percent larger than Earth, it sits squarely in the Goldilocks zone of its star, where life could exist because it is neither too hot nor too cold to support liquid water, according to the US space agency NASA.

The discovery "is great news", the Observatory's Argentine director Jose Funes told AFP, despite the fact that scientists suspect increasing energy from the planet's ageing sun might now be heating the surface and evaporating any oceans, making life difficult.

However, while "it is probable there was life and perhaps a form of intelligent life... I don't think we'll ever meet a Mr. Spock", he said.

The problem is that Kepler 452b is 1,400 light-years away—an impossible distance to cover using mankind's current technology.

No Jesus 2.0

NASA may have made history this year with a Pluto fly-by, but it took nine years for its probe to get there despite the planet being under six light hours away. The fastest spaceship in the Solar System, it would take some 11 million years to reach the Earth's cousin.

Funes, who has a degree in theology and doctorate in astronomy, would not be drawn on whether the Vatican would send out space missionaries to convert alien life-forms to Christianity if extra-terrestrial life was found elsewhere.

What is clear, he says, is that while God may have created aliens and planets similar to Earth, there can be no second Jesus.

"The discovery of intelligent life does not mean there's another Jesus," he insisted, because "the incarnation of the son of God is a unique event in the history of humanity, of the Universe".

Neat in his black cassock and surrounded by the latest astrological publications, Funes, 52, says science and religion co-exist perfectly together, insisting "if there was intelligent life (on another planet), I don't see that as a contradiction with the Christian faith".

"The bible is not a scientific book. If we look for scientific responses to our questions in the bible, we are making a mistake," he said.

"It answers great questions, like 'what is our role in the Universe?'" But such answers can also come from exploring the stars, he said.

"This type of research, the search for life in the Universe, helps us to understand ourselves... to understand our potential, but also our limits".


Explore further

NASA discovers Earth-like planet orbiting 'cousin' of Sun

© 2015 AFP

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Jul 31, 2015
"The bible is not a scientific book. If we look for scientific responses to our questions in the bible, we are making a mistake," he said."

A mistake made all too often by some posters here.

Jul 31, 2015
"The bible is not a scientific book. If we look for scientific responses to our questions in the bible, we are making a mistake," he said.

Could we please add this to the physorg guidelines?

Jul 31, 2015
"The bible is not a scientific book. If we look for scientific responses to our questions in the bible, we are making a mistake," he said.
Could we please add this to the physorg guidelines?


"The bible is not a scientific book. If we look for scientific responses to our questions in the bible, we are making a mistake," he said."

A mistake made all too often by some posters here.


..........including these two.

Jul 31, 2015
Hmmm, while the church did use astronomy to calculate when Easter would fall in the calendar, they protected their methods and fostered ignorance in normal folk. Science does the opposite. Science tries to make available information for all. Yeah OK we have paywalls these days, and that is an argument worthy of discussion in itself. But be weary of religion protecting itself against science, when science is making progress which could harm religion.
Science should be FREE for everyone, especially medical science. Hopefully one day, the U.N. takes control of medical science and makes it globally available. Sorry if I seem to have lost the plot a little here. :-)
As for this article in regards to Earth 2.0, keep in mind Venus and Mars. Neither are habitable. Also keep in mind the MOON!!! Right next to the Earth, but it's mass is wrong and perhaps it's celestial history too, so it's just a round sterile rock.
But keep the dream alive as the odds are in the favour of SCIENCE :-)

Jul 31, 2015
it is probable there was life and perhaps a form of intelligent life...


All that can be said, is that no one can say there isn't and no one can say there is. What we can say is that as far as we have been able to ascertain as far as we can look, *with certainty* we have seen no evidence of the most simplest remnant of life or even some sort of giveaway footprint fossil.

The temptation is to say 'but with billions of trillions of stars...' there surely must ....etc.

The point I'm making is that I strongly object on scientific rational grounds to the word "probable" in the above quote. That's just the argument from incredulity that scientists are usually so quick to dismiss, and here they are doing it.

I'd be surprised if anything as complex as a bacteria is discovered anywhere other than Earth, within a hundred years.

