Quantum Criticality in life's proteins (Update)

April 15, 2015 by John Hewitt report
Quantum Criticality in life's proteins
Quantum criticality in proteins. Credit: Gabor Vattay et.al.

(Phys.org)—Stuart Kauffman, from the University of Calgary, and several of his colleagues have recently published a paper on the Arxiv server titled 'Quantum Criticality at the Origins of Life'. The idea of a quantum criticality, and more generally quantum critical states, comes perhaps not surprisingly, from solid state physics. It describes unusual electronic states that are are balanced somewhere between conduction and insulation. More specifically, under certain conditions, current flow at the critical point becomes unpredictable. When it does flow, it tends to do so in avalanches that vary by several orders of magnitude in size.

Ferroelectric metals, like iron, are one familiar example of a material that has classical critical point. Above a of 1043 degrees K the magnetization of iron is completely lost. In the narrow range approaching this point, however, thermal fluctuations in the electron spins that underly the magnetic behavior extend over all length scales of the sample—that's the scale invariance we mentioned. In this case we have a continuous phase transition that is thermally driven, as opposed to being driven by something else like external pressure, magnetic field, or some kind of chemical influence.

Quantum criticality, on the other hand, is usually associated with stranger electronic behaviors—things like high-temperature superconductivity or so-called heavy fermion metals like CeRhIn5. One strange behavior in the case of heavy fermions, for example, is the observation of large 'effective mass'—mass up to 1000 times normal—for the conduction electrons as a consequence of their narrow electronic bands. These kinds of phenomena can only be explained in terms of the collective behavior of highly correlated electrons, as opposed to more familiar theory based on decoupled electrons.

Experimental evidence for critical points in of materials like CeRhIn5 has only recently been found. In this case the so-called "Fermi surface," a three-dimensional map representing the collective energy states of all electrons in the material, was seen to have large instantaneous shifts at the critical points. When electrons across the entire Fermi surface are strongly coupled, unusual physics like superconductivity is possible.

The potential existence of in proteins is a new idea that will need some experimental evidence to back it up. Kauffman and his group eloquently describe the major differences between current flow in proteins as compared to metallic conductors. They note that in metals charges 'float' due to voltage differences. Here, an electric fields accelerate electrons while scattering on impurities dissipates their energy fixing a constant average propagation velocity.

By contrast, this kind of a mechanism would appear to be uncommon in biological systems. The authors note that charges entering a critically conducting biomolecule will be under the joint influence of the quantum Hamiltonian and the excessive decoherence caused by the environment. Currently a huge focus in Quantum biology, this kind of conductance has been seen for example, for excitons in the light-harvesting systems. As might already be apparent here, the logical flow of the paper, at least to nonspecialists, quickly devolves into the more esoteric world of quantum Hamiltonians and niche concepts like 'Anderson localization.'

To try to catch a glimpse of what might be going on without becoming steeped in formalism I asked Luca Turin, who actually holds the patent for semiconductor structures using proteins as their active element, for his take on the paper. He notes that the question of how electrons get across proteins is one of the great unsolved problems in biophysics, and that the Kauffman paper points in a novel direction to possibly explain conduction. Quantum tunnelling (which is an essential process, for example, in the joint special ops of proteins of the respiratory chain) works fine over small distances. However, rates fall precipitously with distance. Traditional hole and electron transport mechanisms butt against the high bandgap and absence of obvious acceptor impurities. Yet at rest our body's fuel cell generates 100 amps of electron current.

In suggesting that biomolecules, or at least most of them, are quantum critical conductors, Kauffman and his group are claiming that their electronic properties are precisely tuned to the transition point between a metal and an insulator. An even stronger reading of this would have that there is a universal mechanism of charge transport in living matter which can exist only in highly evolved systems. To back all this up the group took a closer look at the electronic structure of a few of our standard issue proteins like myoglobin, profilin, and apolipoprotein E.

In particular, they selected NMR spectra from the Protein Data Bank and used a technique known as the extended Huckel Hamiltonion method to calculate HOMO/LUMO orbitals for the proteins. For more comments on HOMO/LUMO orbital calculations you might look at our post on Turin's experiments on electron spin changes as a potential general mechanism of anesthesia. To fully appreciate what such calculations might imply in this case, we have to toss out another fairly abstract concept, namely, Hofstadter's butterfly as seen in the picture below.

