With new data, Planck satellite brings early universe into focus

With new data, Planck satellite brings early universe into focus
The European Space Agency’s Planck satellite was launched into space in 2009. During its 4-year mission, it observed variations in the cosmic microwave background across the entire sky. The first all-sky map was released in March 2013 and the second, more detailed map was released in February 2015. The mission’s successes include determining that the universe is slightly older than thought; mapping the early universe’s subtle fluctuations in temperature and polarization, which eventually gave rise to the structure we see today; and confirming that 26 percent of the universe comprises dark matter. Credit: ESA

From its orbit 930,000 miles above Earth, the Planck space telescope spent more than four years detecting the oldest light in the universe, called the cosmic microwave background. This fossil from the Big Bang fills every square inch of the sky and offers a glimpse of what the universe looked like almost 14 billion years ago, when it was just 380,000 years old. Planck's observations of this relic radiation shed light on everything from the evolution of the universe to dark matter.

Just this month, Planck released new maps of the supporting the theory of , which posits that the universe underwent a monumental expansion in the moments following the Big Bang. During this time, space expanded faster than the speed of light, growing from smaller than a proton to an enormity that defies comprehension.

Yet the theory of inflation is not yet a full and detailed theory that can completely explain the universe's earliest moments. "We don't yet understand the fundamental physics that drove inflation, and we certainly don't understand the details of how it worked," said George Efstathiou, director of the Kavli Institute for Cosmology at the University of Cambridge and one of the leaders of the Planck mission. Efstathiou offered his insights during a recent conversation with The Kavli Foundation. "What we need is better experimental data that tells us what the early universe looked like and hopefully this will point us toward a fundamental theory of inflation."

That said, the latest Planck data do support the general idea that the universe expanded mindbogglingly fast in its first moments. The data also offers insight into neutrinos, the tiny, ubiquitous particles known come in three types but whose mass is still unknown. Previous experiments determined the lightest these particles could be; the Planck results have now set a limit on heaviest they could possibly be.

"We're narrowing down the options, and will hopefully soon learn their exact mass," said Efstathiou. "Neutrinos are some of the most mysterious particles in the universe, so this would be an important step toward understanding them."

Planck also looked for - the mysterious substance that makes up 20 percent of the universe yet has yet to be well understood - but found no signal whatsoever. That's not all that surprising, said Efstathiou. Dark matter is easy to hide, and it will take future experiments to find it. Theorists have also suggested that dark matter might interact in some way with , the substance that permeates all of space and pushes the universe apart. From the Planck data, Efstathiou said, it looks like dark energy is completely constant and does not interact with dark matter.

In addition, Efstathiou said that although no experiment has yet detected , ripples in the curvature of space-time that, if they exist, could help prove the theory of , future experiments have a good shot at it.

"If you look at the [data], you see that there's plenty of room for gravitational waves to be lurking there, just below the level" we can see, he said. "If that's true, it shouldn't take a very long time to dig it out. So there could be a very important development coming."

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New revelations on dark matter and relic neutrinos

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Feb 17, 2015
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Feb 17, 2015
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Feb 17, 2015
Our Universe is a larger version of a galactic polar jet.

'Was the universe born spinning?'

"The universe was born spinning and continues to do so around a preferred axis"

Our Universe spins around a preferred axis because it is a larger version of a galactic polar jet.

'Mysterious Cosmic 'Dark Flow' Tracked Deeper into Universe'

"The clusters appear to be moving along a line extending from our solar system toward Centaurus/Hydra, but the direction of this motion is less certain. Evidence indicates that the cluster"

The clusters are headed along this path because our Universe is a larger version of a polar jet.

It's not the Big Bang; it's the Big Ongoing.

Dark energy is dark matter continuously emitted into the Universal jet.

Feb 17, 2015
There is evidence of dark matter every time a double slit experiment is performed; it's what waves.

Dark matter has mass. Dark matter physically occupies three dimensional space. Dark matter is physically displaced by the particles of matter which exist in it and move through it.

The Milky Way's halo is not a clump of dark matter anchored to the Milky Way. The Milky Way is moving through and displacing the dark matter.

The Milky Way's halo is the state of displacement of the dark matter.

The Milky Way's halo is the deformation of spacetime.

What is referred to geometrically as the deformation of spacetime physically exists in nature as the state of displacement of the dark matter.

A moving particle has an associated dark matter displacement wave. In a double slit experiment the particle travels through a single slit and the associated wave in the dark matter passes through both.

Feb 17, 2015
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Feb 17, 2015
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Feb 17, 2015
What you call gravitational waves, future generations will call an instant interstellar communications medium. They will also use it and its associated particle the graviton for interstellar 'Alcubierre' like travel.

Feb 18, 2015
Sub: In search of origins-Cosmology Vedas
Cosmology Definition and vortex Tube Processing- see DMVT process in my books-
help in this direction.
Present day cosmology through big-bang does not inspire but rather persires unable to interlink Space Data. The dark energy and Dark matter must be part of space-Cosmos vision as part of Viible-invisible matrix modes in Nature

Mar 07, 2015
The latest Planck satellite data certainly does not favor the presence of inflation.

Mar 08, 2015
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