Jul 31, 2015
The bible is not a scientific book


Amusingly they actually got the 'in the beginning there was light', they should have quit while they were ahead.

Regarding the above quote, er... don't we already know that.

Jul 31, 2015
The bible is not a scientific book


Amusingly they actually got the 'in the beginning there was light', they should have quit while they were ahead.

Regarding the above quote, er... don't we already know that.


Not if you're":
verkle
Ren82
viko-mix
DavidJose
JVK
And a few others.

Jul 31, 2015
Is this the same catholic church that used to torture and execute people because they said the Earth wasn't the center of the universe ? The "poop" er pope isn't infallible but he is a joke.

Jul 31, 2015
If we look for scientific responses to our questions in the bible, we are making a mistake

Actually, just opening the bible is a mistake.

Jul 31, 2015
This comment has been removed by a moderator.

Jul 31, 2015

surrounded by the latest astrological publications, Funes,

Well... Most probably, he was surrounded by astronomical publications, perhaps also the latest.

Jul 31, 2015
"Amusingly they actually got the 'in the beginning there was light', they should have quit while they were ahead."

This is assuming Photons existed at the first instant of the Big Bang.

Jul 31, 2015
"The bible is not a scientific book. If we look for scientific responses to our questions in the bible, we are making a mistake"


The Bible is not a scientific book. But the Bible does have opinions on certain subjects. For instance, how the world was created, and how humans were created.

Today, on these same subjects, we have scientific knowledge, which contradicts and disproves the opinions of the Bible.

To ignore the opinions of the Bible, one would have to ignore certain pages. Under the currently dominant approaches to the Bible, such a selective approach is impossible.

Or... Fortunately, and for many people, there seems to be another path. This is the path of interpretation, and exegesis.. It is the path of how does one approaches the Bible.

For instance, saying that we should not look for scientific answers in the Bible, is one such approach. It is an interpretation.

This does not mean that it is wrong. It only means that it is one of a possible paths.

Jul 31, 2015
The world or the humans were not created as the Bible says.

These should not lead us to think that the Bible is a useless book. People who studied science should not think that these wrong opinions of the Bible are all one needs for approaching and evaluating the Bible.

The Bible represents a living cultural tradition, which is studied and commented for almost three millenia. It gave birth to the three monotheistic religions, and influenced the history of philosophy and ideas. It is a wonderful literature, and a very interesting field of study.

Um.., no, it is not a field of physics, or space exploration. It is called: philology, and (I must admit) also theology.

For many people it is a religious book, and they approach it accordingly. For scholarship, it a very interesting collection of traditions, well situated in their historical circumstances. Ethnology, folklore, art, theology, even ancient history, all are concerned with it. Denying it will mean a major cultural void.

Jul 31, 2015
The factory farmers of humans don't want the domesticated stock thinking too much about their wild cousins. When will people ever realize that the Vatican has nothing to do with spirituality? It's a mega farming operation. The paedophile scandals were business as usual- farmers aren't required to follow animal cruelty laws. Benedict was elected not in spite of his involvement but because of it. He showed he would put the State above ethics. A playah! Francis is just a crazy Franciscan wannabee. What kind of Jesuit is a Franciscan wannabee???

Spirituality is only ever peripherally addressed. Meanwhile, EVERY breeding behavior goes center stage. If Catholics want to indulge that, I'm game for treating them like livestock too. To the rendering plant with the lot!

The Bible is literature. Don't bother to debate those that can only read translations. lol I DETEST religion and I can read it as written. Guess I care more about it than the "faithful".

Jul 31, 2015
To call something 1900 light years away a "Twin" is just plain silly. This is just one of these feel good so fund me "discoveries" that are publicized every so often.

Jul 31, 2015
@MR166

What if the 'something' was an entangled particle 1900 light years away?

