Physicists suggest new way to detect dark matter

November 18, 2014
Associate professor Chris Kouvaris from the University of Southern Denmark. Credit: University of Southern Denmark

For years physicists have been looking for the universe's elusive dark matter, but so far no one has seen any trace of it. Maybe we are looking in the wrong place? Now physicists from University of Southern Denmark propose a new technique to detect dark matter.

The universe consists of atoms and particles - and a whole lot more that still needs to be detected. We can only speculate about the existence of this unknown matter and energy.

"We know that app. 5 pct. of the universe consists of the known matter we are all made of. The rest is unknown. This unknown matter is called dark matter, and we believe that it is all around us, including here on Earth", explains Chris Kouvaris, associate professor at the Centre for Cosmology and Particle Physics Phenomenology (CP3-Origins), Department of Physics, Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Southern Denmark.

He and his colleague from CP3-Origins, postdoc Ian Shoemaker, now suggest a new way to detect the existence of the elusive dark matter.

Cosmic noise is a problem

Over the last years, physicists have placed detectors in underground sites app. a kilometer or more deep in order to detect dark matter. The idea is that dark matter is easier to detect in deep sites because there is less noise from cosmic or Earth-produced radiation that can potentially cover the dark matter signal. This approach of detecting dark matter makes sense provided that dark matter interacts only a bit with atoms as it goes underground. The scientific term for this is that dark matter is weakly interacting with its surroundings.

"But we don't know if dark matter is that weakly interacting. In principle dark can lose energy as they travel underground before they hit the detector due to interactions with regular atoms. And in that case they might not have enough energy left to trigger the detector once they arrive there", says Chris Kouvaris.

Signals are good 12 hours a day

In a new research paper, he and Shoemaker study the possibility that dark matter can indeed interact substantially with atoms. They claim that depending on the properties of the dark matter particles, deep placed detectors can be blind because particles might have lost most of their energy before reaching the detector.

"In such a case, it would make more sense to look for dark matter signals on the surface of the Earth or in shallow sites", Kouvaris argues.

Placing a detector in shallow sites or on the surface ensures small energy loss for the dark matter particles but it also means a big increase in the background noise. This was after all the reason why detectors were placed in deep sites in the first place. To overcome this problem Kouvaris and Shoemaker propose - instead of trying to detect a single collision of a with the detector - to look for a signal that varies periodically during the day.

Because dark matter particles approach the detector from various directions, as the Earth rotates, the flux of the particles reaching the detector can vary. This causes a signal that will go from maximum to minimum in 12 hours and back to maximum again after another 12 hours.

Such a pattern will make the signals from dark matter stand out clear even though the detectors also pick up cosmic noise.

"The best locations for the observation of such a modulation signal are places in the south hemisphere with latitude around 40 degrees, such as Argentina, Chile and New Zealand" says Chris Kouvaris.

What is dark matter and dark energy?

27 pct. of the universe is believed to consist of dark matter. Dark matter is believed to be the "glue" that holds galaxies together. Nobody knows what really is.

5 pct. of the universe consists of known matter such as atoms and subatomic particles.

The rest of the universe is believed to consist of . Dark energy is believed to make the universe expand.

Explore further: A warm dark matter search using XMASS: Editors' suggestion of Physical Review Letters

More information: Daily modulation as a smoking gun of dark matter with significant stopping rate, Phys. Rev. D 90, 095011 – Published 12 November 2014. journals.aps.org/prd/abstract/ … 3/PhysRevD.90.095011

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Benni
2.1 / 5 (14) Nov 18, 2014
So, if most of the Universe is missing, why is all of the gravity inside our solar system 100% accounted for by the observable masses of the sun, planets, moons, asteroids, etc? And this being the case, why would anyone spend money conjuring up projects looking for "missing" stuff that obviously does not exist within the solar system........sounds like funny farm science stuff to this Nuclear/Electrical Engineer.
SHREEKANT
1.4 / 5 (9) Nov 18, 2014
CrossMan
4.1 / 5 (13) Nov 18, 2014
Because the total amount of DM in our solar system is a very small fraction of that observable mass.
Uncle Ira
3.5 / 5 (16) Nov 18, 2014
Because the total amount of DM in our solar system is a very small fraction of that observable mass.