Quantum Criticality in life's proteins
Hofstadler's Butterfly is a graphical represention of the fractal structure of the energy spectrum for electrons in a magnetic field. Credit: Wikipedia

The butterfly is a graphical representation of the fractal structure of the energy spectrum for electrons in a magnetic field. The self-similarity of a fractal structure can be quantified by one of several measures of something called the fractal dimension. This is a general measure of complexity usually taken as the ratio of the change in detail to the change in scale. Originally proposed in by Hofstadler in 1976, his signature butterfly is one of the rare fractal footprints discovered in physics that has recently been experimentally observed.

When Kauffman and his group calculated fractal correlation dimensions for their example proteins they got values precisely midway between localization (D = 0) and delocalization (D = 1) confirming that the system is critical and that the wave functions are multifractals. They also report that the same numerical value (D = 0.5) has been obtained also for 'critical quantum chaos.' Perhaps more contentious then their calculations are the suggestions that this kind of criticality (in the quantum Hamiltonian) is endemic in the evolutionary selection of biomolecules.

Their justification for this line of thought proceeds from an argument that the probability of finding such critical molecules by a quasi-random browsing of major databases and 3D crystallographic data is astronomically low. They note that the number of known small molecules and proteins is about 10^8 and the number of chemically feasible small (< 500Da) organic compounds is estimated at around 10^60. In the same vein, the number of proteins grows exponentially with the number n of amino acids as ∼ 20n (myoglobin consists of 153 amino acids) and the largest known has about n ≈ 26000. They conclude that chemical and biological evolution selected only a tiny fraction p ∼ 10−50 of possible small biomolecules and even less for proteins.

However, in asking why life just uses the molecules that does, the authors don't explicitly address the question of just how many potential small biomolecules and or proteins would be expected to quantum critical in the first place. They do note that some biomolecules are actually fairly good conductors. Some of the essential steroids which are bioactive extremely low (nanomolar) concentrations, like testosterone, fall into that category.

We might call to mind at this point that others have looked for similar kinds of extreme behaviours in other examples of life's proteins. Stuart Hameroff has been a long time champion of networks of polymerized tubulins in the conduction of information in the cells through as yet fully defined mechanisms. In particular, we should mention recent work on driving the rapidly polymerization of microtubules through external electromagnetic fields raises the question of what new kinds of physics may be at play here. I discussed some of this in more detail elsewhere the other day, together with some of the researchers here for anyone interested to read a little more.

————————

UPDATE, 4/15/2015: Guest blog comment:

Quantum criticality in living systems

by Stuart Hameroff MD,

Anesthesiology, Psychology and Center for Consciousness Studies,

The University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona

The work by Stuart Kauffman, Gabor Vattay and colleagues makes an important contribution, showing biomolecules exist in a state of quantum criticality, poised at the edge between quantum and classical behavior. They rightfully, and correctly in my view, suggest this quantum critical feature is relevant to the fundamental nature of life. It should be noted that reductionist, functionalist and genetic approaches have yet to explain life's unitary oneness, its fundamental nature.

Quantum coherence was proposed as an intrinsic feature of life by Schrodinger in his book 'What is Life', and historically supported by Albert Szent-Gyorgyi, Herbert Frohlich and others. But artificial quantum systems are plagued by thermal and electromagnetic interactions with their environments, disrupting quantum states and causing 'decoherence'. Accordingly, laboratory quantum devices are built near absolute zero temperature, and living systems considered too 'warm, wet and noisy' for quantum coherence. However some scientists including myself and Sir Roger Penrose have thought that biology could have developed mechanisms to avoid decoherence, or perhaps that life even originated because of quantum mechanisms.

Indeed it is now recognized that proteins in plant photosynthesis utilize quantum coherence to make food. Energy from collected photons are conveyed through the plant protein by quantum electron excitations (excitons) via 8 geometrically-arrayed 'chromophores', each a non-polar group of 'pi resonance clouds'. Optimizing efficiency, the excitons propagate through all 8 chromophores simultaneously in quantum superposition.

The key to quantum coherence in photosynthesis is the non-polar, pi resonance environment in which it occurs, an environment from which, it appears, consciousness originates.