Jul 31, 2015
they are allowed to have an opinion, not the last word

Aug 01, 2015
@Vietvet

The Bible is primarily a historical and moral book. It teaches us God's law and principles and explains why they are such an important part of our lives. It is the key to kingdom of God which is not of this world. This world will be destroyed and rebuilt after millennium by God for His people. It is said that the meek and humble shall inherit the Earth. It is not a scientific book because our primary role on Earth is to prepare for the kingdom of God as build our worthy character following the truth of God and learn to love yourself as well as others. But not to build sand towers here on Earth with unjustified feeling of grandeur that is vivid expression of pride and vanity (the root of all evil and the reason for each crime), which can only cause concern and anxiety.
We as intelligent beings and creative persons can develop science to explore the wonders of God's creation, but should not be ungrateful and forget who is the root cause of all this.

Aug 01, 2015
The bible is not a scientific book

What the bejebus!?!
So, I'm guessing the earth is older than 6000 years.

Aug 01, 2015
There is big difference between guesing and sure facts. The basic work activity of shamans is exactly guessing and amulet making. On the other side are scientific researchers whose basic activity is documenting the facts obtained from observation and experiments of our phisical reality.

Aug 01, 2015
"Neat in his black cassock and surrounded by the latest astrological publications..."

-Astrological? Was that a mistake or no?

"Funes, 52, says science and religion co-exist perfectly together'

-Except for the small matter that the former is founded on the analysis of evidence while the latter can only survive by rejecting it.

"insisting "if there was intelligent life (on another planet), I don't see that as a contradiction with the Christian faith"."

-A very drastic and very recent concession. And certainly not a consensus.

"The bible is not a scientific book. If we look for scientific responses to our questions in the bible, we are making a mistake," he said."

-Another concession forced upon religion by the irrefutable power of evidence. And again, in no way is this a consensus among the worlds religions. The author implies that it is, typical of religionists who often present opinions as facts.

Aug 01, 2015
There is big difference between guesing and sure facts... scientific researchers whose basic activity is documenting the facts obtained from observation and experiments of our phisical reality ... The Bible is primarily a historical and moral book
Ahaahaaaa

VIKO

Archeologists have been discovering all sorts of evidence in the holy lands over the course of the last one hundred years.

What they have found tells them conclusively that the bible stories never happened.

This is also evidence that the novelists who wrote your favorite book were guessing about the nature of the universe.

This is also evidence that the promises found in your book are also most likely fabrications of the basest sort.

In all the times Ive presented this to you youve never acknowledged it, never challenged it.

How come? Does it scare you??

It should.

Aug 01, 2015
The Bible is primarily a historical and moral book
VIKO

I assume youre catholic? Ive been reading the Sirach, "The Book of the All-Virtuous Wisdom of Joshua ben Sira", and part of the catholic canon.

"4 Give to religious people, but don't help sinners. 5 Do good to humble people, but don't give anything to those who are not devout. Don't give them food, or they will use your kindness against you. Every good thing you do for such people will bring you twice as much trouble in return. 6 The Most High himself hates sinners, and he will punish them. 7 Give to good people, but do not help sinners." sirach 12

-This is in keeping with John 3:18-24 which declares that unbelievers cant be good. But it goes further in deeming them unworthy of charity.

How much further does one have to go to reach persecution and pogrom? The genocidal joshuan rampage teaches by example just how unbelievers are to be treated if one is truly devout.

Your book it the exact opposite of moral.

Aug 01, 2015
I was listening to a preacher on the radio the other day. They are very informative.

The gentleman says that jesus offers 'unconditional love.'

But as we know, if one were to fail to return this love for whatever reason, this god of infinite love would turn this offender over to the god of infinite retribution for eternal torture.

That certainly sounds like one hell of a condition to me.

How about you?

You think this preacher was lying or something?? Maybe he just didnt think through what he was preaching, a typical symptom.

Maybe he thought he could say just about anything and get away with it, which he apparently did, because I didnt hear anyone stand up and say 'Hey! What about that eternal damnation thing??'

Guess Ill have to start attending these sermons in person.

Dug
Aug 01, 2015
Double irony - one mythology commenting on the reality of another mythology.

Aug 01, 2015
Who arecheorloghiest discovered facts that tells them conclusively that the Bible stories never happened? Give me more specific information. Not declarations. Because there is undeniable evidence for its authenticity and harmony with historical facts. There is no any sence of wishful thinking even if temporarily serves as an excuse for a sin. No cause in the world is worth lies. It is inherent to weak people with slave mentality. The life requires love and honest attitude.