A lot of real scientist-Skippys on here have explained that to him dozens of times. I mean the really, really smart Skippys. Sometimes they even give whole book sized explainings and he still pretends they never have the reason.

He keeps pretending that they didn't and returns in a few days with the same silly question.
EyeNStein
4.4 / 5 (7) Nov 18, 2014
Their DM would have to be only mildly interacting : Or else it would be mostly gathered like the rest of matter in clumps after colliding for 13 billion years.
Conceptually there is no reason it couldn't be some NEW strong-force-only interacting particle, which 'darkly' ignores the electromagnetic force like an electron ignores the strong force. (The known neutral Mesons are all too unstable). It could only interact at nuclear extreme close range and its own strong force binding energy would give it the mass it needs to have to be a DM candidate.
Benni
1.4 / 5 (10) Nov 18, 2014
Their DM would have to be only mildly interacting : Or else it would be mostly gathered like the rest of matter in clumps after colliding for 13 billion years.
Conceptually there is no reason it couldn't be some NEW strong-force-only interacting particle, which 'darkly' ignores the electromagnetic force like an electron ignores the strong force. (The known neutral Mesons are all too unstable). It could only interact at nuclear extreme close range and its own strong force binding energy would give it the mass it needs to have to be a DM candidate.

.......but first comes the requirement to find the DM! All the mass in the solar system is accounted for, including the mass that is transformed into energy on the sun that some have mistakenly identified as DM because they forgot the sun transforms approximately 500 metric tons/sec of baryonic mass into energy, more than enough transformation to make up for the miniscule DM they claim, but can't prove exists.
Benni
1.4 / 5 (10) Nov 18, 2014
Interesting isn't it? How the funny farm science crowd love to hover around the ghosty perspective that the only reason we can't find DM in our solar system is because "there is so little of it". An excuse making cop out so blatant it screams for pseudonyms.

And who are the ones screaming for this explanation? You got it, the same ones who've never seen an Einsteinien field equation they could solve, but boy have they become the experts for its existence without showing it to us. What else do you funny farm science guys believe in that you can't prove exists?
Nashingun
1 / 5 (7) Nov 18, 2014
You mean you gotta go a little crazier to get paid? That Dark Matter floating out there must be so big and so vast they can't see it! lol Ow, and yes 87% of the universe is composed of it and these experts can't still figure what the erk it is! lol
RealityCheck
2.6 / 5 (15) Nov 18, 2014
Hey folks! You know 'mainstream science' in this field must be in dire straits when "Uncle Ira" dummy 'supports' their speculations about 'dark matter'!

Poor ignorant slob just believes and trusts 'the experts' but has no clue himself that the 'mainstream' explanations are erroneous and illogical when they say that there is little dark matter in our solar system....yet still pretend to look for it as if there WAS plenty for us to 'find' with prior deep-underground experiments or such 'experiments' as above article now suggests! Duh.

Poor Uncle Dummy doesn't know anything at all, yet presumes to vote down others and cheerlead/trust 'the experts' which are proving themselves just as clueless as this Uncle Ira nitwit!

Looks like this Ira dummy is still only fit to troll his ignorant/personality cult 'bot-voting' schtick and nothing else.

