China's Yutu lunar rover finds moon geography more complex than thought

March 13, 2015 by Bob Yirka, Phys.org report
Chang'e-3 moon lander

(Phys.org)—A team of researchers working on China's Chang'E-3 lunar mission has found multiple distinct geographic rock layers beneath the surface of the moon, indicating a much more complex geographical history than was previously thought by most in the scientific community. In their paper published in the journal Science, the team describes their analysis of data sent back by the Yutu rover.

On December 14, 2013, China's China's Chang'E-3 spacecraft touched down on the surface of the moon, the first to conduct a soft landing since the Soviet Union sent craft back in 1976. A few hours after landing, a rover named Yutu (Jade Rabbit) was released from the craft and set off on a zig-zag course across the nearby terrain. Onboard the rover was a variety of sensor equipment, one of which offered Lunar Penetrating Radar (LPR) capable of probing up to 400 meters below the . The rover captured subsurface data for approximately a month before technical problems caused it to shut down.

In this new report, the researchers studying the data sent back by the report that LPR revealed nine distinct rock layers beneath the surface, indicating a geographical history far more complex than has been theorized. The layering is due, apparently, to lava flows which were mixed with regolith (lunar dust formed by weathering). The data sent back from Yutu is the first to reveal deep subsurface details—during the Apollo missions, drills were used to gather samples of subsurface rock, but they only penetrated to a depth of three meters.

The team notes that in studying the , they made two important finds, the first was that the evidence shows that the moon has had far more volcanic activity than has been thought and the second was that the area under study showed that in addition to basalt there was pyroclastic rocks, an indication of explosive activity. Most who have studied the moon have believed that volatile gasses trapped in the mantle escaped while the moon was still forming. This new evidence suggests that was not the case.

The team also notes that the composition of the geography where Yutu was operating appeared to be quite different from that observed by the U.S.'s Apollo missions and the U.S.S.R.'s Luna missions.

Explore further: China's Yutu rover is still alive, reports say, as lunar panorama released

More information: A young multilayered terrane of the northern Mare Imbrium revealed by Chang'E-3 mission, Science 13 March 2015: Vol. 347 no. 6227 pp. 1226-1229 . DOI: 10.1126/science.1259866

Abstract
China's Chang'E-3 (CE-3) spacecraft touched down on the northern Mare Imbrium of the lunar nearside (340.49°E, 44.12°N), a region not directly sampled before. We report preliminary results with data from the CE-3 lander descent camera and from the Yutu rover's camera and penetrating radar. After the landing at a young 450-meter crater rim, the Yutu rover drove 114 meters on the ejecta blanket and photographed the rough surface and the excavated boulders. The boulder contains a substantial amount of crystals, which are most likely plagioclase and/or other mafic silicate mineral aggregates similar to terrestrial dolerite. The Lunar Penetrating Radar detection and integrated geological interpretation have identified more than nine subsurface layers, suggesting that this region has experienced complex geological processes since the Imbrian and is compositionally distinct from the Apollo and Luna landing sites.

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adams050
5 / 5 (10) Mar 13, 2015
Reporter Bob Yirka needs to get a handle on the difference between the sciences of "geography" and "geology." They are not interchangeable! What the Chinese rover probed with its radar is NOT geography, but GEOLOGY. The researchers' abstract, as you might expect, uses "geology" exclusively and correctly, which you would expect the experts to do. Rest assured that every time Bob Yirka says "geography," he should have used the word "geology."
Sonhouse
3.7 / 5 (3) Mar 13, 2015
I bet the word 'geography' was not used in the original paper. Maybe Yirka will heed your advice.

But the bottom line is the fact 9 separate layers were found by the ground penetrating radar, down to 400 meters. That is a good trick itself, to be able to HAVE a ground penetrating radar of that power on a lunar probe. The US or USSR or Russia never did that.

But it seems perhaps to my layman eyes anyway, that report lends support for the impact theory of the creation of the moon.
tychocrater
4.3 / 5 (6) Mar 13, 2015
Discovery of these layers does not show that the Moon is more complex than previously thought. This is exactly what would be expected in a maria: Surface regolith layers due to impact gardening, and again at depth on top of previous lava flows. We have known at least since Apollo of the regolith layers and that maria were filled by many discrete lava flow eruptions. Yutu documented what was expected to be found. Good for them, and good for our general understanding.
Shootist
5 / 5 (2) Mar 13, 2015
Interesting. GRAIL gravity data shows the Moon's crust to be an unconsolidated rubble pile 30-60 km deep.
Eikka
1 / 5 (2) Mar 14, 2015
Reporter Bob Yirka needs to get a handle on the difference between the sciences of "geography" and "geology."


Bob Yirka is most likely a content aggregating robot and not a real reporter, and mistakes like that are often added intentionally to serve as clickbait on sites funded with advertisements.
nilbud
5 / 5 (1) Mar 14, 2015
It's neither geography or geology, go back to pedant 101. Selenology.
PhotonX
4.5 / 5 (2) Mar 15, 2015
The US or USSR or Russia never did that [GPR].
Well, in all fairness to the USA and former USSR, ground penetrating radar wasn't developed until the 1970's. I wouldn't be surprised to learn that the Space Race was a driving factor in its development, but the lunar programs folded before it could be employed.
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It's neither geography or geology, go back to pedant 101. Selenology.
Good to see *someone* has graduated Pedant 101 ;-) It's a lot easier to say 'lunar geology' or 'Martian geology', or 'Titan geology'(?) than to try to remember different words for each place we land. Is there even a word for Martian geology? I doubt I'd recognize it if I heard it. Selenology I've heard before, but don't know if I might or might not have recognized it. I guess we need to get past the geocentric use of the term, just like we'll have to choke on 'Universe' should the multiverse ever be proven real.
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Joker23
not rated yet Mar 16, 2015
My question is; How does the "Rover" get around on those little legs that look like foot pads on the Lunar Lander? Or is the picture that accompanies this article not the Rover?

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