Did you know something about Bible prephecies? Can you afford to claim due to the hard facts you and your cute archaeologists that the Bible prophecies have not come true and the last is not currently running? Think carefully before you answer to not become obvious your ignorance on this issue. Which does not prevent you to get moral support from professional vouters who think that truth can be determined by consensus.

Aug 01, 2015
The Bible is made up of various books having different literary genres. Thus "Genesis" is myth-related: it is saying how the Universe was created but not in a scientific way, rather in a myth-way. Others religions use such style. "Numbers" is a census of people living back then. and so on.

If you're looking for scientific formulas and explanations within the Bible, you're wrong yes.

Aug 02, 2015
If God have explained to us the foundation of our physical reality in the Bible did we have enought brain power to understand His explanation? Did we have technical abilities to check Gods explanations? Еspecially in the early years of human civilization when our knowledge were very scarce. Even today official science has not realized remarkable progress since these times and basically build sand towers with uncertain knowledge. Our physical reality is only partilay knowable to us. God hardly makes sense to explaining physical processes that will not understand. Our task on earth is a little different and God has given to us everything necessary to fulfill it. Your claims in this respect are puzzling and it is obviuos that you do not know well the Bible.

Aug 02, 2015
Who arecheorloghiest discovered facts that tells them conclusively that the Bible stories never happened? Give me more specific information
I already did. Many times. The fact that you are refusing to acknowledge this here means that you are again lying in service to your god.

Aug 02, 2015
Here's one Israeli archeologist who sums up the conclusions of 1000s of researchers over the last century.

"Tel Aviv University archaeologist Ze'ev Herzog wrote in the Haaretz newspaper:
This is what archaeologists have learned from their excavations in the Land of Israel: the Israelites were never in Egypt, did not wander in the desert, did not conquer the land in a military campaign and did not pass it on to the 12 tribes of Israel. Perhaps even harder to swallow is that the united monarchy of David and Solomon, which is described by the Bible as a regional power, was at most a small tribal kingdom. And it will come as an unpleasant shock to many that the God of Israel, YHWH, had a female consort and that the early Israelite religion adopted monotheism only in the waning period of the monarchy and not at Mount Sinai."

-You've seem this before. Your morally impeccable god lists many sins in the bible but condones breaking most all of them in service to him.

Including lying.

Aug 02, 2015
Re biblical prophecy

"According to Christian apologists, the alleged fulfillment of the messianic prophecies in the mission, death, and resurrection of Jesus proves the accuracy of the Bible. However, according to Jewish scholars, Christian claims that Jesus is the messiah of the Hebrew Bible are based on mistranslations..."
Cont>

Aug 02, 2015
"An example of an alleged after-the-fact prophecy is the Little Apocalypse recorded in the Olivet Discourse of the Gospel of Mark. It predicts the siege of Jerusalem and destruction of the Jewish Temple at the hands of the Romans in 70 AD. Most mainstream New Testament scholars concede this is an ex eventu (foretelling after the event), as are many of the prophecies in the Old Testament such as Daniel 11.

"Another example is Isaiah's prophecy about Cyrus the Great. Traditionally, the entire book of Isaiah is believed to pre-date the rule of Cyrus by about 120 years. These particular passages (Isaiah 40-55, often referred to as Deutero-Isaiah) are believed by most modern critical scholars to have been added by another author toward the end of the Babylonian exile (ca. 536 BC)"

-etc. But as most biblical prophecies only prophesy things that are only described elsewhere in the bible and nowhere else, they cannot be taken as fact.

Many are the result of adulterations.

Aug 02, 2015
But in the context of what archeologists have concluded (that the major events never happened and most of these prophets never existed), and, given the fact that biblical analysis has revealed that the bible is FULL of adulterations, forgeries, graffiti etc (the last 10 verses of mark were added 100 years later and upwards of 40% of the works of Paul were not written by him, and Peter 1 and 2 are forgeries etcetcetc) the prophesies you find in your book are worthless.
Your ignorance of these issues in no way means that they are not true, you do understand that don't you?
We understand that there never were 2M Jewish slaves in egypt or a genocidal Joshuan rampage or great solominic/davidic kingdoms.