He hasn't learned the science. And his 'intelligence/comprehension' seems to be regressing by the day. A trained monkey would be more savvy!
Graeme
4 / 5 (8) Nov 18, 2014
Particles that are absorbed so easily in the earth, probably would have already been absorbed by other matter in the universe, so the chances are less that it is like this. The earth would also be heated up by impacting all these high speed dark matter that is absorbed, so that also should be measurable if it happened. What we have now that can penetrate deep in the earth are neutrinos, gravitons and very low energy photons. The last two are already well measured and are not enough to account.
Uncle Ira
3.5 / 5 (11) Nov 18, 2014
@ Thanks Really-Skippy. I do what I can do, but you are right, there are a lot Skippys on here that is a lot smarter then you and I am.
PhineasFogg
4.3 / 5 (6) Nov 18, 2014
Particles that are absorbed so easily in the earth, probably would have already been absorbed by other matter in the universe, so the chances are less that it is like this. The earth would also be heated up by impacting all these high speed dark matter that is absorbed, so that also should be measurable if it happened. What we have now that can penetrate deep in the earth are neutrinos, gravitons and very low energy photons. The last two are already well measured and are not enough to account.

The last two are already well measured? Didn't know they had actually found any gravitons, never mind measured them....
RealityCheck
2.1 / 5 (15) Nov 18, 2014
That poor Ira nitwit. He knows/understands less than a trained/untrained monkey, yet he keeps on with his bot-voting and personality-cult trolling as if it was at all relevant on a science site. That poor, insensible, irrelevant slob; pretending to know who is 'smart' and who isn't; while he hasn't a clue of the deeper science being discussed by either 'side'. That poor self-deluded malignant trolling internet-enabled schmuck.
imido
Nov 18, 2014
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imido
Nov 18, 2014
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imido
Nov 18, 2014
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Bob Osaka
4.9 / 5 (7) Nov 19, 2014
In total agreement with one sentence in this article: No one knows what dark matter really is.
Selena
Nov 19, 2014
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bluehigh
1.8 / 5 (5) Nov 19, 2014
No one knows IF dark matter really is.
Selena
Nov 19, 2014
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Selena
Nov 19, 2014
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Selena
Nov 19, 2014
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saposjoint
4.4 / 5 (7) Nov 19, 2014
Selena is Zephir, I think. Reported, along with the odious crank fool RC.
viko_mx
1 / 5 (2) Nov 19, 2014
Forget about extra dimensions, flexible spaces, invisible matter and energy, and singularities. These are pure hypotheses and mathematical models and puzzles that are enjoyable and interesting activity for theoretical physicists, which provide them with a lot of work to retirement, but have no connection with reality. They like these ideas because they give them a status of genius inventors handling with complex formulations and abstract concepts in the eyes of the layman. The more complex the theories proposed, the greater pundits are in the eyes of the audience.
But in reality as normal, things are much more simple and singular cause to escape from the eyes of mainstream scientists is the lack of honest attitude towards science, chasing career and attitude that natural phenomena in nature must necessarily be complex .
Selena
Nov 19, 2014
This comment has been removed by a moderator.
DonKrieger
4.7 / 5 (3) Nov 19, 2014
This is an interesting idea because it's pretty easy to test.
And I presume the authors have figured out the consequences of the stronger interactions with normal matter on which the idea relies.
I wonder about this in the context of the question posed by Benni regarding the fact that the motions of all of the objects in our solar system are fully accounted for by the massive objects we can see. I have always presumed that what we could see was perhaps 1/6th of the total matter in the solar system, but the 5/6's which was "dark" was evenly distributed. Since it reacted extremely weakly with the visible masses except via gravity and because it was evenly distributed, there was no net effect on the motions of the planets, etc. But if the interactions are stronger, this would, it seems to me, tend to produce predictable inhomogeneities in the distribution of dark matter around massive bodies like stars and planets and that in turn would effect their motions. ??
dr_shahbazsipra
3 / 5 (2) Nov 19, 2014
What a good Information .I really like and wait for your researches.You can also get this here
Captain Stumpy
4 / 5 (12) Nov 19, 2014
Selena is Zephir, I think. Reported, along with the odious crank fool RC.
@Sapo
Yes, she sure is!