Inward to the quantum underground. From left, pyramidal neuron cell body with microtubules, single microtubule, row of three tubulins with aligned pi-resonance dipoles, dipole oscillations and anesthetic dampening. Credit: Stuart Hameroff

Biomolecules are generally 'amphipathic', with charged, water-soluble polar groups on one end, and an oil-like, non-polar group on the other. Oil and water don't mix. When amphipathic biomolecules self-assemble (e.g. in protein folding), the non-polar groups coalesce, forming intra-protein 'hydrophobic pockets', excluding water. The polar ends stick out into the charged, watery environment.

Non-polar hydrophobic pockets inside proteins are composed primarily of pi resonance clouds like the phenyl and indole rings of aromatic amino acids phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan. Non-polar regions occur within proteins, membrane lipid bilayers and nucleic acids, e.g. DNA and RNA.

Photosynthesis shows us that quantum coherence occurs among pi resonance rings within such non-polar interiors of proteins at ambient temperatures. Vrtually all biomolecules and organelles have non-polar interiors friendly to quantum coherence (the 'quantum underground').

Consciousness has been proposed to involve organized quantum mechanisms, and in the brain, anesthetic gas molecules selectively prevent consciousness in non-polar, hydrophobic regions of brain proteins. At the turn of the 20th century, Meyer and Overton found that potency of various anesthetic gases correlated precisely with their solubility and binding in a non-polar medium akin to olive oil, later shown to be largely pi electron resonance clouds of 'aromatic' amino acid rings within brain proteins.

Which proteins? After decades of inconclusive study of membrane receptor proteins, evidence for anesthetic action now points instead to a deeper level inside neurons, in non-polar regions inside the protein walls of cytoskeletal microtubules.

Microtubules are protein lattice polymers which organize neuronal interiors and regulate synapses. Several theories including the Penrose-Hameroff 'Orch OR' theory suggest consciousness depends on microtubules acting as quantum computers whose quantum bits ('qubits') involve coherent dipole couplings among pi electron resonance clouds.

Using molecular modeling, the US-Canadian team of Travis Craddock, Stuart Hameroff and Jack Tuszynski have shown (1) pi resonance rings arrayed in clusters and channels within tubulin, the subunit protein in microtubules, (2) Within these clusters, pi resonance rings are separated by the van der Waals radius, consistent with quantum criticality in the Kauffman/Vattay study, (3) clusters and channels in each tubulin meet those of neighbor tubulins in microtubule lattices, so a quantum underground can extend the length of microtubules, e.g. in helical pathways winding through microtubules, 4) anesthetic molecules bind (Meyer-Overton correlation) and exert their effect in these channels.

What do anesthetics do in the microtubule quantum underground? Quantum coherence in photosynthesis proteins are enabled by coherent mechanical vibrations. In microtubules, Bandyopadhyay's group has shown coherent vibrations in gigahertz (109 Hz), megahertz (106 Hz) and kilohertz (103 Hz) ranges, self-similar patterns each separated by several orders of magnitude. This suggests a scale-invariant hierarchy. Pi resonance rings have coherent resonances in terahertz (1012 Hz) and may be the 'inner apex' of the brain's scale-invariant hierarchy extending through tubuln (gigahertz), microtubules (megahertz), microtubule bundles (kilohertz) and EEG (hertz).

Coherent vibrations enable quantum coherence in photosynthesis proteins. Their role in microtubules may be as important for cognition and consciousness. Microtubule vibrations are accordion-like compressions and relaxations, with each compression pushing the pi resonance rings slightly closer together, past the quantum critical point, beneath the van der Waals radii and enabling quantum coherence throughout large regions of the microtubule quantum underground, and overlapping van der Waals radii, causing nonlinear repulsion and return to classical states. Thus quantum and classical states alternate, in various frequency scales which interact, not unlike music. This solves the problem of having a quantum state isolated from the classical environment, and then being able to communicate with that environment, e.g. for inputs and outputs. Quantum computer pioneer Paul Benioff once wrote about a fictional robot whose quantum computer brain so oscillated between quantum and classical states. Microtubules may vibrate and go in and out of quantum critical range.

Then what do anesthetics do to erase consciousness? Craddock, Hameroff and Tuszynski have modeled dipole-coupled oscillations between benzene ring pi resonance clouds and found intrinsic coherence at a frequency of 68 Terahertz (68 x 1012 Hz). With a nearby anesthetic molecule binding by van der Waals 'dipole dispersion' forces, the energy barrier increases, changing the clocking frequency by 20 percent. Thus anesthesia may disperse dipoles to dampen terahertz vibrations in the quantum underground of brain microtubules. Fortunately, many non-polar regions of the quantum underground in living systems are too small for anesthetic molecules, and so non-conscious quantum coherence continues during anesthesia. Life goes on.