Your god lied about them as he lied about everything else, including the fact that he is a cartoon character.

Aug 02, 2015
I beg to differ with these comments. I have stood before The Lord of Heaven and witnessed what would otherwise be unspeakable things. I was allowed to retain the knowledge from that encounter. I can tell you that the Bible is the GREATEST of scientific journals. It was taught though in a way that many are simply not used too. It spoke to the heart. Many think of science a fundamental breakdown of understanding to suite ones needs. Such as, they would discount the Bible simply because it did not give them a break down of atomic mass or the blue prints to what THEY consider credible knowledge (or knowledge they they feel will be advantageous to suite their own materialistic needs). Read Matthew 13:33 and how he compared his empire with a single cell organism (and it flew right over your heads). Look at plasma (the 4th domain of matter) and he appeared as lighting or within a cloud in nearly every encounter. So much testimony to give but he leads me to Isaiah 6:9-13 to end my frustration

Aug 02, 2015
I beg.....

As you should.
Science relies on fact, not faith.

Aug 02, 2015
Your god lied about them as he lied about everything else, including the fact that he is a cartoon character.


....and you're doing a good followup act.

Aug 02, 2015
I beg.....

As you should.
Science relies on fact, not faith.


Yet, it is through a combination of faith and his authority that gives the command signal to the interior of an atom. You have not understood his intent, therefor your facts are based on observation through selfish intent alone. Take the tree in Matthew 21:19, a fact could be said that one minute it was present and beautiful, yet the circumstances of that fact were overruled by the command authority given. This command was relayed to the interior of the living cell that governed the matrix of life within the tree. You have yet to ask him INTENT. He tried to give you this intent through Jesus and his testimony but no one wanted to listen. even when Jesus mentioned bacteria or living water, NO ONE wanted to understand the science behind his words (which would take love).

Aug 03, 2015
Something that still amazes me is people assuming that a God would communicate with its creation via a book. I mean on a human-made archaic technology, fragile, flammable, alterable, expendable, etc...
It's like writing messages in the sand comparing timescales....
But even if it is created on a "everlasting" material.... give words and texts and let all these beings to interpret it the way they want?
No need for science, religion created its own 'plot holes' before it. No need for such antagonism, unless someone need science as the "scapegoat"...

Aug 03, 2015
But in the context of what archeologists have concluded (that the major events never happened and most of these prophets never existed)

*cut*
Your god lied about them as he lied about everything else, including the fact that he is a cartoon character.


As an atheist I can't care much about the bible apart from it being a very old book with stories from the beginning of modern times. Though I agree with you, I would like to point out that some of your reasoning may not hold up in the debate.

First of all, you evidently do not believe in de bible, so as me, you should agree the whole book is written by human narration, not an infallible god that is telling lies to human believers. So we can agree that humans have written their history with possibly a large margin of error concerning the exact dates of historical events. There was no dating and counting generations aren't particularly accurate either.

Aug 03, 2015
(continued)

2nd, the problem is the bible itself. After all, accurate or not, it is one of the few books from that time with such extensive documentation, so is it a source more valid than any other from that time?

This makes both the approach of refuting as well as confirming the bible's stories by evidence a valid one. So if one agrees that the bible can't be calender accurate, there's a lot of evidence to be found some of the mentioned stories can/have actually happened.

But you claim to dismiss the stories by exactly pinpointing a date, then saying no such event happened on that date therefore claiming it hasn't happened at all. If you are making the claim that the bible is inaccurate in the first place, you should accept exact dates are one of the first aspects that ought to be dismissed. Now if you take a bigger margin of time in which events could have happened, there is actually circumstantial evidence some events may have happened.

Aug 03, 2015
3rd, you use one story to refute validity of the whole bible, let's say there is an error in a user's manual, would you dismiss the rest of the manual as useless?

The bible is definitely a book with stories from that time, written by humans that were before that passing stories orally, at times poorly translated, heavily re-edited and censored by the catholic Church.