the miniscule DM they claim, but can't prove exists.
@beni-tard
no one here is claiming to be an expert but you...
and funny thing is, you have ZERO evidence linked supporting your conjecture

you like to claim everyone else has funny farm science or is a copy paste king but i don't see ANYTHING supporting your conjecture in your argument
no references
no links
means NO SCIENCE

@RC
BAITING
TROLLING
reported
(and don't bother to respond
you will be ignored and ANY post that doesn't have science is going to be reported)

Da Schneib
4.5 / 5 (8) Nov 19, 2014
No one knows IF dark matter really is.
Sure we do. We can see it in the rotation curves of galaxies. We just don't know what it is yet.
Da Schneib
4.6 / 5 (9) Nov 19, 2014
I wonder about this in the context of the question posed by Benni regarding the fact that the motions of all of the objects in our solar system are fully accounted for by the massive objects we can see. I have always presumed that what we could see was perhaps 1/6th of the total matter in the solar system, but the 5/6's which was "dark" was evenly distributed.
No. The dark matter is spread out over the entire galaxy; that is, in the interstellar medium. Thus, the amount inside the Solar System is quite small compared to the planets, Sun, solar wind, etc. We don't have supercomputers powerful enough to detect its effects on the ephimerides, or telescopes accurate enough to detect differences in the motions with and without DM.

You have to keep in mind that the Solar System is a very small place; it's barely a light-day across, and the nearest star is nearly 1600 light-days away. Now cube everything to get volume instead of linear measurements. But there's DM everywhere.
Da Schneib
4.6 / 5 (9) Nov 20, 2014
There is no solution to the three-body problem, far less the million-body problem that is our Solar System.

Therefore, ephemerides are numerically simulated. However, the accuracy needed to detect DM by its gravity signature in the ephemerides of our Solar System is far in excess of our best telescopes, and the numerical simulations to make a null hypothesis to test against are far in excess of the most powerful computers in a reasonable amount of time.

I'm surprised you're not aware of these facts, Ren. Are you now claiming to have a solution to the three-body problem?

Snicker.
Da Schneib
4.3 / 5 (6) Nov 20, 2014
Let's try putting this another way: if you made a scale model of our Solar System on a football field in California, with Neptune at one end of the field and the Sun at the other, the closest star, Alpha Centauri, would be in New York. That's how small the Solar System is.

Now, how big is it? Well, it's about a hundred and twenty times as big as Earth's orbit. That's about 11 billion miles. If we tried to send the Moon rockets, which is the fastest humans have ever gone, about 25,000 mph, to the edge of the Solar System, they would take 50 years to get there. So on our scale it's big; but on the galactic scale, it's microscopic. And the next one is a long, long way away; lots of empty space out there.
Da Schneib
4.3 / 5 (6) Nov 20, 2014
Well, they're good enough to make ultra-quiet submarine propellers, and they're good enough to predict new mesons just discovered at the LHC.

Sounds to me like those numerical simulations work great.

Oh, and let's not forget ephemerides; they got Cassini to Saturn. Not to mention 10-day weather forecasts.

You were saying?
priyankacreationz
1.8 / 5 (6) Nov 20, 2014

Dark matter is a constant sea of matter traveling the opposite direction in the timeline, only appearing for a moment, seeming to travel beyond light-speed, but still exerting gravity. Gravity is the result of an amount of matter pulling itself together, to create compressive force toward the center, which curves all energy paths both directions in the 4th dimension

The closer to center-of-gravity, the faster energy moves, hence the inward pull of gravity. The gravity "field" is the area where spacetime tries to even itself out. Gravity is a push, NOT a pull.