The brain is looking like a scale-invariant hierarchy, with clocking frequencies at different spatio-temporal scales – clocks within clocks within clocks…. Anesthetics act at the deepest level, the fastest clock, the inner apex, in the microtubule quantum underground.

References:

Craddock TJA, Hameroff SR, Tuszynski JA (2015) Anesthetics Act in Quantum Channels in Brain Microtubules to Prevent Consciousness. Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry 15 (6) 523-533(11)

Hameroff S, Penrose R (2014) Consciousness in the universe – Review of the 'Orch OR' theory. Physics of Life Reviews 11(1):39–78

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1571064513001188

Hameroff S, Penrose R (2014) Reply to criticism of the'Orch OR qubit' – Physics of Life Reviews 11(1):104-112 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1571064513001917

Hameroff S (2012) How quantum brain biology can rescue conscious free will, Front Integr Neurosci. 6:93. DOI: 10.3389/fnint.2012.00093.

Mudur GS (2015) 'Deep inside cells, a clue to the mind' Calcutta Telegraph www.telegraphindia.com/1150403/jsp/nation/story_12399.jsp#.VSfJ3EtKh4M

————————

Explore further: Evidence mounts for quantum criticality theory

More information: Quantum Criticality at the Origin of Life, arXiv:1502.06880 [cond-mat.dis-nn] arxiv.org/abs/1502.06880

Abstract
Why life persists at the edge of chaos is a question at the very heart of evolution. Here we show that molecules taking part in biochemical processes from small molecules to proteins are critical quantum mechanically. Electronic Hamiltonians of biomolecules are tuned exactly to the critical point of the metal-insulator transition separating the Anderson localized insulator phase from the conducting disordered metal phase. Using tools from Random Matrix Theory we confirm that the energy level statistics of these biomolecules show the universal transitional distribution of the metal-insulator critical point and the wave functions are multifractals in accordance with the theory of Anderson transitions. The findings point to the existence of a universal mechanism of charge transport in living matter. The revealed bio-conductor material is neither a metal nor an insulator but a new quantum critical material which can exist only in highly evolved systems and has unique material properties.

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31 comments

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derphys
1 / 5 (1) Apr 13, 2015
This study open new way of thinking that must be more proved.
It shows indirectly how electromagnetic and mobile phone microwave fields at low intensity can be more dangerous than usually written in particular in growing young children ans doetus, by perturbing microtubules and the complex life quantum criticality.
TheOrphan
1 / 5 (1) Apr 14, 2015
Very interesting, I was for many years of the opinion that this impedance middle ground is critical to life.

But recent research has left me a little puzzled.

Impedance of air is 1000v / mm @ sea level.
Yet impedance of vacuum is 376.73031 ohms (I have no idea what that equates to as a voltage, but it should be a lot more than 1000v / mm, if vacuum circuit breakers are anything to go by).
And impedance of air goes down with altitude in some research and up in other research.

These anomalies are indicators of Quantum behavior that deserve a lot more attention, is the conclusion I've come to, I can't imagine ohms law will be breached, there must be a reason.
TheOrphan
not rated yet Apr 14, 2015
I should add , temperature is the most likely factor I can see that would affect the results so profoundly.
xeb
1 / 5 (1) Apr 14, 2015
OMN (nature)! How many years it'll take for humanistics to assimilate such new lines of naturalistic explanations, and stem the flows of postmodern-like money and time wasting, by abandoning old pseudo-core analythical claims about naturalism being naive (epistemologically, methodologically). ... oh how nice it would be having just minimum money for translating such news for readers of my native language ... :)
BONK__RS
not rated yet Apr 14, 2015
Interesting work, well done PhysOrg for publishing at the somewhat nutty end of research.
It's a good argument, simply that criticality is rare generally but found in biologically active molecules, therefore probably has a purpose.
The Orphan - the dielectric field strength of air is not related to the impedance of free space. the 377 Ohms is just the proportion of E-field to B-field in EM-radiation, when measured in our units. OK so on the planet Zong, in their units it still happens to be about the same as a pencil, but there is very little to be drawn from it.
swordsman
not rated yet Apr 14, 2015
Gross misuse of the word "quantum". Refer to Planck, who described it in detail in his lectures at Columbia university.