Perhaps Salomon was never the great king as described by it's followers (I have the same with my favourite football club), perhaps 480 years is a timespan that can't be passed on correctly by oral stories. Perhaps it weren't 2M people exiting Egypt, but just a lot. It doesn't mean the exodus hasn't happened or nothing else is correct in the bible.

and addendum, as far as my knowledge of the bible goes, I don't believe the god of the bible has ever claimed to be a cartoon character :)

Aug 03, 2015
I have stood before The Lord of Heaven and witnessed what would otherwise be unspeakable things. I was allowed to retain the knowledge from that encounter.

Was disease among those unspeakable things?
Perchance, did you retain knowledge as to why we must suffer them and, fingers crossed, given their cures?

Aug 03, 2015
Yes actually it was! He showed me the living cell and how incredibly important it was. He told me that bacteria and the living cell were the key to knowledge. He showed me how to take bacteria and combine them with enzymes to create any material on Earth. Composite materials that were harder than steel yet totally organic.

Aug 03, 2015
Goldilocks zone alone a habitable planet does not make. It is merely the closest match.

I also must pint out that science can be used inappropriately as religion, finance, and government.

Aug 03, 2015
....key to knowledge...

Pray tell, to what have you applied this unique knowledge?

Aug 03, 2015
....key to knowledge...

Pray tell, to what have you applied this unique knowledge?


Lord have mercy, I have tried to share it with others. Even among my own Pastors. Literally NO ONE besides my own close family have accepted it (because The Lord has prophetically been producing miracles, signs and wonders since he appeared to me, so my wife and Father have had first hand witnessed the fruit of this encounter). Other than that, no one has taken it seriously. Even if I try to post things on science websites, I get laughed at or ridiculed. I am deadly serious though, about what he showed me. He showed me time as well. Countless cycles on Earth. He harvests righteousness like we harvest wheat. I saw his relationship with plasma and that sound was superior to light. The interior of our sun (and its relationship to sound amplification). SO MUCH! If anyone actually took it seriously, it would fundamentally change everything. But that is why he led me to Isaiah 6:9-13

Aug 03, 2015
There is a cool gadjet on Physorg, it is the ignore button.

Go to Hell joshua kenny greenwood and be ignore forever.

Note that I wrote your name just like you did; your name do not deserve any capital letter, minus.

Aug 03, 2015
It spoke to the heart
The heart is not a competent organ for analyzing evidence.

The brain is.
Read Matthew 13:33 and how he compared his empire with a single cell organism
I read matt 10 and understand why the love god should have been put in a cell.

"21 And the brother shall deliver up the brother to death, and the father the child: and the children shall rise up against their parents, and cause them to be put to death."

Aug 03, 2015
So we can agree that humans have written their history with possibly a large margin of error concerning the exact dates of historical events. There was no dating and counting generations aren't particularly accurate either
???

YOU can assume whatever you want. I will assume that the hundreds of archeologists over the course of the last century, some of them and their patrons very religious indeed, know what they are talking about when they say that ALL the evidence they have gathered convinces them that the bible stories are fables because other things were going on back then which would have made them impossible.

There never were 2M hebrew slaves in goshen. Period.

They were a canaanite tribe who originated in palestine and never left.

The evidence is irrefutable.

But like I say you can choose to stay ignorant. Up to you.

Aug 03, 2015
Lord have mercy, I have tried to share it with others. Even among my own Pastors. Literally NO ONE besides my own close family have accepted it (because The Lord has prophetically been producing miracles, signs and wonders since he appeared to me
You should have your well water checked for lead contamination.

Seriously.

Aug 03, 2015
the bible... is one of the few books from that time with such extensive documentation, so is it a source more valid than any other from that time?
This is like saying that we can gain extensive knowledge of NYC by reading spiderman.

"Soon, however, the field many thought would scientifically prove the Bible would be the one that would most dramatically call to question its contents:

"As archaeological evidence mounted, however, in the heyday of "biblical archeology" between the 1930s and the 1950s, the question of Israelite origins grew more intractable.

"... the evidence simply did not support the Biblical story of Exodus and Conquest. Today, the most widely accepted view amongst expert scholarship is that the story of Exodus and Conquest as narrated in the Bible are nothing more than myth."

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