Newton of apple bump on head fame, viewed gravity as an actual force. ( thank god he did not discover gravity ,while on the potty! )
Da Schneib
4.3 / 5 (6) Nov 20, 2014
Matter traveling oppositely in time is antimatter. See Feynman's QED.
priyankacreationz
1 / 5 (5) Nov 20, 2014


I want to post the link to my Research that Talks about New Big Bang Theory but Site is not allowing, My Research Paper Introduce Ether Physics and was Sent to CERN That talks about Equivalance of SPACE- Matter- TIME - What they find with there million Dollar equipment is already known to Few Humans on This planet- I Am one of them- Inquisite students belonging to Science & Research Feel free to contact me for the link or else search ETHER PHYSICS Group on Linkedin - read the post- It introduces new big bang theory that anwers all Unsolved Questions of Modern day Physics Including Higgs Field, Dark Matter, 5th force _ My Theories are published much before modern physics and it can be seen on linkedin

Krishna Priya
priyankacreationz
1 / 5 (5) Nov 20, 2014
WHOLE FRAMEWORK OF CURRENT BIG BANG COSMOLOGY IS WRONG!!!!

We live in time 3-dimensional world, which physics calls "3-space." But there is also spacetime, or 4-space, or the "4 dimension."

Longitudinal EM energy fills Vacuum of Space, the time domain of spacetime, TIME itself is actually compressed ENERGY ⚡

And it is energy which is compressed by exactly the same factor by which matter is considered compressed energy: The SPEED-OF-LIGHT-SQUARED

E=TC2 ( 'T' stands for time as compressed energy)

as in Vedic BRAHMASTRA, for faster than light Tesla Scalar Interferometry using power from the empty space outside the nucleus (Ether-Akasha), and speed faster than light -- it's gonna be TOTAL ANNIHILATION !!

The 3rd world war will start and end the same day with TESLA Scalar Howitzers using the formula above
DonKrieger
5 / 5 (4) Nov 20, 2014
Thanks for this comment - very helpful. So the density of dark matter is low locally, i.e. the total within our solar system is very small compared with the mass of the bodies we can see.

You have to keep in mind that the Solar System is a very small place; it's barely a light-day across, and the nearest star is nearly 1600 light-days away. Now cube everything to get volume instead of linear measurements. But there's DM everywhere
srikkanth_kn
5 / 5 (1) Nov 20, 2014
why only southern hemisphere - why not northern ones ?
Da Schneib
4.2 / 5 (5) Nov 20, 2014
Thanks for this comment - very helpful. So the density of dark matter is low locally, i.e. the total within our solar system is very small compared with the mass of the bodies we can see.
The bodies we can see are galaxies, which are mostly made up of stars like ours about as far from other stars as ours is. Because solar systems are small and far apart, galaxies can have a far higher percentage of dark matter than solar systems do, even though the solar systems are inside the galaxies. Galaxies are mostly open space, with a star every few light years. But they're full of dark matter, in the open space as well as inside solar systems.

Hope that's clearer for you, Don. Keep asking those good questions!
priyankacreationz
1 / 5 (4) Nov 20, 2014
God Particle zero spin, zero colour and zero charge. is in Dark Energy only. Nothing is out of Dark Energy. ..this whole universe is enveloped by Dark Matter and Dark Energy (Dynamic Moving Energy)

96% invisible portion (dark matter and dark energy) of the universe is the vast expanse of spirituality (Light) which can be designated as field of gravitational waves in scientific terms.

Dark Matter (uncaused) causes sphere of influence also known as (energy quantas) to the Spin Property of MATTER(does not influence the matter but its spin property) causing condensate or Plasma(quark & glucon)

Dark matter and Dark energy is what exists..
imido
Nov 20, 2014
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imido
Nov 20, 2014
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imido
Nov 20, 2014
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priyankacreationz
1 / 5 (6) Nov 21, 2014
Higgs Field is a SCALAR field-- a harmonic resonance field.