The "dielectric field strength of air" can be anything, depending on the situation.

The impedance of free space is very important. From it, we obtain the viscosity of space, which is 1/c (a very small number).
TheOrphan
1 / 5 (1) Apr 14, 2015
@Bonk

Yeah I'm aware of this, but we live at the lowest appex of impedance in air.

I've always been under the impression, It's 1000v / mm @ sea level but increases in higher and lower pressure, like I said temperature would be the other major factor.

And the area of free-space impedance is confusing to say the least, one school of thought says it's infinite, the other says it's zero.

And of course "air" has many influences that will vary it's impedance.

@Swordsman
Not sure what your saying to be honest, Gross misuse ???
jburchel
5 / 5 (2) Apr 14, 2015
I'm starting to be able to recognize John Hewitt articles by his style. At first I had seen a few glitches or minor errors, and thought he was not so good, I'll be honest. But lately I'm starting to think he is gifted as I see more of his articles. Will start watching for his now. This was a very nice summary and explanation for a deep complex subject. Kudos John Hewitt!
DonGateley
5 / 5 (2) Apr 15, 2015
I agree completely about John Hewitt's latest works. Tough stuff explained very well.

If it stands the test of scrutiny, the subject could be of signal importance. (Pun unintended.)
TheOrphan
1 / 5 (1) Apr 16, 2015
Thanks for the update those are very interesting observations.

Makes me think the "Life" engine is a frequency amplifier.

Taking super high frequencies and rendering them down in to a frequency harmonic that is low enough to enable interaction at the hyper atomic level.

The physical feedback into the higher frequencies would be the creation of memory.
hillmeister
not rated yet Apr 16, 2015
That update! WOW! I always suspected there were quantum processes in the brain. This pretty much confirms it and explains it beautifully!!
JVK
1 / 5 (3) Jun 01, 2015
How a Cell Knows Friend From Foe http://www.livesc...oes.html

A quantum theory for the irreplaceable role of docosahexaenoic acid in neural cell signalling throughout evolution http://www.ncbi.n...23206328

Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations...
http://figshare.c...s/994281

http://www.amazon...07604664
"...there are no intermediate forms between the unchanged and the few changed. De Vries called that a mutation. ...the discontinuity... reminds a physicist of quantum theory -no intermediate energies occurring between two neighbouring energy levels. He would be inclined to call de Vries's mutation theory, figuratively, the quantum theory of biology."

That would make quantum biology nutrient-dependent and RNA-mediated.
RealScience
5 / 5 (2) Jun 01, 2015
"...there are no intermediate forms between the unchanged and the few changed. De Vries called that a mutation. ...the discontinuity... reminds a physicist of quantum theory -no intermediate energies occurring between two neighbouring energy levels. He would be inclined to call de Vries's mutation theory, figuratively, the quantum theory of biology."

That would make quantum biology nutrient-dependent and RNA-mediated.


And that would make your rantings dependent on what de Vries call a mutation, contradicts your claim that "...they don't contribute to evolution -- no matter how you define 'mutation.'

But logic never was one of your strong points...
JVK
1 / 5 (3) Jun 02, 2015
My claim is that the definition of "mutation" does not contribute to what is currently known about RNA-mediated cell type differentiation, which links cell type differentiation in all genera via their nutrient uptake and physiology of reproduction.

There is a model for that!

See also: Human body epigenome maps reveal noncanonical DNA methylation variation
http://www.nature...465.html

Tell us more about how the definition of "mutation" links mutations to human evolution.
DonGateley
5 / 5 (2) Jun 02, 2015
Ren82, don't you realize that when you post garbage like that everyone with a working mind hits the "Ignore user" button and you are left pissing in the wind?
JVK
1 / 5 (3) Jun 02, 2015
when you post garbage like that everyone with a working mind


And, when I post the latest information from expert scientists about cell type differentiation, the biologically uninformed also ignore it. That tells everyone else that the biologically uninformed prefer to remain uninformed, which is why I refer to them as science idiots.

