Researchers find romantic kissing not nearly as universal as thought

July 17, 2015 by Bob Yirka report
Credit: Bleiglass/ Wikipedia

(Phys.org)—A team of researchers from Nevada State and Indiana Universities has found that romantic kissing is not nearly as ubiquitous as many have thought. In their paper published in American Anthropologist, the team describes the work they conducted in researching the behavior and the results they found.

Romantic kissing has been depicted in Western art, literature, movies and television as one of the main components of demonstrative attraction between people. And in real life, the first kiss is often seen as the stepping stone between mere attraction and mutual acknowledgement—the bridge that crosses the gap between desire and acting on it by both parties involved. But now, it appears all that kissing may be occurring in less than half of the present on Earth.

Noting that very little research has been done on the topic, the researchers turned to two major sources of information: the Standard Cross-Cultural Sample and the electronic Human Relations Area Files World Cultures. Between the two they gleaned data on 168 different cultures from Asia, Africa, Middle America, Europe, the Caribbean, North America, the Middle East, South America and Oceania. They also interviewed ethnographers.

In sifting the data, the researchers found that just 46 percent of cultures engaged in romantic kissing and that the number of cultures in any given region that engaged in kissing was varied. All of the cultures in the Middle East, for example, engaged in kissing, while none of those in Central America did so. The team also found that the degree of social complexity appeared to be tied to cultural kissing—those that were more complex had more kissing. The team's numbers are in stark contrast to prior results that had suggested kissing occurred in up to 90 percent of cultures—some research has even suggested it came about as a way for people to gauge biological compatibility or as a means of swapping gut biomes to improve immunity.

The team also found that modern hunter gatherer societies tend to not kiss (one group considered the practice gross) which they note, likely indicates that early humans did not kiss at all—thus romantic kissing is most likely a relatively modern invention. They conclude by suggesting that kissing seems to be a product of western society, a practice passed down through multiple generations.

Explore further: 80 million bacteria sealed with a kiss

More information: Is the Romantic–Sexual Kiss a Near Human Universal? American Anthropologist, DOI: 10.1111/aman.12286

ABSTRACT
Scholars from a wide range of human social and behavioral sciences have become interested in the romantic–sexual kiss. This research, and its public dissemination, often includes statements about the ubiquity of kissing, particularly romantic–sexual kissing, across cultures. Yet, to date there is no evidence to support or reject this claim. Employing standard cross-cultural methods, this research report is the first attempt to use a large sample set (eHRAF World Cultures, SCCS, and a selective ethnographer survey) to document the presence or absence of the romantic–sexual kiss (n = 168 cultures). We defined romantic–sexual kissing as lip-to-lip contact that may or may not be prolonged. Despite frequent depictions of kissing in a wide range of material culture, we found no evidence that the romantic–sexual kiss is a human universal or even a near universal. The romantic–sexual kiss was present in a minority of cultures sampled (46%). Moreover, there is a strong correlation between the frequency of the romantic–sexual kiss and a society's relative social complexity: the more socially complex the culture, the higher frequency of romantic–sexual kissing.

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13 comments

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ogg_ogg
1 / 5 (5) Jul 17, 2015
I continue to be amazed by the assumption that after tens of thousands of generations of biological and cultural evolution, hunter gatherers are "more primitive" than (or more similar to) their ancestors than we Westerner's are. May be true, may not. How does that make it a scientifically valid assumption? And how does presence or lack indicate whether or not it has a biological purpose? Ahhh. You gotta love the Social "Sciences".
adam_russell_9615
2 / 5 (4) Jul 17, 2015
There should be some study as to how such a thing could be accepted science for so long when it truly was BS. What is it that is failing in our scientific consensus mechanisms?
TheGhostofOtto1923
3 / 5 (4) Jul 17, 2015
Biomes regulate a lot more than immunity. Gut biomes for instance evolve to digest foods found in local environments.

Due to overpopulation humans have been forced to migrate time and again, and find themselves coming long with natives whose biomes are maximized to digest local foods.

Kissing (and oral sex) may thus be more prevalent in cultures with high percentages of immigrants, and less so in those with limited outside contact.

Western cultures function as melting pots by design. Is kissing more prevalent in these cultures than in say the Han chinese?
TheGhostofOtto1923
3.7 / 5 (3) Jul 17, 2015
Oop I missed this

"the more socially complex the culture, the higher frequency of romantic–sexual kissing."

-and spellcheck seems to think that comingling is spelled 'coming along'.

I hate spellcheck.
Whydening Gyre
3 / 5 (2) Jul 17, 2015
Is kissing perhaps a way humans "share" advantageous bacteria? I suppose it could be analogous to licking...
docile
Jul 17, 2015
This comment has been removed by a moderator.
Waterrat
not rated yet Jul 18, 2015
Go to any central park in any city in any country in Central America and you will realize kissing is practiced by most young couples. Have the authors attempted to travel anywhere?
Whydening Gyre
5 / 5 (1) Jul 18, 2015
Is kissing perhaps a way humans "share" advantageous bacteria?

see this article - they even use the same picture at the top...:-)
http://phys.org/n...tml#nRlv
I suppose it could be analogous to licking... ...

to licking of what? Be consequential at least...

IE - When a mother of live born lick their young...
ROBTHEGOB
not rated yet Jul 19, 2015
Hey - next time I'm in a bar I'll try this for a pick-up line: " Hey, babe - you wanna swap some gut biomes?......." How romantic!
Waaalt
not rated yet Jul 20, 2015
"the more socially complex the culture, the higher frequency of romantic–sexual kissing."

Oh man... another case where scientists get so close to figuring out the obvious:

it's not "social complexity" it's dental hygiene aka clean teeth and healthy gums etc.

Of course plenty of hunter gatherers think kissing is gross: their mouths are/were probably a dentist's worst nightmare.
TheGhostofOtto1923
1 / 5 (1) Jul 20, 2015
Of course plenty of hunter gatherers think kissing is gross: their mouths are/were probably a dentist's worst nightmare
Well if that's true perhaps it's because they tend to live in closed societies and their biomes are already adapted. No need to share biomes.

But their teeth and gums are usually in good shape as they tend to eat foods which keep them that way.
antigoracle
1 / 5 (1) Jul 20, 2015
Is kissing perhaps a way humans "share" advantageous bacteria? I suppose it could be analogous to licking...

That's the line WG uses when he slips her the tongue.
DDBear
not rated yet Jul 22, 2015
Maybe when kissing first started, it was an extreme taboo fetish thing. We just don't know it because of a lack of historical writings about the origin.

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