With the help of the Standard Model of Quantum Physics, science could only vaguely predict the cause of mass lending phenomenon with the help of Higgs field and Higgs boson. Never ever anybody can see HIGSS BOSON- You can only see the FOOTPRINT Because you see the Footprint- you know HE is THERE !!! You go further and it becomes 0

When scalar beams hurtle through hyperspace the flow of time gets redirected temporarily. The whole cosmos is interconnected in a morphogenetic field and speed is NOT restricted to speed of light. Consciousness creates energy, it creates matter, and it creates the perspectives of space and time. The transmission of scalar information creates consciousness fields— Morphogenetic Fields .
Going
5 / 5 (2) Nov 23, 2014
Why the southern hemisphere? If DM is randomly distributed then either hemisphere should show the effect. The article does not explain the reasoning behind this.
Da Schneib
4.4 / 5 (5) Nov 24, 2014
I found a preprint of the article here: http://arxiv.org/...29v2.pdf

It says:
Due to the rotation of the Earth around the Sun, the angle varies between the values 36° (October 25th) to 49° (April 25th) within the year. It is easy to demonstrate heuristically that the best site in order to maximize the diurnal modulation signal is roughly a location in the south hemisphere with θ₁ = α. At that location when the detector aligns maximally with the WIMP wind, the attenuation due to stopping is at a minimum since the wind becomes tangential to the detector's location while twelve hours later, WIMPs from the wind have to travel several kilometers underground and therefore as long as WIMPs have decelerated sufficiently, the attenuation of the signal is maximum.
It has to do with the orientation of the Earth's spin axis and orbit with respect to the plane of the galaxy.
liquidspacetime
1 / 5 (5) Nov 24, 2014
There is evidence of dark matter every time a double slit experiment is performed; it's what waves.

Aether has mass. Aether physically occupies three dimensional space. Aether is physically displaced by the particles of matter which exist in it and move through it.

The Milky Way's halo is not a clump of stuff anchored to the Milky Way. The Milky Way is moving through and displacing the aether.

The Milky Way's halo is the state of displacement of the aether.

The Milky Way's halo is the deformation of spacetime.

What is referred to geometrically as the deformation of spacetime physically exists in nature as the state of displacement of the aether.

A moving particle has an associated aether displacement wave. In a double slit experiment the particle travels through a single slit and the associated wave in the aether passes through both.
PhineasFogg
2 / 5 (4) Nov 27, 2014
@DS
Thanks for this comment - very helpful. So the density of dark matter is low locally, i.e. the total within our solar system is very small compared with the mass of the bodies we can see.
The bodies we can see are galaxies, which are mostly made up of stars like ours about as far from other stars as ours is. Because solar systems are small and far apart, galaxies can have a far higher percentage of dark matter than solar systems do, even though the solar systems are inside the galaxies. Galaxies are mostly open space, with a star every few light years. But they're full of dark matter, in the open space as well as inside solar systems.

Hope that's clearer for you, Don. Keep asking those good questions!

Your statements of "fact" are purely speculation, please stop quoting DM as if there is actual evidence for its existence.
Selena
Nov 27, 2014
This comment has been removed by a moderator.
nikola_milovic_378
Nov 30, 2014
This comment has been removed by a moderator.
gstillwell
5 / 5 (1) Dec 21, 2014
It's interesting to read all this speculation about dark matter.

I think we are marching down the wrong path...what path is that? The path where dark matter is an invisible particle that doesn't interact with light and ordinary matter.

If one reviews the full data on flat disk galaxies (composition) and constant spin rates from center to edge, where the concept of dark matter was initially employed to describe why equations were not describing observational spin rates, one can build a case for new physics beyond the standard model that does not have the need for deep space galaxy cluster x-ray signals etc. that hint toward a new DM particle. The solution, I suggest, maybe more fundamental but less obvious and it might take us back to a few basic assumptions we have about elementary physics and relativity ...and the possible need for a review and tests of some basic laws under conditions given by flat spinning galaxies.

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