DonGateley could have, for example, responded to my post about the epigenome maps, which support Ren82's creationist perspective. Instead, he simply posts an insult to the intelligence of anyone who might be interested in discussion of science and creation.
JVK
1 / 5 (3) Jun 02, 2015
http://medicalxpr...une.html Missing link found between brain, immune system

"I really did not believe there are structures in the body that we are not aware of."

I find it difficult to imagine how theorists could ignore the obvious links from atoms to ecosystems that link the immune system to RNA-mediated cell type differentiation via entropic elasticity that is prevented from becoming genomic entropy by nutrient-dependent microRNAs.

1996 "The immune system has long been known to perceive certain sexual differences, e.g., the presence or absence of H-Y antigen (Simpson, 1991). Mice have been shown to enact kin selection on the basis of major histocompatibility complex characteristics within the perceiving mice and from other mice as chemosensitive identified. Humans have been shown to possess similar immune- related chemosensitive skills (Gilbert, Yamazaki, Beauchamp, and Thomas, 1996; Wedekind, Seebeck, Bettens, and Paepke, 1995)."
RealScience
5 / 5 (2) Jun 02, 2015
Tell us more about how the definition of "mutation" links mutations to human evolution.


Great - you tried to avoid discussion definitions of 'mutation previously, so maybe their is hope for you to learn!

The standard definition of a mutation is the change in the nucleotide sequence of a genome.
So unless you deny that human evolution has involved changes to the nucleotide sequence of the human genome, the definition of mutation links mutations to human evolution.

Is there anything else that you need explained to you?
RealScience
5 / 5 (2) Jun 02, 2015
the biologically uninformed prefer to remain uninformed, which is why I refer to them as science idiots.


We have already established you throw out results that conflict with you theory, showing that you prefer to remain uniformed. And we have already established that you are by far the most frequent commenter to yell "mutations" into a thread, amply demonstrating your observation that "The biologically uninformed continue to yell: MUTATIONS! (JVK, DEC 18, 2014)".

If you choose to refer to yourself as a "science idiot" as well, that's your business.
JVK
1 / 5 (3) Jun 03, 2015
I have repeatedly established the fact that biologically uninformed science idiots, like you, (who yell MUTATIONS) are not able to perform a simple Google search to find information on RNA-mediated cell type differentiation, which is nutrient-dependent and controlled by the physiology of reproduction in all genera.

http://www.ncbi.n...24185374
The regulation of gene expression by non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) has become a new paradigm in biology. RNA-mediated gene silencing pathways have been studied extensively, revealing diverse epigenetic and posttranscriptional mechanisms. In contrast, the roles of ncRNAs in activating gene expression remains poorly understood. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of gene activation by small RNAs, long non-coding RNAs, and enhancer-derived RNAs, with an emphasis on epigenetic mechanisms.
JVK
1 / 5 (3) Jun 03, 2015
the definition of mutation links mutations to human evolution.


In how many days? How can we compare the number of days it takes to evolve a human to the number of days (4) it took to re-evolve the bacterial flagellum?

See: http://www.scienc...88.short
"Molecular biology and evolutionary biology have been separate disciplines and scientific cultures: The former is mechanistic and focused on molecules; the latter is theoretical and focused on populations."

"Mutations" is the term used by pseudoscientists whose theoretical focus is on populations, which is why serious scientists are "Combating Evolution to Fight Disease"

JOIN THE FIGHT! Tell the pseudoscientists you want an explanation of how mutations led to the re-evolution of the bacterial flagellum in four days. http://www.the-sc...ewiring/

Don't accept the claim that mutations cause evolution that "just happens."
JVK
1 / 5 (3) Jun 03, 2015
What kind of biologically uninformed science idiot thinks that this statement is meaningful?

human evolution has involved changes to the nucleotide sequence of the human genome


It can be compared to this one.

"Others maintain that as random mutations arise, complexity emerges as a side effect, even without natural selection to help it along. Complexity, they say, is not purely the result of millions of years of fine-tuning through natural selection—the process that Richard Dawkins famously dubbed "the blind watchmaker." To some extent, it just happens."
http://www.scient...plexity/

Neither of the two statements can be compared in the context of what is known to serious scientists about ecological variation and RNA-mediated ecological adaptations.

"RealScience" is a real science idiot!
RealScience
5 / 5 (2) Jun 03, 2015
I have repeatedly established the fact that biologically uninformed science idiots, like you, (who yell MUTATIONS) are not able to perform a simple Google search to find information on RNA-mediated cell type differentiation...


I have repeatedly pointed out that YOU, JVK, are the first to introduce 'mutations' into many comments threads (including this one).

Since we have already established, using your own words, that YOU match your description of "biologically uninformed" and now "a science idiot", are you ADMITTING that you can't "perform a simple Google search to find information on RNA-mediated cell type differentiation"?
Or, since you used "like you", are you CLAIMING that you have established as a fact that I am "not able to perform a simple Google search to find information on RNA-mediated cell type differentiation"?
RealScience
5 / 5 (2) Jun 03, 2015
What kind of biologically uninformed science idiot thinks that this statement is meaningful?

human evolution has involved changes to the nucleotide sequence of the human genome


Do you disagree with the statement, do you not understand the statement, or do you claim that the statement has no meaning?
JVK
1 / 5 (3) Jun 04, 2015
Thanks for asking. I'm claiming that you are biologically uninformed.

What caused the changes to the nucleotide sequence? Where did the sequence come from before the changes were caused by whatever caused them?
RealScience
5 / 5 (2) Jun 05, 2015
Thanks for asking. I'm claiming that you are biologically uninformed.


Great! So since you are indeed claiming that I am biologically uniformed, we can test the validity of your prior statement:

I have repeatedly established the fact that biologically uninformed science idiots, like you, (who yell MUTATIONS) are not able to perform a simple Google search to find information on RNA-mediated cell type differentiation...


Show how you have "repeatedly established the fact" that I am "not able to perform a simple Google search to find information on RNA-mediated cell type differentiation"! Let's let everyone see what passes for 'establishing a fact' to you.
RealScience
5 / 5 (2) Jun 05, 2015
What kind of biologically uninformed science idiot thinks that this statement is meaningful?


human evolution has involved changes to the nucleotide sequence of the human genome


Do you disagree with the statement, do you not understand the statement, or do you claim that the statement has no meaning?


You didn't answer the question - try answering this time.
(Or did you fail to understand the question?)
RealScience
5 / 5 (2) Jun 07, 2015
You have failed, JVK, to show that you have "repeatedly established the fact" that I am "not able to perform a simple Google search to find information on RNA-mediated cell type differentiation".

So I will show that you are wrong: the first four hits that Google finds are on web sites that you control JVK. So clearly I can do such a search and thus you are clearly wrong.

However let's be open-minded, JVK.
Show how you have "repeatedly established the fact" that ANYONE that you have called a "biologically uninformed science idiot" is "not able to perform a simple Google search to find information on RNA-mediated cell type differentiation".

If you cannot show this, then clearly and plainly admit that your were wrong.
If you don't, then I'll continue drilling down into what passes for 'establishing a fact' to you, and you'll look even sillier.
JVK
1 / 5 (2) Jun 07, 2015
Moving forward:

New inorganic aromatic ion http://phys.org/n...ion.html

See also: Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations: from atoms to ecosystems http://figshare.c...s/994281
RealScience
5 / 5 (1) Jun 08, 2015
You have now failed, JVK, to show that you have "repeatedly established the fact" that ANYONE that you have called a "biologically uninformed science idiot" is "not able to perform a simple Google search to find information on RNA-mediated cell type differentiation"

Let's lower the bar for you again, JVK. Can you show that you have EVEN ONCE "established the fact" that ANYONE that you have called a "biologically uninformed science idiot" is "not able to perform a simple Google search to find information on RNA-mediated cell type differentiation"?

If you cannot show this, then clearly and plainly admit that you were very wrong.
If you don't, then I'll continue drilling down into what passes for 'establishing a fact' to you, and you'll look even sillier (and yes, that is possible).
RealScience
5 / 5 (1) Jun 11, 2015
So, JVK, you haven't produced ANY support for your statement that you "have repeatedly established the fact" that people that you call "biologically uninformed science idiots" are "not able to perform a simple Google search to find information on RNA-mediated cell type differentiation".

You have even failed to produce any support for even once establishing this for even one such person. And you have failed to refute evidence I presented to the contrary.

It is far more likely that people find you so boring that they don't bother to search for your catch-phrase-of-the-month, or that when they do they don't bother to click on link to your sites.
If you were actually a good scientist you would look at what the other possibilities are rather than jumping to a conclusion.

Of course you want to move forward when your ridiculous claims are evaluated for all to see...

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